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WSU / Geology / GEL 1010 / Explain how tectonic plates are formed.

Explain how tectonic plates are formed.

Explain how tectonic plates are formed.

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GEL 1010 Study Guide


How are tectonic plates formed?



Exam 1 – Chp. 1­4, 12, 16

Plate Tectonics 

∙    Theory of Plate Tectonics – Earth’s surface is composed of a series of tectonics plates  that are in constant motion, driven by Earth’s internal heat, added an outer layer and  drifting of oceanic crust to the following theory

∙    Theory of Continental Drift – parts of the Earth's crust slowly drift atop a liquid core ∙    Lithosphere – crust and upper mantle

∙    Asthenosphere – below lithosphere, moves, upper mantle

∙    Increased activity around plate boundaries (e.g. earthquakes, mountains, sea­floor  spreading)

Minerals 


What are the most common elements in earth's crust?



∙ Definition: a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a fixed chemical composition and a crystalline structure

∙ Eight most common elements found in Earth’s crust: O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg, K ∙ Bond types from strongest to weakest: ionic, covalent, polar, sigma, pi, 1, 2, 3, metallic,  hydro, Van der Waals

∙ Felsic – ferromagnesium If you want to learn more check out What does cell mean?

∙ Mafic – feldspar & quartz

∙ Density – degree of compactness

∙ Specific gravity – ratio of object density to average density

Olivine

Isolated, no cleavage

Pyroxene

Single chain structure

Amphibole

Double chain structure, 

strange growing habits

Mica

Layered structure, grey or  black

Feldspar

Most common mineral in  Earth’s crust, white or pink

Quartz

No cleavage, translucent 

Pyrite

Fool’s gold

Halite

Table salt

Hematite

Red rocks

Magnetite

Magnetic (Fe)

Calcite

Limestone

Gypsum

Salt found in desert soil

Apatite

Bones and teeth, fossils


What is the function of the asthenosphere?



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