MC 2000 Test #1 Study Guide
Covers chapters 1-4, including info from lecture and the textbook
Chapter 4: Cybermedia & Media Consumption Patterns
● Cybermedia: the spreading of mass media through cyber communication ○ Has a tendency to blur the boundaries between various types of media products ● Internet influences media in 3 primary ways – a new way to:
● Cyber communication has changed the relationship between mass media producers and consumers
○ The consumer is now the consumer and the producer We also discuss several other topics like Who is rabban bar sauma?
■ Consumers can now create their own content i.e. Youtubers
● Pixelation is the technological base of the Internet
○ The effect is that users need only a single device to tap into everything ● Push v. Pull
○ Push: someone who is a content creator decides what material is available when ○ Pull: consumers choose what material to consumer
■ Ex: Spotify, Netflix
■ This type of media is growing more and more
○ Push media is still heavily consumed even with the growing popularity and benefits of pull media
○ Pull media has not displaced push media; push media is just packaged in a whole new way
■ Ex: banner ads on websites, tracking cookies used to target ads specific to us
● Limitless Archiving
○ Digitized materials can be searched in infinite ways We also discuss several other topics like What is an experiment?
○ Creating content that fits a niche that’s topic or demographic based
■ Ex: Tv stations like Comedy Central, the Sci-Fi Network, HGTV, and the Food Network
■ Youtube is the ultimate example of narrowcasting
● Social media is a driving force, as 1 in 3 minutes spent online are devoted to social media.
Chapter 3: Media Economics
● Online advertising includes display advertising (web banner), mobile advertising, email marketing, search engine marketing, paid searches, video ads, and social media marketing.
○ Newspapers have been hit the hardest financially with significant losses in print newspapers
● The State of Newspaper Revenue
○ 3 types: print, visual advertising, and circulation numbers Don't forget about the age old question of psl 250
■ Digital advertising is growing
■ CPM = cost per thousand; how much you have to spend to get a thousand people to see the ad (your revenue)
■ Digital advertising doesn’t make you as much money as print advertising ● 10 CPM vs. 2 CPM
● Revenue Streams for Journalism Organizations
○ Planning community events involved with the brand
○ Media subscriptions and paywalls
■ Many newspapers are using new schemes to increase digital subscriptions ■ Paywalls are blocking access to a website content unless a payment is made.
■ Ex: The New York Times, Wall Street Journal
○ To do one of these three things, you have to give your audience something they want to see. We also discuss several other topics like bonus army significance
○ Hybrid mix: an example of an alternative funding mechanism
■ Ex: a newspaper sells one ad in print but a different one online
■ This helps to cater to different audiences, like say a difference in age. The ad in the print newspaper could be one that appeases an older audience, who are more likely to still read print newspaper. The ad online would cater to a younger audience, who are more likely to read a digitized We also discuss several other topics like sebastien robidoux
version of the paper.
● Broadcast TV
○ Reality/Game shows are very popular and cost less to produce
■ These types of shows can be filmed with actors/people who you don’t have to pay a lot, and many episodes can be filmed in a short amount of time, making it extremely cost-effective and rewarding for the company.
○ It’s not about how many viewers there are, but how much money you make from the content! Don't forget about the age old question of econ study guide
■ This is how even really popular shows that have a lot of viewers can still get canceled. If a show becomes too costly to produce, it gets cut.
● On-air fundraising drives are popular and fund drives have been increasingly going online with sites like Indiegogo and Kickstarter
○ Ex: NPR and PBS
● Dot-com Bust: a sudden collapse of value in INternet companies in 2005 ● It is expected that in time, advertising revenues will align more fully with digital media products.
Chapter 1: Mass Media Literacy
● We all depend on media for news, entertainment, amusement, diversion, and the exchange of ideas.
