Introduction to American Politics
Chapter 1&2 Study Guide
Underlined areas indicate important to know!!
∙ Lecture 1: What is Political Science?
o Politics: The process of determining who gets what, when and how o Politics involve power: The conflict over leadership, structure and policies ∙ Definition of political science: The study of politics using scientific methods ∙ Political Science vs. Natural Science
o Theory (In science): A general and widely accepted framework for understanding, explaining, and predicting certain phenomena
o Theories are the highest form of knowledge
o Political science has theories, but are they different from those in the natural sciences? How do we differ?
∙ Rational Choice theory
o People are motivated by their selfinterest (utility maximizing agents) o Institutional rules affect how people define and act upon their selfinterest o Collective outcomes are the combination of individual actions
∙ Rational Choice theory has produces fundamental insights about politics, but it also attracts many critics Don't forget about the age old question of Did the dominant party gain unjust enrichment from the agreement?
o EX: Collective violence is complicated, it has other foundations besides rational decision making
∙ Political science is different from the natural sciences in lacking a UNIFYING THEORY Don't forget about the age old question of Physical sciences refers to what?
o No theory that explains a phenomena across different subfields, times and places
∙ Is there a law in political science?
o Law(In science): A statement that universally holds for a certain class of phenomena
o The iron law of Oligarchy: Overtime decentralization of power becomes concentrated in small sets of leaders
o The world of politics has aluminum tendencies, not iron laws
o There are patterns in politics, but patterns can shift as people cannot be explained or predicted as accurately as cells, rocks, particles and other inanimate objects
∙ Most political scientist seek midrange generalizations. There are NO universal laws or encompassing theories
∙ This course presumes such an approach
o No unifying theory that explains phenomena…
∙ Where is the science?
o Like other scientist, political scientist:
∙ Develop a research design
∙ Form & Test hypotheses
∙ Use scientific methods Don't forget about the age old question of Who is chris heathwood?
Qualitative and Quantative data collection
∙ Surveys, Experiments, Case studies, Ect
Systematic analysis of data/information
∙ Various statistical or interpretive approaches
∙ (Identifying themes that emerge from the data)
∙ Based on the evidence gathered and analyzed, draw
conclusion We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of chemical equation?
o Political science tries to explain political events, institutions and behaviors. ∙ "Explaining" means identifying causes We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
o Important outcomes usually have many causes. The challenge lies in determining the separate and joint impacts of the causes
o Political scientists typically differ from historians..
∙ Historians are skeptical about midrange generalizations, everything Is unique: You can necessarily generalize
∙ Empirical vs. Normative
o Most political science is empirical ("What is") rather than normative ("What ought to be")
o Normative: We should elect Jones to Congress
o Empirical: Jones won because of reasons, A,B and C
o This class focuses mainly on empirical questions
o Attempt to be as "ValueFree" as possible, although this is a very difficult task to accomplish
o Focus on research of scholarly findings rather than mere opinions or "Alternative facts"
∙ Disentangling normative & Empirical
o In practice, normative and empirical claims can be difficult to separate… o Normative implications often flow from and can be supported by empirical knowledge
∙ You will be a better political (normative) advocate if you have a lot of empirical knowledge If you want to learn more check out Humanistic approaches refers to what?
o One branch of political science, called political theory welcomes investigations…
∙ Lecture 2: What is government, Who are Americans, and what do they have in common?
o Government refers to institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled
o Governments provide various services and functions called "public goods": ∙ Provides national security and directs the military
∙ Funds public education
∙ Ensures food and drug safety
∙ Oversees road construction and maintenance
o Forms of government
∙ Autocracy: Government by a single, nonelected individual (King, Dictator)
∙ Oligarchy: Government by a small group that is not accountable to citizens
Military officers, landowners, or wealthy merchants
∙ Democracy: System of rule that permits citizens to play significant part in the governmental process
Usually through the election of key public officials who then make the big decisions
o Limits of government
Limited both in what they an do (Substantive limits) and methods they can employ (Procedural limits)
∙ United states and a number of other nations
Recognize no limits on their authority, but may be constrained by some social forces (ex: business of religious institutions)
∙ Iran, Saudi Arabia, China, Cuba, etc.
Recognize no limits on their authority and seek to eliminate other institutions that might challenge it
∙ North Korea, Nazi Germany, Stalin's Soviet Union, Pre War Japan and Italy
o Trust in government
∙ What do Americans think about the US government?
