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MSU / Management of Technology / MGT 3114 / What is organization culture?

What is organization culture?

What is organization culture?


School: Mississippi State University
Department: Management of Technology
Course: Principles of Management and Production
Professor: Nathaniel hammond
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This Study Guide includes information from chapters 8,9,12,13,14
Uploaded: 09/20/2017
17 Pages 21 Views 12 Unlocks

Principles of Management and Production

What is organization culture?

Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 8

Organization Culture – set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds  and that determines how it perceives, thinks about it, and reacts to its various environments

Enlightened meritocracy – offering a host of opportunities for advancement, rewards for  creativity, and productivity  

Inert bureaucracy – may prevail that punishes change advocates, rewards only those who  promote the status quo and inhibit productivity  

3 Components of Organization Culture:

1) Visible component:

Observable artifact – physical manifestations of cultures

2) Invisible component:

Espoused values – explicitly stated values and norms If you want to learn more check out What are the three sub-groups of lipids?

3) Basic assumptions:

What are the 3 components of organization culture?

Basic assumptions – core beliefs of the organization

Artifacts – observable symbols and signal of an organization’s culture—we can’t see an  organization’s shared values and assumptions

1) Organizational Stories and Legends

2) Rituals and Ceremonies

3) Organizational Language

4) Physical Structure and Décor

Types of Values:

1) Shared – values that people within an organization or work unit have in common and  place near the top of their hierarchy of values (part of culture)

2) Espoused – values people say they use and in many cases, think they use even if they  don’t  

3) Enacted – value people actually rely on to guide their directions and actions

4 Types of Culture in the Competing Values Framework:

What are the 4 types of culture in the competing values framework?

1) Clan Culture – internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability; encourages  collaboration among employees (ex: Chick-fil-a)

2) Adhocracy Culture – external focus and values flexibility; adaptable, creative, and quick  to respond to changes in the marketplace (ex: Facebook) We also discuss several other topics like Georgia is known for what?

3) Market Culture – external environment and values stability and control; members  motivated by the belief that performance leads to rewards (ex: Walmart)

Principles of Management and Production

4) Hierarchy Culture – internal focus and values stability and control; formalized,  structured work environment (ex: Edwards Jones

3 Important Functions of a Strong Culture:

1) Control System – operates like an auto pilot directing employees in ways that are  consistent with organizational expectations

2) Social glue – it bonds people together and makes them feel part of the organizational  experience  

3) Sense making – culture assists the ability of employees to understand what goes on and  why things happen in a company—easier to understand expectations and interact with  others

Methods to Change or Strengthen a Culture:

1) Formal statements: mission, vision, values

2) Language, slogans, sayings, and acronyms

3) Rites and Rituals

4) Stories, legends, and myths

5) Managerial responses to critical incidents

6) Role modeling, training, and coaching

7) Through physical design

8) With rewards, titles, promotions, and bonuses We also discuss several other topics like What are the three classes of matter?

9) Establishing goals and performance criteria

10) Through measurable and controllable activities

11) By changing organizational structure

12) Using organizational systems and procedures

OR Hiring people with values and beliefs consistent with desired culture

4 Strategies to Merge Organizational Cultures:

1) Assimilation – acquired company willingly embraces acquiring firm’s culture—rare but  does occur when acquired company has a weak, dysfunctional culture

2) De-culturation – acquiring firm imposes its culture on unwilling acquired firm. People  who can’t adapt are composite

3) Integration – combining two or more cultures into a new composite culture. It is a slow  and risky process because many forces preserve existing culture

4) Separation – merging companies remain distinct entities with minimal exchange of  culture or organization practices (Zappos and Amazon)

Organizational Structure – formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates  and motivates an organization’s members so that they can work together to achieve the  organization’s goals; The overall set of structural elements that can be used to configure the  total organization; A means to implement strategies and plans to achieve organizational goals;  Concerned with who reports to whom and who specializes in what work Don't forget about the age old question of What is the law of supply?

Functional Structure:

1) Central purchasing department

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2) Separate companywide marketing, production, design, and engineering departments 3) Plant wide inspection, maintenance, and supply departments

Divisional Structure:

1) A purchasing unit for each division

2) Each product group’s own experts in marketing, design, production, and engineering 3) Inspection, maintenance, and supply conducted by each production team

Advantages of Matrix Structures:

1) Enhances organization flexibility  If you want to learn more check out What are the types of errors?