○ A business and set of institutions
○ Normally presented as true and sincere, to a dispersed and anonymous audience ○ Gatekeeping: the process of determining what events get covered/published, and what the content and nature will be
■ It is not as powerful as it used to be because there are so many ways to get information
○ Audience fragmentation: dividing audience members into segments based on background and lifestyle to target messages to their specific characteristics ○ Information cascades: people abandon their own info in favor of inferences based on other people’s actions
■ Info comes from a place of shared belief
● Factors that influence news
○ Media sociology: the study of media as institutions
■ Media routines
○ Hierarchy of Influences
■ News values
■ Breaking news
■ Fair and balanced
● Eight Essential Functions (highlighted are most important)
○ Authenticate info
○ Make sense of info, put into context
○ Serve as a watchdog
■ Ex: investigative reporting
○ Bear witness to events
■ Maintains monitoring function
○ Empower people to be citizens, not just audience members
○ Aggregate news
■ Harness the power of the web
○ Organize public forums for discourse and debate
○ Model good journalistic practices/behavior for citizen journalists
Media Literacy Tools
● 4 things you should do as you consume info
○ Consider authorship: who created the message and why?
○ Look at the quotes: for stories with public officials, you can often confirm if the quotes are accurate by searching
○ Consider sources: are the sources in the story authorities with diverse
○ Reverse image source: google search the image used and see where and when it has been used
Media Literacy Principles (Related to Chapter 1)
1. The media constructs our individual realities.
a. Materials are created with specific purposes in mind
b. Personal observations, experiences, and media help us create our own reality and how we perceive things
2. The media are influenced by industrial/financial pressures.
a. Majority of messages are produced by organizations in a commercial setting 3. The media are influenced by political pressures.
a. The government regulates media
4. The media are influenced by format and technology.
a. Each medium has its own codes and conventions
b. What are codes and conventions?
5. Audiences are active recipients of the media.
a. Making meaning out of the media in an ongoing interaction between the reader/viewer and materials
i. We filter meaning through our personal experiences
6. The media tell us about who we are as a society.
● Convergence: content from multiple platforms coming into one
○ Device/internet reliant
○ Production costs
■ For some publishers, the cost has deeply diminished
■ More people have access to create content
● Digital Divide
○ The % of the population that does not have access to digital information ● Socioeconomic status
○ Less income households are much less likely to have access to the internet ○ There are racial disparities in access to internet, particularly at home
○ There are also disparities in where you live: rural v. urban
○ Cable companies establish exclusivity through a charter contract system with the city
■ The city requires the company to provide access for the entire city
○ Internet companies don’t establish exclusivity
■ There is no charter, which is why you can have areas that don’t have
access based on where they live
○ What’s next:
■ The digital divide is diminishing
■ Regulation is an option to solving this, but unpopular in today’s political climate
● Human Vision
○ Direct: you see without media intervention
○ Mediated: you see through some type of printed or screen medium
● Visual Message & Memory
○ For an image to be remembered, it needs to make an impression
● The Visual Process
○ Sense/sensation: no mental processing; seeing something but it is not thought through yet
○ Perceive/perception: starting to make sense of what you select
■ We see the whole, not the parts
● From Sensing to Perceiving
○ Constancy: the tendency for objects to appear stable despite changes (size, shape, form, color, or brightness)
■ Because of contextual clues
○ Context: clues surrounding an object allows us to link sensation of it to previously learned knowledge
■ Context is what makes constancy works
○ Closure: filling in gaps or spaces in an incomplete visual pattern to create something meaningful
○ Figure/ground: what you focus on, what your mind decides is important registers as the figure (focal point), and what you tune out is the ground/background
Chapter 2: Media Technology
● Current Technologies
○ Satellites became efficient alternatives for delivering traditional media products ■ The key to utilizing them was the geosynchronous orbit: a satellite’s
period of rotation that coincides perfectly with Earth’s rotation
○ Telstar: 1st communication satellite
■ Satellites were largely invisible to consumers but enabled media
companies to improve delivery of their products
● Hiebert, Ungurait, and Bohn’s Communication Model
○ This concentric circle model portrays mass communication as an obstacle course ○ Illustrates the obstacles for a mass-communicated message to reach an audience ○ Rings
■ Medium/Mass media: the type of media used is critical in ensuring that the message makes it way to the goal
■ Effect: the goal a.k.a. The consequence of the message
■ Amplification: giving a message a larger audience
■ Message Controls
● Gatekeeper: media people who influence messages en route
● Regulator: non-media people who influence messages
■ Filter: a receiver factor that impedes communication of the message