∙ Do they trust the government to do what's best for them? Early 60s, Americans trusted government most of the time, it has gone down to now where only 19% of Americans trust it
Trust spiked after governments response to 9/11
∙ Decline of trust after 9/11
Faulty intelligence information led to war in Iraq, people believed bush administration told lies
Intense partisan conflict in congress over various issues, mostly notably over raising the national debt limit (2011).
Candidates also increasingly running for congress by running against congress.
∙ "Washington is broken!"
∙ The public may refuse to abide by laws! (not paying taxes) ∙ Programs outsources to profitseeking corporations, undermining public interest
∙ Decline in political efficacy
∙ Decline in political participation
More difficult to hold public officials accountable
A minority of the electorate decides
o Knowledge of government
∙ What does the public know about government? And why is that important?
∙ Very low levels of knowledge
2015 poll: 70% could NOT identify all three branches of the government
People thing the govnt. Spends a lot on foreign aid. In reality: around 0.2 of GPD
o Why knowledge matters
∙ Citizens can make more informed decisions
∙ Knowledge makes citizens more attentive
∙ Knowledge shields us from inaccurate depictions of how government works
o Who are Americans?
∙ Population has grown from 3.9 million in 1790 to 323 million in 2016 ∙ Much of the growth comes from waves of immigration
∙ Governments determine who to allow into their countries and who is eligible for citizenship
US has a very complicated past and …
∙ By 2050, the size of Latinos is projected to increase from 16% to 51% ∙ Religious diversification
1900: 80% Protestant
∙ Catholics, 21%
∙ Jews, 2%
∙ Muslims, 1%
o Importance of political culture
∙ If Americans do not share a common heritage, what can unite a very diverse nation with a complicated past?
∙ Political culture: Broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function
o Three Key Values
Freedom from government control
∙ Personal freedom
∙ Economic freedom
∙ Linked to concepts of "limited government"
∙ A freemarket economic system with minimal or
no government interference
o People choose their rulers and have some say over what those rulers do o When ultimate power rests with citizenry, this is called popular sovereignty o Government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the rights of the minority
o The declaration of independence declares that "all men are created equal" o Principals of equality include
∙ Equality of opportunity: the ideal that all people should have the freedom use their talents to reach their fullest potential
∙ Political equality: The right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of "one person, one vote."
∙ Equality and public opinion
o 9 out of 10 citizens think its important that women have the same rights as men
o 9 out of 10 also think that our society should do what ever necessary to make sure everyone has the opportunity to succeed.
o Yet, inequality in hiring, promotions, wages, and application of various laws that still persist
o So what gives??
∙ Lecture 3: Principles of politics
o Politics revisited
∙ Conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments
Also about collaboration and cooperation
∙ Power is a central focus of politics
Elevate some and remove others
Introduce new policies or to prevent old policies
Shape how policies get implemented
∙ Many faces of politics
Can take many forms:
∙ Voting, running for office, Contribute money to
candidates, boycotting, going to court, joining political parties of
∙ Underlying logic of politics
o Rationality: all political behavior has a purpose
A simple premise: Actions are purposeful, with a specific goal in mind, especially true for political actors, nearly every act is explicitly political. B/c nearly every move is fraught with potential risks, slightest miscalculations have consequences. Make choices with forethought, deliberation, and calculation…that is instrumental. Instrumental actions
particularly visible among elected officials. Reelection is a necessary condition for pursuing one's objectives.
Elections: a powerful incentive to keep legislators responsive Elected officials will pay attention to their constituents needs, not necessarily bc it’s the right thing to do, bc they want to be re
∙ Institutional: Rules and procedures structure politics
Rules and procedure provide incentive for behavior, thereby shaping politics
Institutions dictate what political actors can or cannot do in their pursuit of public policies
The constitution sets the broad parameters, within much
adaptation and innovation taking place within and across institutions. For example; Presidential veto power.
∙ Collective action: Coalitions structure politics
Political action involves building, combining, mixing, and
amalgamating people's individual goals.
Necessary but difficult to orchestrate as conflict is inevitable! Bargaining is essential: Incentive plays a key role
∙ Informal: Repetition and trust, verbal agreements, easier to pull out
∙ Formal: governed by explicit rules, contracts, legality
∙ Cooperation and compromise not a given even if
objectives of interests align
∙ The famous prisoner's dilemma!
