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MSU - PSL 431 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MSU - PSL 431 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image three types of specialized cells that make up the body  Epithelial cells­protection secretion, and absorption.
Muscle cells­ movement.
Neurons­ communication
Homeostasis­ Maintenance of relatively stable (BALANCED) internal environment.  “Homeostatic Set Point”. Cells want to be at homeostatic set points to promotes 
optimal function and survival:
Set points
­O2 and CO2 Concentration
­Blood Glucose Level (90­100 mg/dL)
­Water supply (osmolality) (300 mOsm/L)
­Temperature (98.6F)
Like with a balance when your at equilibrium you are at an ideal for function/health, but 
when there is an deviation from the ideal set point this is not ideal for your function or 
health and your cells have to make changes to return to the set points.
EX. Fever of 102F so ur body sweats to cool yourself down How Negative Feedback works to promote Homeostasis.   1. First the sensors will detect a deviation from the set point (Skin­receptors  detect a change in the temp). 2. 2nd the negative feedback works to restore homeostasis by moving factor in  the opposite direction of the initial change The Plasma membrane is what separates the fluids. The Plasma membrane is made up
of Phospholipids which have a polar and non polar region to where the polar region on 
the outside keeps other charged molecules away
Saturated Fats are single carbon bonds that are tightly packed and can prevent 
background image the moving of water Unsaturated Fats are double bonds between carbons and they can cause the  membrane to be more fluidity Cholesterol helps to maintain the balance between being too fluidity and no  fluidity •Compare the concentrations of Cl­, K+ and Na+ in the ICF and ECF. ICF­ inside the cell High K+
Low Cl­ and Na+
ECF­outside the cell High in Na+
Low in K+ and Cl­
3 proteins Intergral Proteins­ can pass through or be anchored
Transmembrane Proteins­ have access to inside and outside of the cell
Peripheral Proteins­ associate with the outer or inner (polar) surface of the 
membrane. Not anchored in it!! solutes that move across the plasma membrane via Passive Diffusion Hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, N2)
Small, uncharged polar molecules (H20, Urea, Glycerol, Ethanol
The outer region is Polar and charged so very charged molecules won’t be able to pass 
Fick’s Law.  Concentration Gradient­ the higher the concentration, the faster the diffusion
background image Surface area of the plasma membrane­ the more membrane the more diffusion  can occur The lipid solubility of the substance­ The more lipids soluble is, the faster it can  diffuse through the hydrophobic core Molecular weight of substance­ the smaller the solute the faster it moves
Distance of diffusion­ The greater the distance, the slower the rate of diffusion
­When water follows the solute it will either go into a cell, making it swell (Hydrostatic 
pressure), or go out of a cell, making it shrink.
­Normal Osmolality Body Fluid/ Cells= 300 most
Hyperosmotic is greater than 300 most­ too much solute so it pulls water out of cells
­Hypoosmotic is less than 300 most and contains little solute so it pushes water into 
­Hypotonic: Lower concentration of non permeable solutes, H2O into cell
­Hypertonic: Higher concentration of non­permeable solutes, H2O out of cell
Leak Channels­ are always open: allow for constant ion flux as long as there is  an electrochemical gradient Ligand­Gated Channels­ open/close regulated by ligand binding
Voltage­Gated Channels­ opened or closed regulated by membrane voltage
•Compare and contrast channels vs. carrier proteins in terms of the solutes they 
transport, rate of transport, open/closed state and limits of transport.
Channels Faster
Both ends open
Usually specific for a certain type of ion
Carriers Transports ions and other solutes
Only one side is open, but never closed

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School: Michigan State University
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology 1
Professor: Leinninger
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Cell and Physiology
Name: Physiology exam 1 help
Description: The material in this study guide will help you prepare for the frirt physio exam
Uploaded: 09/21/2017
9 Pages 27 Views 21 Unlocks
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