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Amino acids are soluble in what?

Amino acids are soluble in what?

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology
Course: Intro/Cellular and Molecular Biology
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: General Chemistry and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: MCDB 1150 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: Chemistry of life, functional groups, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates
Uploaded: 09/21/2017
6 Pages 145 Views 3 Unlocks
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MCDB​ ​1150​ ​Exam​ ​1​ ​Overview


Amino acids are soluble in what?



Keys 

● Structure shapes function

● Peptide ~ phosphodiester ~ glycosidic linkage

● To replicate, need: 1. Template 2. Catalyze polymerization

● Atoms

● Monomers - small molecules (amino acids, nucleotides)

● Polymers

○ Proteins

○ Lipids

○ Carbs

○ Nucleic Acids

● Macromolecules (transcription complex)

Bonds 

● Covalent​ ​- electron sharing

○ Polar​ ​- asymmetric sharing

■ O > N > C = H

■ Top right of periodic table is most electronegative (electron affinity) ● More protons, more electroneg


In microbiology, what is the amide bonds?



● Smaller = further away, less electroneg

○ Non​ ​polar​ ​- equal sharing

■ Hydrophobic

■ Insoluble

● Noncovalent​ ​- electrostatic

○ Hydrogen

■ C-O C-N N-H O-H

○ Ionic

■ Strongest of noncovalent

○ Hydrophobic/philic

■ Surrounding H2O reform bonds

■ Inc order, dec entropy

○ Van der waals

■ Intermolec

■ Transient dipoles

Water 

● 4 H bonds

● Polar

● Adhesion​ ​- H2O to surface (polar/charged)


What is the function of nucleic acids?



● Cohesion​ ​- H2O to H2O (H bonds) Don't forget about the age old question of Magnification of microscopes refers to what?

○ High surface tension

● High specific heat - amount of heat to raise temp 1 C (bc H bonds)

Acids/Bases 

● Acids donate protons

● Bases accept protons

● Amphoteric - acts as acid and base

○ H2O + H2O → H3O+ OH-

● pH = conc[H+]

○ 7 = neutral = water

Carbon​ ​Functional​ ​Groups 

● Amino​: R-NH2

○ Base, polar, H-bonds

● Carboxyl​: R-CO2H

○ Acid, polar, H-bonds

● Carbonyl

○ Aldehyde: R-CHO

○ Ketone: R-CO-R

○ Sugars

● Hydroxyl​: R-OH

● Phosphate​: R-PO3

○ Highly negatively charged

○ Kinase - phosphorylation

○ Phosphatase - dephosphorylation

● Sulfhydryl​: R-SH

○ Covalent disulfide bonds

○ Peptide chains If you want to learn more check out How to solve the price demand equation?

● Ester​ ​Bonds​: carboxylic acid + hydroxyl

○ Glycerol + fatty acids to form lipids

● Amide​ ​Bonds​: carboxyl + amino

○ Between amino acids - peptide bond

● Condensation/dehydration​: OH + H → H2O (taking water out of molecule breaks it apart)

● Hydrolysis/hydration​: H2O → OH + H (putting water into the molecule separates polymers)

Proteins 

● Made of amino acids

● Amino acids are soluble in water if side chains are polar/charged If you want to learn more check out Market demand refers to what?

○ OH is polar

○ Full charges indicate solubility

● Types of amino acid side chains

○ Nonpolar - typically hydrocarbons

■ Van der waals

○ Polar - typically have N, O

■ Soluble

○ Electrically charged - typically have N, O

■ Highly soluble

● Structure

○ Primary sequence codes for all levels of structure

○ Primary - sequence of amino acids Don't forget about the age old question of In biology, what is predation?

○ Secondary - peptide groups H-bond

■ Alpha helix

■ Beta pleated sheets If you want to learn more check out In communication, what do we mean by linear approach?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who is archie bunker?

○ Tertiary - 3D shape

■ Disulfide, H-bond, van der waals, ionic, hydrophobic/philic ○ Quaternary - 1+ polypeptide

■ H-bond, van der waals, ionic, hydrophobic/philic

Nucleic​ ​Acids 

● Phosphate group + ribose sugar + nitrogenous base

● Phosphate​ ​group

○ Covalently attached to 5’C of ribose sugar

● Ribose​ ​sugar

○ 2’C → OH = ribose = RNA

○ 2’C → H = deoxyribose = DNA

○ New units add on to 3’C

● Nitrogenous​ ​base

○ Pyrimidines (5C)

■ Uracine

■ Thymine

■ Cytosine

○ Purines (9C)

■ Guanine

■ Adenine

● DNA

○ Structure 

■ Primary - phosphodiester between phosphates + sugar

■ Secondary - H bonds between nitrogenous bases

● Antiparallel double helix, complementary pair

○ Function​ ​- template to synthesize complementary strand ○ Can’t catalyze

● RNA

○ Structure 

■ Primary - OH more reactive, less stable

■ Secondary - H-bonds with same strand

● Antiparallel double helix can occur

■ Tertiary - secondary folds into more complex shapes

○ Function 

■ Info-containing

■ Catalytic - ribozyme

Carbohydrates 

● (CH2O)n

● Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides

● Structure 

○ Ring structure, condensation between 2 hydroxyl groups ■ Many, so location and geometry flexible

○ Glycosidic linkage (covalent)

○ Aldose - CO at end

○ Ketose - CO within

● Starch - plant storage, alpha glucose

● Glycogen - animal storage, alpha glucose

● Cellulose - plant structure (cell wall), beta glucose

○ Can’t digest, linear, multiple H-bonds between adjacent strands ● Chitin - animal structure, beta glucose

○ Exoskeletons

● Peptidoglycan - bacteria structure, beta

● Function 

○ Make up larger molecules

○ Fibrous structure

○ Indicate cell identity

■ Glycoproteins on cell membrane

○ Store chemical energy

■ Photosynthesis

■ Fat stores 2x nrg/g

■ Starch and glycogen (alpha) readily hydrolyzed, good storage ■ Break down glucose to synthesize ATP

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