∙ What is individually rational is collectively irrational
∙ Lack of information and accountability makes freeriding even more attractive
∙ Free riders: Individuals who desire the benefits of
cooperation while preferring not to pay the costs. (Like
having nice roads, but don’t want to pay the taxes)
∙ Enough freeriders and collective action failsno
public good and everyone is worse off!
∙ History: How we got here matters
∙ All of the above go hand In hand
∙ Five principles of politics continued:
o The history principle
∙ How we got here matters!
∙ Every question and problem we encounter has a history
∙ Historical path illuminates:
What choices were available to political actors at a given time What consequences resulted from those choices
What consequences might have flowed from the paths not chosen
o The policy principle
∙ The link between individual goals, institutional arrangements, and collective actions=Policy outcomes
∙ Politicians driven by both private objectives and public purposes ∙ Institutional features are complex; policy change requires compromise at almost every step
∙ Long list of players must be satisfied with change or status quo will almost always prevail
To "induce" Change, incentive are critical!
∙ Lecture 4: The founding and constitutional formation ∙ Quizlet for We the People Ch. 2: We The People Chapter 2
o The purpose of Government in the constitutions preamble:
∙ To promote justice
∙ To maintain peace at home
∙ Defend nation from foreign foes
∙ Provide welfare for citizens
∙ Secure the "Blessings of liberty"
o The first founding
∙ Interest and conflicts within the colonies
∙ Five sectors of society with important interests
New England Merchants
Royalists (Holders of royal lands)
Shopkeepers, Artisans, and laborers
∙ First 3 held pretty good alliance for the most part before Britain's threatening behavior
∙ Eventually it was split between the Federalists vs. AntiFederalists o Before the first founding
∙ Relationship between British rule and colonies changed when:
The British government accumulated debt
The British had to provide continuing protection to the colonies
Imposed new taxes on colonies
∙ Sugar act of 1764
∙ The stamp act 1765
o The Boston Tea Party
∙ Disagreements over taxation continued into the 1770s
∙ In 1773, the Brits granted the East India Trade company a monopoly on imported tea
∙ The colonists responded in protests, throwing an entire cargo of tea into Boston Harbor
∙ Britain responds with a blockade of Boston
∙ Collective colonial effort pulled different colonists together, leaving leaders with the belief that they could coordinate a revolution across the colonies o Declaration of Independence
∙ 1776, the colonies declared independence from Britain
∙ Philosophical Document
Certain rights are unalienable(life liberty and the pursuit of happiness) ∙ Political document
Outlined many specific complaints and grievances
o The articles of Confederation
∙ First written constitution of the United States
∙ "Articles of confederation" because it stated that governments (states) retained "Sovereignty, freedom and independence."
∙ States wanted to retain their sovereignty because:
High distrust toward a strong central government
Wanted representatives closer to home
Desired to retain new political and economic powers.
o Short comings of the 1st Constitution
∙ Weak central/national government
No president, Only a legislature
No taxing authority
∙ Impractical government
Each state had one vote regardless of population
All 13 states had to agree to make amendments
∙ Lacked a national army and navy to protect citizen against coordinated domestic or national attacks
o Growing Concerned about the Articles
∙ Two major concerns:
Foreign affairs: Under the articles, they were unable to enforce treaties or really defend themselves
Economic matters: Currency inflation hurt business and land redistribution policies in various states angered property owners o Shay's rebellion (1787)
∙ Daniel Shays, a former army captain, led a mod of farmers against the MA government
∙ Goal: Prevent the repossession of debtridden lands
Most debt held by poor farmers in western MA
Rebellion failed, but revealed the Articles weaknesses: The inability to act decisively in a time of crisis
o The second founding
∙ Purpose of Constitutional Convention in 1787
Economic: Sought to create a new government that promoted commerce and protected property
Defense: Create a government that could act effectively in times of domestic and national crisis
Political: Create a government that promoted principles of liberty, equality and democracy
But forging an agreement was difficult and complicated…
o Political power: Small vs. Large states
∙ Initial Proposals
The Virginia plan called for a system of representation based on state population or the proportion of each states revenue contribution to the national government or both
∙ Opponents claimed the plan was biased in favor of large states The new jersey plan: Each state was to have equal representation ∙ The Connecticut compromise or "The great compromise"
Bridged differences between the pervious proposals
Proposed a Bicameral legislature
∙ House: Representative apportioned by population in state
∙ Senate: States with equal representation regardless of
o Key advantages of the 2nd constitution
∙ National Unity and Balance of Powers
Gave states the freedom to pursue their own policies but also unified the nation with a common enemy
States asked to respect contracts made in other states
US constitution stands supreme over state laws (The supremacy clause)
Separation of powers: Three different branches of government with checks and balances
∙ Conflict over three fundamental issues:
∙ Representation: Did representatives need to be precisely like those they represented?
