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Amino acids are soluble in what?

Amino acids are soluble in what?

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology
Course: Intro/Cellular and Molecular Biology
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: General Chemistry and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: MCDB 1150 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: Chemistry of life, functional groups, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates
Uploaded: 09/21/2017
6 Pages 48 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


MCDB​ ​1150​ ​Exam​ ​1​ ​Overview


Amino acids are soluble in what?



Keys 

● Structure shapes function

● Peptide ~ phosphodiester ~ glycosidic linkage

● To replicate, need: 1. Template 2. Catalyze polymerization

● Atoms

● Monomers - small molecules (amino acids, nucleotides)

● Polymers

○ Proteins

○ Lipids

○ Carbs

○ Nucleic Acids

● Macromolecules (transcription complex)

Bonds 

● Covalent​ ​- electron sharing

○ Polar​ ​- asymmetric sharing

■ O > N > C = H

■ Top right of periodic table is most electronegative (electron affinity) ● More protons, more electroneg


In microbiology, what is the amide bonds?



● Smaller = further away, less electroneg

○ Non​ ​polar​ ​- equal sharing

■ Hydrophobic

■ Insoluble

● Noncovalent​ ​- electrostatic

○ Hydrogen

■ C-O C-N N-H O-H

○ Ionic

■ Strongest of noncovalent

○ Hydrophobic/philic

■ Surrounding H2O reform bonds

■ Inc order, dec entropy

○ Van der waals

■ Intermolec

■ Transient dipoles

Water 

● 4 H bonds

● Polar

● Adhesion​ ​- H2O to surface (polar/charged)


What is the function of nucleic acids?



● Cohesion​ ​- H2O to H2O (H bonds)

○ High surface tension

● High specific heat - amount of heat to raise temp 1 C (bc H bonds) We also discuss several other topics like Water is a polar molecule of what?

Acids/Bases 

● Acids donate protons

● Bases accept protons

● Amphoteric - acts as acid and base

○ H2O + H2O → H3O+ OH-

● pH = conc[H+]

○ 7 = neutral = water

Carbon​ ​Functional​ ​Groups 

● Amino​: R-NH2

○ Base, polar, H-bonds

● Carboxyl​: R-CO2H

○ Acid, polar, H-bonds

● Carbonyl

○ Aldehyde: R-CHO

○ Ketone: R-CO-R

○ Sugars

● Hydroxyl​: R-OH

● Phosphate​: R-PO3

○ Highly negatively charged

○ Kinase - phosphorylation

○ Phosphatase - dephosphorylation

● Sulfhydryl​: R-SH If you want to learn more check out What is the marginal cost function?

○ Covalent disulfide bonds

○ Peptide chains

● Ester​ ​Bonds​: carboxylic acid + hydroxyl

○ Glycerol + fatty acids to form lipids

● Amide​ ​Bonds​: carboxyl + amino

○ Between amino acids - peptide bond

● Condensation/dehydration​: OH + H → H2O (taking water out of molecule breaks it apart)

● Hydrolysis/hydration​: H2O → OH + H (putting water into the molecule separates polymers)

Proteins 

● Made of amino acids

● Amino acids are soluble in water if side chains are polar/charged

○ OH is polar

○ Full charges indicate solubility

● Types of amino acid side chains

○ Nonpolar - typically hydrocarbons We also discuss several other topics like How do you determine comparative advantage?

■ Van der waals

○ Polar - typically have N, O

■ Soluble

○ Electrically charged - typically have N, O

■ Highly soluble

● Structure

○ Primary sequence codes for all levels of structure

○ Primary - sequence of amino acids

○ Secondary - peptide groups H-bond

■ Alpha helix

■ Beta pleated sheets

○ Tertiary - 3D shape

■ Disulfide, H-bond, van der waals, ionic, hydrophobic/philic ○ Quaternary - 1+ polypeptide

■ H-bond, van der waals, ionic, hydrophobic/philic

Nucleic​ ​Acids 

● Phosphate group + ribose sugar + nitrogenous base

● Phosphate​ ​group

○ Covalently attached to 5’C of ribose sugar

● Ribose​ ​sugar

○ 2’C → OH = ribose = RNA If you want to learn more check out In biology, what is predation?

○ 2’C → H = deoxyribose = DNA

○ New units add on to 3’C We also discuss several other topics like What is the sociological sense that each person builds up a fund of?

● Nitrogenous​ ​base

○ Pyrimidines (5C)

■ Uracine

■ Thymine

■ Cytosine

○ Purines (9C)

■ Guanine

■ Adenine

● DNA

○ Structure 

■ Primary - phosphodiester between phosphates + sugar

■ Secondary - H bonds between nitrogenous bases

● Antiparallel double helix, complementary pair

○ Function​ ​- template to synthesize complementary strand ○ Can’t catalyze

● RNA

○ Structure 

■ Primary - OH more reactive, less stable

■ Secondary - H-bonds with same strand

● Antiparallel double helix can occur

■ Tertiary - secondary folds into more complex shapes

○ Function 

■ Info-containing

■ Catalytic - ribozyme

Carbohydrates Don't forget about the age old question of When were the watts riots happen?

● (CH2O)n

● Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides

● Structure 

○ Ring structure, condensation between 2 hydroxyl groups ■ Many, so location and geometry flexible

○ Glycosidic linkage (covalent)

○ Aldose - CO at end

○ Ketose - CO within

● Starch - plant storage, alpha glucose

● Glycogen - animal storage, alpha glucose

● Cellulose - plant structure (cell wall), beta glucose

○ Can’t digest, linear, multiple H-bonds between adjacent strands ● Chitin - animal structure, beta glucose

○ Exoskeletons

● Peptidoglycan - bacteria structure, beta

● Function 

○ Make up larger molecules

○ Fibrous structure

○ Indicate cell identity

■ Glycoproteins on cell membrane

○ Store chemical energy

■ Photosynthesis

■ Fat stores 2x nrg/g

■ Starch and glycogen (alpha) readily hydrolyzed, good storage ■ Break down glucose to synthesize ATP

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