2) Provide opportunity for team members to learn new skills

3) Allows team members to serve as bridges to their departments

Disadvantages of Matrix Structures:

1) Employees are uncertain about reporting relationships

2) Managers may view design as an anarchy in which they have unlimited freedom 3) More time may be required for coordinating task-related activities Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to unsettle the historical narrative about columbus’s “discovery” of the americas?

2 Components of Vertical Differentiation:

1) Authority – legitimate right to make decisions and tell other people what to do 2) Hierarchy – there are 3 broad levels of the organizational pyramid: top, middle, and  operational management  

Dimensions of Authority:

1) Command

2) Delegation

3) Degree of centralization

2 Command Issues:

1) Chain of Command – the vertical line of authority that clarifies who reports to whom  throughout the organization

2) Unity of Command – workers should report to just one boss; prevents confusion that  might arise when an employee receives conflicting commands from 2 different bosses

Delegation – assignment of direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete  tasks for which the manager is normally responsible  

3 Transfers Involved in Delegation:

1) Mangers transfers full responsibility for the assignment to the subordinate 2) Manager gives the subordinate full authority over budget, resources, and personnel  needed to do the job

3) Transfer of accountability—must get the job done

Advantages of Centralization:

1) Ensures decisions are consistent with organizational objectives

2) Avoids duplication of activities by different subunits

Principles of Management and Production

3) Can give top level managers the means to bring about needed major organizational  changes

Disadvantages of Centralization:

1) Slower decision making

2) Less satisfied employees and customers

3) Can decrease control in some ways—less effective at lower levels

2 Types of Hierarchies:

1) Tall – organizations with many layers of management and narrow span of control 2) Flat – organizations with few layers of management and wide spans of control

Span of Control – number of direct reports a manager can handle

Problems with Tall Hierarchies:

1) Information distortion by accident as it passes through layers in a hierarchy 2) Deliberate distortion by midlevel managers who are trying to gain favor or pursue some  agenda of their own (influence costs)

3) They are expensive and can cause a competitive disadvantage

4) Opposition to change

Standardization – establishing common routines and procedures that apply uniformly to  everyone (standards for types of computer equipment the organization will use) Formalization – the presence of rule and regulations governing how people in the organization  interact (written policies regarding attendance, dress and decorum)

Mechanistic Organizations:

1) Centralized hierarchy of authority

2) Many rules and procedures

3) Specialized tasks

4) Formalized communication

5) Few teams or task forces

6) Narrow span of control, taller structures

Organic Organization:

1) Decentralized hierarchy of authority

2) Few rules and procedures

3) Shared tasks  

4) Informal communication

5) Many teams or task forces

6) Wider span of control, flatter structures

Principles of Management and Production

Chapter 9

Human Resource Management – activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop, and  retain an effective workforce

Human Capital – the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience,  and actions; reflects the organization’s investment in attracting, retaining, and motivating an  effective workforce critical for effect organization functioning

3 Steps in the HRM Process:

1) Plan and Attract an Effective Workforce

2) Develop an Effective Workforce

3) Maintain an Effective Workforce

Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) – reasonably necessary to the normal operation of  that particular business

Components of a Job Analysis:

1) Job Description – summarizes what the holder of the job does and how and why he or  she does it

2) Job Specification – describes the minimum qualification a person must have to perform  a job successfully  

Recruitment – process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for jobs open in the  organization; creating a pool of applicants

Internal Recruiting:


1) Employees tend to be inspired to greater effort and loyalty

2) The whole process of advertising interviewing and so on is cheaper

3) There are fewer risks, candidates are already known and are familiar with the  organization


1) Restricts the competition for positions and limits the pool of fresh talent and fresh  viewpoints

2) May encourage employees to assume that longevity and seniority will automatically  result in promotion

3) Whenever a job is filled, it creates a vacancy elsewhere in the organization

External Recruiting:


1) Applicants may have specialized knowledge and experience

2) Applicants may have fresh viewpoints

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1) Recruitment process is more expensive and takes longer

2) Risks are higher because the persons hired are less well known

Selection – screening of job applicants to gather information to decide who should be offered a  job; set of methods to make decisions about whom to hire

2 Types of Interviews:

1) Situational Interview – focuses on hypothetical situations  

2) Behavioral Interview – explore what applicants have actually done in the past

Types of Selection Tests:

1) Ability tests – measure physical abilities, strength and stamina, mechanical ability,  mental abilities, and clerical abilities

2) Performance tests – also known as skill tests, measure performance on actual job  tasks—so-called job tryouts