∙ Tyranny: Would government be controlled by the wealthy elite or would the mass electorate team up against the elite and take their rights away? ∙ Government power: Should the national government have strict limits or broad powers?
∙ James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George Washington ∙ Stronger central government
∙ Feared majority tyranny through legislature
∙ Afraid that majority would take away property rights of minority if not checked
∙ Representative government with larger districts
∙ Only the house should be popularly(directly) elected
∙ Representatives should do what is best for the entire country
∙ Exercising their own judgement
∙ Thomas Jefferson, Sam Adams, John Hancock, Patrick Henry ∙ Smaller central government; Focus on state sovereignty
∙ Representatives should have similar backgrounds as and be close to the people
∙ Act as people want rather than exercise their own judgement ∙ Feared all branches and levels of government but especially the executive and federal government
∙ Individual protections are necessary
∙ The federalist papers
∙ Aimed to defend the principles of the constitution and sought to dispel fears of national authority
∙ AntiFederalists published essays arguing that the new constitution betrayed the revolution and was a step towards monarchy
∙ Federalists eventually won, but antifederalists were able to get some key concessionsBill of rights and scheme of representation as examples
∙ Lecture 5: Constitutional Formation & Reformation
∙ How democratic is the US Constitution and has it become more democratic over time?
∙ Several "Constitutional Moments" The path to democratization has not been straightforward
∙ Constitutional Formation
∙ Civil War & Reconstruction Amendments
∙ The new deal
∙ The rights revolution
∙ 5th Constitutional moment???
∙ Barriers to Answering the questions
∙ Worship of the constitution
Religious metaphors: Framers as demigods and document as sacred
Widespread ignorance of the constitution: Know what it says ∙ Does it declare independence from England?
∙ Does it declare English the national language?
∙ Does it include the phrase, "Government of the people, for the people, by the people?"
∙ Does it include the phrase, "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need?"
∙ Bicentennial Myth
Idea of a single constitutional founding/Formation
More accurate depiction of American Politics:
∙ "Constitutional moments"
∙ Democratic elements of the constitution
∙ Bill of Rights(1st amendments to Constitution)
Freedom of speech
Freedom of religion
Freedom of press
Various legal protections
∙ Undemocratic elements of constitution
Neither forbade or gave congress the power to do so
Slaves as property rather than citizens of the US
∙ Three infamous clauses
3/5 clause: Article 1,Section 2
∙ Counting the population of each state for the purposes of representation in the house.
∙ Southern states wanted to count slaves; Norther
delegates resisted it.
∙ Elbridge Gerry: 5th vice president of US, didn't want to count slaves, saw them as property
∙ Compromise: Slaves as 3/5 of a person
1808 clause: Article 1, Section 9
∙ Importation of slaves shall not be prohibited till 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed (no exceeding ten dollars for each person).
Fugitive Slave Clause: Article IV, Section 2
∙ Required escaped slaves to be delivered to the owning party
∙ Retrieving slaves was a form of retrieving private
Failed to guarantee the rights to suffrage, leaving the qualification to states to determine who has the right to vote
Result: AfricanAmericans, Native Americans, and women were excluded from the electoral process.
∙ Election of the President
Indirect voteNo direct, Popular vote
Endorsing a slate of electors(On the ballot) pledged to vote for a specific presidential candidate
∙ Choosing senators
Chosen by state legislatures for 6year terms
∙ 17th amendment(1913) changed it to direct voting)
∙ Equal representation In the senate
The "Connecticut compromise" (Constitutional convention of 1787)
California= 38.8 million = 2 senators
Idaho=1.6 million = 2 senators
26 smallest states (Majority of the senate) =11% African American &Latino
9 largest states (Majority of people) =30% African American & Latino
∙ Judicial Power
o "Judicial veto"Failed to limit powers of the judiciary (unelected body) to declare laws passed by the popularly elected congress and signed by the president as unconstitutional
∙ Congressional Power
o Federal government prevented from regulating of controlling the economy o No taxation power (Until the 16th amendment)
∙ Opposed Majority Rule: Know this from the institutions they created & reasons they offered
o House of representative the only popularly elected body of the federal government (at the beginning)
o Even the "elected" house did not reflect majority will:
∙ Suffrage (right to vote) extended to white, property owning men only (6% of the population)
∙ Why the property requirements?
