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nutr 313 sdsu

nutr 313 sdsu


School: San Diego State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Contemporary Nutrition
Professor: Kathy lane
Term: Summer 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Nutrition Study Guide 1
Description: for Part I Exam on 9/26
Uploaded: 09/23/2017
7 Pages 7 Views 10 Unlocks

Nutrition Study Guide – Part I Exam

What is Appetite?

Week 1

∙ hunger – physical, biological drive to eat, internal ∙ appetite – food behavior, a complicated mix of social  and psychological influences -> often overrides hunger o psychological drive to eat, external

∙ internal – appetite and hunger

∙ external – society, marketing, technology, research,  economy, food availability, government regulation of  food manufacturing and sales, consumer trends

∙ satiety – a feeling of satisfaction that temporarily halts  our desire to continue eating

∙ nutrition – the science that links foods to health and  disease

o includes processes by which the human organism  ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes  food substances

∙ nutrients – the substances obtained from food that are  vital for growth and maintenance of a healthy body  throughout life

∙ essential nutrients must have 3 characteristics o at least 1 specific biological function of the nutrient  must be identified in the body

What is Satiety?

o omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in certain biological functions (ex:  

production of blood cells)

o replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet before  permanent damage occurs will restore those normal biological functions

∙ cancer – condition characterized by uncontrollable  growth of abnormal cells

∙ cardiovascular disease – any disease of the heart and  circulatory system; generally characterized by the  deposition of fatty material in the blood vessels

∙ cholesterol – waxy lipid found in all body cells;  structure contains multiple chemical rings; only found in  foods of animal origin

∙ chronic – long-standing, developing over time ∙ diabetes – group of diseases characterized by high  blood glucose

∙ hypertension – condition in which blood pressure  remains persistently elevated; affected by inactivity,  alcohol intake, excess salt intake, and genetics

What is Hunger?

We also discuss several other topics like whitney barton ole miss

∙ kilocalorie (kcal) – unit that describes the energy  content of food; the heat energy needed to raise the  temperature of 1000g of water 1°C; commonly referred  to as calories

∙ obesity – condition characterized by excess body fat ∙ osteoporosis – decreased bone mass related to the  effects of aging, genetic background, and poor diet

∙ risk factor – an aspect of our lives such as hereditary,  lifestyle choices, or nutritional habits

∙ simple sugars – aka sugars; relatively small molecules  found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products ∙ complex carbohydrates – formed when many simple  sugars are joined together

∙ essential fatty acids – key fats the body cannot  produce that perform several important functions in the  body

∙ electrolytes – substances that separate into ions in  water and in turn are able to conduct an electrical  current If you want to learn more check out tooling u cutting processes 111

∙ nutritional state – the nutritional health of a person as  determined by anthropometric measurements,  biochemical measurements of nutrients or their by products in blood and urine, a clinical (physical)  examination, a dietary analysis, and economic  evaluation; aka nutritional status


∙ malnutrition – failing health that results from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with  nutritional needs

∙ over nutrition – a state in which nutritional intake  greatly exceeds the body’s needs

∙ undernutrition – failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet  nutritional needs

∙ subclinical – stage of a disease or disorder not severe  enough to produce symptoms that can be detected or  diagnosed

∙ anthropometric assessment – measurement of body  weight and the lengths, circumferences, and thicknesses of parts of the body

∙ biochemical assessment – measurement of  biochemical functions related to a nutrient’s function ∙ clinical assessment – examination of general  appearance of skin, eyes, and tongue; evidence of rapid  hair loss; sense of touch; and ability to cough and walk ∙ dietary assessment – estimation of typical food  choices relying mostly on the recounting of one’s usual  intake or a record of one’s previous days’ intake ∙ environmental assessment – includes details about  living conditions, education level, and the ability of the  person to purchase, transport, and cook food Don't forget about the age old question of a flawed system of classification, with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups.