3) Personality tests – measure such personality traits as adjustment, energy, sociability,  independence, and need for achievement

4) Integrity tests – assess attitudes and experiences related to a person’s honesty,  dependability, trustworthiness, reliability, and prosocial behavior

5) Other tests – drug testing, polygraph, genetic screening, credit checks

5 Phases of a Training Process:

1) Assessment

2) Objectives

3) Selection

4) Implementation

5) Evaluation

Types of Training and Development:

1) On-the-job training

2) Off-the-job training

3) Micro learning

4) Team training

5) Diversity training

6) Management training

2 Main Purposes of Performance Appraisal:

1) Administrative appraisals aid in making decisions about pay raises, promotions, and  training and terminations; helps employees understand and accepts these decisions 2) Developmental appraisal provides feedback to employees to improve their  performance, identify needed training and plan future careers

Principles of Management and Production

Objective appraisals – based on facts and often numerical; harder to challenge legally and  reduced personal bias

Subjective appraisals – based on a manger’ perceptions of an employee’s traits or behaviors;  easy to create and use, but validity is questionable  

360 Degree Performance Review – employees are appraised not only by their managerial  superiors but also by peers, subordinates, and sometimes clients

Errors in Performance Evaluation:

1) Recency Error – the tendency of the evaluator to base judgements on the subordinate’s  most recent performance because it is the most easily recalled  

2) Errors of Leniency Strictness – being too lenient, too strict, or tending to rate all  employees as “average”

3) Halo Error – allowing the assessment of the employee on one dimension to spread to  that employee’s ratings on other dimensions

Compensation – financial and nonfinancial rewards that organizations give employees in  exchange for their work  

Voluntary Separation – occurs when employees decide to quit or retire

Involuntary Separation (dismissal) – moving employees out of the organization through layoffs,  downsizing, and firings (termination)

Do’s of a Termination Interview:

1) Sit down one on one with the individual in a private office

2) Complete a termination session within 15 minutes

3) Be sure the employee hears about his or her termination from a manager, not a  colleague

Don’ts of a Termination Interview:

1) Leave room for confusion when firing  

2) Allow time for debate during a termination session

3) Make personal comments when firing someone  

4) Rush a fired employee offsite unless security is an issue

Function Turnover – gives the organization a chance to replace poor performers with better  workers

Dysfunctional Turnover – the loss of high performers who choose to leave

Diversity Action – exists in an organization when there are a variety of demographic, cultural,  and personal differences among the people who work there and the customers who do  business there

Principles of Management and Production

Affirmative Action – purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment  opportunities for minorities and women  

Surface level Diversity – consists of differences that are immediately noticeable, typically  unchangeable, and easy to measure (age, sex, race)

Deep level Diversity – consists of differences that are communicated through verbal and  nonverbal behaviors and are recognized only through extended interaction

Disparate Treatment – employees from protected groups are intentionally treated differently Adverse Impact – an organization uses an employment practice or procedure that results in  unfavorable outcomes to a protected class unintentionally  

4 Forms of Discrimination:

1) Age  

2) Gender

3) Racial or Ethnic

4) Disability

Methods to Overcome Discrimination:

1) Mentorship

2) Internal Liaison  

3) Gather and Examine Data

4) Actively work to find jobs for qualified people

Glass Ceiling – invisible barrier that makes it difficult for women and minorities to rise above  certain groups in the organization

Personality – relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes, and emotions displayed over time that make people different from each other

Big 5 Personality Traits:

1) Ocean – curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas 2) Conscientiousness – organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, and  dependable

3) Extraversion – outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoys being in social situations 4) Agreeableness – affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm 5) Neuroticism – anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody

Sexual Harassment – consists of unwanted sexual attention that created an adverse work  environment

2 Types:

1) Quid pro quo – jeopardizes being hired or obtaining job benefits or opportunities unless  he or she implicitly or explicitly submits

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2) Hostile environment – doesn’t risk economic harm but experiences an offensive or  intimidating work environment  

Workplace Bullying – abusive, physical, psychological, verbal, or nonverbal behavior that is  threatening, humiliating, or intimidating  

Chapter 13

Reasons to use teams – teams are generally more successful than individuals working alone at  identifying problems, developing alternatives, and choosing from those alternatives. 1) A manager’s job is to leverage the power of teams

2) Team members can quickly share information and coordinate tasks

3) Teams typically provide superior customer service

4) Teams can help organizations to respond to specific problems and challenges

Team – small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common  purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually  accountable  