Believed that men needed to own property to exercise
The average person is susceptible to influence
∙ Framers created Electoral College to choose the president
∙ Framers gave the president the power to appoint judges and justices ∙ Separation of powers
o Judges have term for life
o President 4 years
o Legislative congress
∙ House = 2 years
∙ Senate = 6 years
∙ Why fearful of majority rule?
o In part, they concluded that ancient democracies degenerated into mob rule and tyranny
o The framers also responded to the politics of their own era.
∙ State legislatures were forgiving debts, thereby (in the eye of the framers) violating property rights
o According to Madison, people are susceptible to "temporary errors and delusions"
∙ (Protect the government from the people who are influenced easily and have bad ideas for the good of the country)
∙ Lecture 6: Civil War, Reconstruction, & Retrenchment o How democratic is the US constitution and has it become more democratic over time?
o Over time, the path to high democracy has risen
∙ Gains and backlashes, but upward trajectory
o Undemocratic Elements of the Constitution
∙ Slavery: 3/5 compromise
∙ Suffrage: Very small pop could vote
∙ Election of the President: Electoral College
∙ Choosing Senators: Used to not be by citizens vote
∙ Equal representation in the senate
∙ Judicial Power: People who have judicial veto weren't elected by the people
∙ Congressional Power
o Dred Scott (1857)
∙ Court decided that all people of African ancestry, slaves as well as those who were free could never be citizens of the united states and therefore could not sue in federal court
∙ Court also ruled (72) that the federal government did not have the power to prohibit slavery in its territories
∙ Dred Scott struggled for freedom, sued for it in saint louis courts ∙ Majority: Framers had never intended African Americans to be citizens Thus they enjoyed "no rights which a white man was bound to respect"
∙ Any federal law that interferes with the right of an individual to his property, including slaves, was unconstitutional
o The Civil War
∙ No compromise through legislation could be reached on the question of slavery
Amendment to the constitution impossible
∙ Eleven states seceded to form the Confederate states of America after Lincoln was elected
∙ Started with South Carolina
∙ Industrial north (Union) Vs. Agricultural south (Confederate) ∙ Bloodiest war in US history
620,000 killed in Civil War
∙ Reconstruction Amendments
o 13th Amendment: Outlawed slavery
o 14th Amendment: Made all people born or naturalized in the US, regardless of race, citizens of both the US and the state in which they live (1868) ∙ Expansion of federal powers: specifies that sates cannot violate rights and liberties
o 15th amendment: Guaranteed male citizens the right to vote (1870) o This began the process of selective incorporation
∙ Applying the Bill of Rights to the states of "Nationalizing" the bill of rights
∙ How the meaning of the bill or rights expanded over time
o Did the bill of rights apply to the states?
o "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free…"
o The 1st amendment originally did not apply to the states
o What about the rest of the bill of rights
∙ Barron vs. Baltimore: The supreme court held that the bill of rights applied only to the federal government
A contrary decision would have been very controversial at the time
∙ Through the supreme court, the bill of rights was selectively incorporated into the 14th amendment
∙ 1897: Due process clause of the 14th amendment applied to Eminent domain
Prohibited the states from taking property for public use with out just compensation
∙ 1925: Freedom of speech applied to the states
o Selective incorporation
∙ But it took more than 30 years for the court to nationalize constitutional protection against double jeopardy
∙ Until 1961
Only the 1st amendment and one clause of the 5gh
amendment clearly incorporated into the 14th amendment
∙ After 1961: Most of the important provisions of the bill of rights were incorporated into the bill of rights and applied to the states
o Democratic Gains
∙ Federal troops entered the South to protect the rights of African Americans
From 1869 to 1877, AfricanAmericans were elected to various political offices
African American aligned with republican party (Lincoln's party) But once the troops left the south, things started to quickly change…
o Retrenchment of Constitutional Reforms
∙ Jim Crow Era
By 1877 all of the former confederate states had reverted to white democratic control
Voting right undermined by devices invented to prevent African Americans voting in the former states of the confederacy
∙ Poll Taxes
∙ African Americans just got out of slavery so they
have no money, so they cant/don’t want to spend the
money to vote
∙ Literacy Tests
∙ Asked various questions that were impossible to
answer 100% even if they got
∙ Grandfather Clauses
∙ Ensured that poor white men could vote bc their
∙ White primaries
∙ People can determine who attends their
primaries because political parties are private
∙ Intimidation Tactics; Lynching
∙ Lecture 7: Civil War, Reconstruction, & Retrenchment (Part 2) o Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
∙ 1890 Louisiana Law: Railroad companies required to provide racially segregated accommodations
∙ In 1892, the state of Louisiana prosecuted Plessy, a man who was 7/8 Caucasian ad 1/8 black, for refusing to leave a passenger car designed for whites
∙ Question: Does Louisiana's law mandating racial segregation on its trains violate the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment
∙ Made it to Supreme Court
o Separate but Equal
∙ Justice Brown: 14th amendment intended to establish absolute equality for the races before the law (political equality)
∙ Noted that segregation does not in itself constitute unlawful discrimination. Separate but equal doctrine
o Post Plessy
∙ Rise of Jim Crow laws in education, workplace, housing,
transportation, and the criminal justice system
∙ Separate but equal remained standard doctrine in UD law until Brown v. Board of Education
∙ Brown (1954): Does segregated education violate the 14th amendment?