Week 2

∙ hypotheses – tentative explanations by a scientist to  explain a phenomenon

∙ epidemiology – the study of how disease rates vary  among different population groups

∙ theory – an explanation for a phenomenon that has  numerous lines of evidence to support it We also discuss several other topics like comm 130 csulb

∙ double-blind study – an experimental design in which  neither the participants nor the researchers are ware of  


each participant’s assignment (test or placebo) or the  outcome of the study until it is completed

∙ control group – participants in an experiment who are  not given the treatment being tested

∙ placebo – generally a fake medicine or treatment used  to disguise the treatments given to the participants in an experiment

∙ case-control study – compares individuals who have a  disease or condition, such as lung cancer, to individuals  who do not have the condition

∙ animal model – use of animals to study disease to  understand more about human disease We also discuss several other topics like daniel and his intramural team just won the co-ed volleyball tournament, and they’re celebrating at an all-you-can-eat pizza place. daniel has had four slices of pizza and is trying to decide whether to have a fifth slice. he does not have to pay for it,
Don't forget about the age old question of anthro notes

∙ registered dietician/nurse– a person who has  completed a baccalaureate degree program approved by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and  Dietetics (ACEND), performed at least 1200 hours of  supervised professional practice, passed a registration  examination, and complied with continuing education  requirements

Week 3

∙ The DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) – a set of  reference values for the nutrient needs of most of the  population; is evidence-based; organized by  


∙ functional foods – provide health benefits beyond  those supplied by the traditional nutrients they contain ∙ nutrient density – the ratio derived by dividing a food’s nutrient content by its calorie content

∙ energy density – a comparison of the calorie (kcal)  content of a food with the weight of the food

∙ Recommended Dietary Allowance – use to evaluate  your current intake for a specific nutrition

∙ Adequate Intake – use to evaluate your current intake  of nutrients but realize that an adequate intake  


designation implies that further research is required  before scientists can establish a more definitive  recommendation

∙ Estimated Energy Requirement – use to estimate  calorie needs of the average person within a specific  height, weight, gender, age, and physical activity  pattern

∙ Upper Level – use to evaluate the highest amount daily nutrient intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects  in the long run in almost all people in a population

∙ Daily Value – use as a rough guide for comparing the  nutrient content of a food to approximate human needs Week 4

∙ tissues – collections of cells adapted to perform a  specific function

∙ organ – a group of tissues designed to perform a  specific function

∙ organ system – a collection of organs that work  together to perform an overall function

∙ organelles – compartments, particles, or filaments that  perform specialized functions within a cell

∙ phospholipids – any of a class of fat-related substances that contain phosphorous, fatty acids, and a nitrogen containing base

∙ enzyme – a compound that speeds the rate of a  chemical reaction but is not altered by the reaction ∙ cytoplasm – the combination of fluid material and  organelles within the cell, not including the nucleus ∙ cell nucleus – organelle bound by its own double  membrane and containing chromosomes, the genetic  information for cell protein synthesis and cell replication ∙ chromosome – a single, large DNA molecule and its  associated proteins


∙ deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – the site of hereditary  information in cells

∙ ribonucleic acid (RNA) – the single-stranded nucleic  acid involved in the transcription of genetic information  and translation of that information into protein structure

∙ transcription – process by which genetic information  stored as DNA within the nucleus is copied to RNA during protein synthesis

∙ ribosomes – cytoplasmic particles that mediate the  linking together of amino acids to form proteins ∙ translation – process by which genetic information  copied onto RNA dictates the amino acid sequence to  form a protein

∙ gene expression – use of DNA information on a gene to produce a protein

∙ endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – an organelle composed  of a network of canals running through the cytoplasm ∙ Golgi complex – the cell organelle near the nucleus  that processes newly synthesized protein for secretion or distribution to other organelles

∙ secretory vesicles – membrane-bound vesicles  produced by the Golgi complex

∙ lysosomes – a cellular organelle that contains digestive  enzymes for use inside the cell for turnover of cell parts ∙ peroxisomes – a cell organelle that destroys toxic  products within the cell

∙ anabolic reaction – puts different molecules together  → uses energy

∙ catabolic energy – takes molecules apart → releases  energy

∙ adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the main energy  currency for cells

∙ epithelial tissue – the surface cells that line the  outside of the body and all external passages within it


∙ connective tissue – protein tissue that holds different  structures in the body together

∙ muscle tissue – a type of tissue adapted to contract to  cause movement

∙ nervous tissue – tissue composed of highly branched,  elongated cells that transport nerve impulses from one  part of the body to another

∙ cardiovascular system – the body system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

∙ lymphatic system – a system of vessels and lymph  that accepts fluid surrounding cells and large particles,  such as products of fat absorption

∙ urinary system – the body system consisting of the  kidneys, urinary bladder, and the ducts that carry urine ∙ nervous system – a regulatory system that consists of  the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors ∙ endocrine system – the body system consisting of the  various glands and the hormones these glands secrete ∙ digestive system – consists of the GI tract and  accessory structures (liver, gallbladder, and pancreas)


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