Situations Where Social Loafing Occurs:

1) Likely when large groups where individual output is hard to identify

2) People believe their contributions are not important  

3) Believe others will do the work for them

4) Lack of effort will go undetected

5) They will be the one sucker if they work hard but others don’t

Why Teams Fail:

1) Ineffective communication

2) Lack of effective chartering, visioning, and goal setting

3) Lack of clarity about roles

4) Keeping morale and momentum high is difficult

5) Keeping productivity high is challenging

6) Lack of trust

When to Use Teams:

1) There is a clear, engaging reason or purpose

2) The job can’t be done unless people work together

3) Rewards can be provided for teamwork and team performance

4) Ample resources are available

When Not to Use Teams:

1) There isn’t a clear, engaging reason or purpose

2) The job can be done by people working independently

3) Rewards are provided for individual effort and performance

4) The necessary resources are not available

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5 Types of Teams:

1) Work teams – have a clear purpose that all members share; usually permanent, and  members must give their complete commitment to the team’s purpose in order for the  team to succeed

2) Project teams – assembled to solve a particular problem or complete a specific task,  such as brainstorming new marketing ideas for one of the company’s products 3) Cross-functional teams – include members from different areas within an organization,  such as finance, operations, and sales

4) Self-managed teams – groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains

5) Virtual teams – work together over time and distance via electronic media to combine  efforts and achieve common goals  

5 Stages of Team Development:

1) Forming – getting oriented and getting acquainted

2) Storming – individual personalities and roles emerge

3) Norming – conflicts resolved, relationships develop, unity emerges

4) Performing – solving problems and completing the assigned task

5) Adjourning – preparing for disbandment

Team effectiveness – productive output of the team meets or exceeds the standards of quantity  and quality that an individual could produce

Team Roles that Impact Team Effectiveness:

1) Task Roles – consists of behavior that concentrates on getting the team’s tasks done 2) Maintenance Roles – consists of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among  team members

Reasons Why Team Norms are Followed:

1) To help the group survive

2) To clarify role expectations

3) To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations

4) Emphasize group importance and identity

Function conflict – benefits the main purpose of the organization and serves its interests Dysfunctional conflict – hinders the organization’s performance or threatens its interest

5 Conflict-Handling Styles:

1) Avoiding  

2) Accommodating

3) Forcing  

4) Compromising

5) Collaborating

Principles of Management and Production

Chapter 14

Leadership – the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals  


1) Power comes from organizational structure

2) Promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the structure


1) Power comes from personal sources, such as personal interests, goals, and values 2) Promotes vision, creativity, and change

Importance of Vision for Good Leadership:

1) Expresses the leader’s ambitions for the organization

2) Creates high performance expectations, the nature of corporate or business strategy, or  kind of workplace

3) It is necessary for effective leadership

4) Can be developed for any job, work unit, or organization

5) Managers who do not develop into strong leaders fail to develop a clear vision in many  cases

Personalized power – power directed at helping oneself

Socialized power – power directed at helping others

5 Sources of Power for Leaders:

1) Legitimate Power – results in managers’ formal positions within the organization 2) Reward Power – results from managers’ authority to rewards their subordinates 3) Coercive Power – results from managers’ authority to punish their subordinates

4) Expert Power – results from one’s specialized information or expertise 5) Referent Power – Derived from one’s personal attraction  

3 Consequences of Power:

1) Commitment – expert and referent

2) Compliance – legitimate and reward

3) Resistance – coercive  

3 Dark Side Traits:

1) Narcissism – having a self-centered perspective, feelings of superiority, and a drive for  personal power and glory

2) Machiavellianism – displaying a cynical view of human nature and condones  opportunistic and unethical ways of manipulating people, putting results over principles 3) Psychopathy – characterized by lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and a  lack of remorse when actions harm others

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Issues with the Trait perspective:

1) Some traits are “natural” while others can be developed over time

2) There is little agreement among researchers about which of these traits are important or necessary to have effective leadership

3) Not all traits are equally important; may be context dependent

4) Not all great leaders demonstrate all great traits

5) The key problem here is that none of the traits consistently predict effective leadership

4 Categories of Behavioral Leadership:

1) Task-oriented behavior

2) Relationship-oriented behavior

3) Passive behavior

4) Transformational behavior

2 Types of Task-Oriented Leadership and Impact on Job Performance:

1) Initiating-structure leadership organizes and defines what employees should be doing to  maximize output

2) Transactional leadership clarifies employees’ roles and task requirements and provides  rewards and punishments contingent on performance

4 Types of Relationship-Oriented Leadership and Impact on Job Satisfaction: 1) Consideration

2) Empowering Leadership

3) Ethical Leadership

4) Servant Leadership

2 Implication of Behavioral Approaches:

1) A leader’s behavior is more important than his or her traits. It is important to train  managers on the various forms of task and relationship leadership

2) There is no one best style of leadership. How effective a particular leadership behavior is  depends on the situation at hand

Components of the Power/Influence Perspective:

Power comes from any of the sources previously discussed:

1) The personal power that flows from expertise

2) Individual attributes

3) Power flowing from their formal position to control distributions of rewards and  sanctions and over the allocation of scarce resources

4) A network of allies

Definitions of the Major Situational Approaches:

1) Contingency Leadership Style – determines if a leader’s style is task-oriented or  relationship -oriented

2) Path-goal – help them achieve goals and provides them with support

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3) Substitutes for Leadership – a concept that identifies situations in which leader behavior  is neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates, the task, and the  organization

3 Situational Favorableness Variables Under Which Task or People Oriented Leaders are More  Effective:

1) Leader-member relations – reflects the extent to which the leader has the support,  loyalty, and trust of the work group

2) Task structure – extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood  3) Position power – refers to how much power a leader has to make work assignments and  reward and punish

3 Functions of the Leader According to Path-Goal Theory:

1) Clearing the paths

2) Clarifying the behavior

3) Making desirable rewards available

3 Characteristics that Substitute for Leadership:

1) Subordinate – ability, experience, need for independence, professional orientation,  indifference towards organizational goals

2) Task – routineness, the availability of feedback, intrinsic satisfaction

3) Organization – formalization, group cohesion, inflexibility, a rigid reward structure

4 Behaviors of Transformational Leaders:

1) Inspirational motivation – “Let me share a vision that transcends us all.” 2) Idealized influence (Charismatic Behavior) – “We are here to do the right thing.” 3) Individualized consideration – “You have the opportunity to grow and excel here.” 4) Intellectual stimulation – “Let me describe the great challenges we can conquer  together.”

Ethical Charismatic Styles of Leadership:

1) Use power to serve others

2) Allow followers to help develop the vision

3) Engage in two-way communication and seek out viewpoints on critical issues 4) Are open to feedback and willing to learn from criticism

5) Want followers to think and question status quo as well as leader’s views 6) Focus on developing people with whom they interact, express confidence in them, and  share recognition with others

7) Follow self-guided principles that may go against popular opinion and have three  virtues: courage, a sense of fairness or justice, and integrity  

Unethical Charismatic Styles of Leadership:

1) Use power to dominate or manipulate for personal gain

2) Are the sole source of vision, which they use to serve their personal agendas 3) Engage in one-way communication and are not open to suggestion from others

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4) Have inflated egos, thrive on attention, and admiration of sycophants, and avoid candid  feedback

5) Don’t want followers to think but instead want uncritical acceptance of leader’s ideas 6) Are insensitive and unresponsive to followers’ needs and aspirations

7) Follow standards only if they satisfy immediate self-interests, manipulate impressions so  that others think they are doing the right thing, and use communication skills to  manipulate others to support their personal agendas

Importance of Courage for Leadership:

1) Seeing things as they are and facing them head-on, making no excuses and harboring no  wishful illusions

2) Saying what needs to be said to those who need to hear it

3) Persisting despite resistance, criticism, abuse, and setbacks

Chapter 12

Motivation (DIP) – the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior Direction – path along which people engage their effort

Intensity – amount of effort allocated to the goal

Persistence – continuing effort for a certain amount of time  

2 Types of Rewards:

1) Extrinsic Rewards – payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task 2) Intrinsic Rewards – satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task  itself

Ability – degree to which workers possess the knowledge, skills, and talent needed to do a job  well

Role Perceptions – degree of understanding of the specifics, importance, and preferred  behaviors to achieve the task

Situational Factors – factors beyond the control of individual employees, such as tools, policies,  and resources that have an effect on job performance

Motivation – effort, the degree to which someone works hard to do the job well Content Perspective of Motivation – theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people

Process Perspective on Motivation – concerned with the thought processes by which people  decide how to act; how employees choose behavior to meet their needs

Needs – physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior; they are mostly  conscious deficiencies that energize or trigger behavior to ensure survival and well-being

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Its Implications:

1) Physiological need (most basic human physical need) – need for food, clothing, shelter,  comfort, self-preservation

2) Safety need – need for physical safety, emotional security, avoidance of violence 3) Love need – need for love, friendship, affection

4) Esteem need – need for self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, self-confidence 5) Self-actualization need (highest level need) – need for self-fulfillment: increasing  competence, using abilities to the fullest

McClelland’s 3 Learned Needs and Their Implications:

1) Achievement – desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks

2) Affiliation – desire for friendly and warm relationships  

3) Power – desire to influence or control others

3 Innate Needs of Self-Determination Theory:

1) Competence – people need to feel qualified, knowledgeable, and capable of completing  a goal or task and to learn different skills  

2) Autonomy – people need to feel they have the freedom and the discretion to determine  what they want to do and how they want to do it

3) Relatedness – people need to feel a sense of belonging, of attachment to others  

2 Factors in Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory:

1) Motivational factors – work content; range from satisfaction to no satisfaction 2) Hygiene factors – work environment; range from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction

Equity/Justice Theory:

1) Model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social  exchanges or give-and-take relationships  

2) Regardless of the actual level of rewards people receive, they must also perceive that,  relative to others (referents), they are being treated fairly  

3) Inputs, outputs, comparison  

5 Methods Employees Use to Restore Equity When Under Rewarded:

1) They will reduce their inputs

2) They will try to change the outputs or rewards they receive

3) They will distort the inequity

4) They will change the object of comparison

5) They will leave the situation  

Expectancy Theory – suggests that people are motivated by two things: how much they want     something and how likely they are to get it ; suggests motivation leads to effort which results    in performance which, in turn, leads to various outcomes that have value to employees 3 Major Components:

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1) Expectancy: Effort-to-Performance – a perception of the probability that effort will lead  to a high level of performance  

2) Instrumentality: Performance-to-Outcome – a perception of the probability that  performance will lead to a specific outcome or rewards

3) Valence: Positive, Negative, or No Value – how much someone values or is attracted to a  particular outcome (consequence)

Goal Setting Theory – suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are acceptable,  specific, and challenging but achievable  

4 Motivational Mechanisms of Goal-Setting:

1) Directs your attention

2) Regulates the effort expended  

3) Increases your persistence

4) Fosters use of strategic and action plans

Job Design – division of an organization’s work among its employees; the application of  motivation theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance  

Job Rotation – changing from one routine task to another to give them more variety and the      opportunity to use different skills  

Job Enlargement – giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom Job Enrichment – changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and    satisfying  

5 Core Characteristics of Jobs that can be Redesigned:

1) Skill Variety – number of tasks a person does in a job

2) Task Identity – the extent to which the worker does a complete or identifiable portion of  the total job

3) Task Significance – the perceived importance of the task by the worker 4) Autonomy – the degree of control the worker has over how the work is performed 5) Feedback – the extent to which the worker knows how well the job is being performed  

3 Internally Motivating Psychological States in the JCM:

1) Experienced meaningfulness of work

2) Experienced responsibility for work outcomes

3) Knowledge of actual results of the work

Reinforcement Theory – suggests that behavior with positive consequences tends to be  repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated; pioneered  by B.F. Skinner and Edward Thorndike  

4 Types of Reinforcement Contingencies:

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1) Positive Reinforcement – use of positive consequences to strengthen a particular  behavior

2) Negative Reinforcement – strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative  3) Extinction – weakening behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced  4) Punishment – weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing  something positive  

2 Schedules of Reinforcement:

1) Continuous – a consequence follows every instance of a behavior

2) Intermittent – consequences delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or  after a specified or average number of behaviors occur

Empowerment – enabling workers to set own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems  within their sphere of influence

Participation – giving employees a voice in making decisions about work

Examples of Incentive Compensation Plans:

1) Pay for performance

2) Piece rate

3) Sales commission

4) Bonuses

5) Profit-sharing

6) Gainsharing  

7) Stock options

8) Pay for knowledge

4 Nonmonetary Ways to Motivate Employees:

1) Work-life benefits – benefit programs or initiatives designed to help all employees  balance work life with home life

2) Expanding skills – may include shadowing other employees, tuition reimbursement, and  training  

3) Well-being – the combined impact of five elements: positive emotions, engagement,  relationships, meaning, and achievement (PERMA)

4) Meaningfulness – the sense of belonging to and serving something that you believe is  bigger than yourself

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