Yes, Overturned Plessy but applied to public education only Inherently unequal because it leaves black children with stamp of social stigmatization
∙ Push Back: President Eisenhower refused to endorse decision o Naturalization Excisions
∙ The constitution gives congress the authority to establish immigration and naturalization criteria
∙ Naturalization law of 1790: Congress restricted naturalization to "White persons" only
∙ Elk. V Wilkins (1884): Native Americans owe allegiance to tribe and do not acquire citizenship at birth (Held until 1924)
∙ Racial restrictions on naturalization only ended in 1952
o Immigration Exclusions
∙ Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882 and 1884
"Asiatic Barred Zone" of 1917
National Origin Act of 1924: Quota system designed "to confine immigration as much as possible to western and norther European stock"
Immigration quotas only ended "Officially" With the Immigration act of 1965!
o Courts and White making
∙ Unquestioned use of the term "White" by the founders left what white means open to interpretation
∙ Is the Jew a whit man? What about the Irish or Italian?
∙ Legally these groups were considered as white, and eventually, accepted as white in society, faced discrimination for a long time. Lower quality Whites
∙ However, the courts excluded other races from whiteness, and Hence, Citizenship
Two landmark cases of note:
∙ Ozawa v. United States (1922)
∙ Argued that the original Naturalization act was
meant to exclude only Indians and those of African Descent
∙ Maintained that his skin was "as white of whiter"
Than a white person
∙ Supreme court determination was only that
CAUCASIANS are white, test by skin color is impractical
∙ US vs. Thind (1923)
∙ Thind argued that Indians (Asian) are Caucasian
and Caucasians are considered as white. Therefore…
∙ Common Knowledge Criteria
∙ Characteristics of Hindus, the court concluded,
distinguish them from people commonly recognized as
∙ The courts adopted popular conceptions of what
white means; finding Thind is white would be a shocking
result to actual whites
Suffrage of White Women
∙ Women are "Childlike" by nature
∙ Darwinian references: women have
"Characteristics of the lower races, therefore of a past and
lower state of civilization."
∙ Gained the right to vote in 1920 (19th amendment)
∙ But legislatures and courts discouraged female jury service, voting and running for office
∙ All women? Problematic categorization
∙ Lecture 8: Constitutional Moment III: The New Deal ∙ Several "Constitutional moments": The path to democratization has not been straightforward
o The Great Depression
∙ The Stock Market Crashed in October of 1929 under Hoover's watch
∙ Unemployment rate skyrocketed 25% by 1932
∙ In 1932, FDR, A democrat, Challenged Hoover promising the American people a "New Deal"
∙ Herbert Hoovers vision
Education and a government protecting individual
liberties are keys to success
Opposed regulating business too much
Trusted voluntary organizations to meet the needs of the poor and help them become selfsupporting
∙ Encountered business men not to cut production
or lay off workers
∙ Created reconstruction Finance Corporation
∙ Encouraged farmers to voluntarily cooperate to
Challenger: Franklin D Roosevelt:
∙ Projected a positive, energetic and imaginative
image, promising the American people a "New Deal"
Hoover had ignored the "Forgotten man at the bottom of the
1932 election Roosevelt by a landslide: 42 states against Hoover 1836 Election Roosevelt won all but 2 states against Landon
∙ Most lopsided election in US history
∙ Forging the New Deal
The Great depression started the new era of democratic
FDR's first two terms, unified democratic control
New articulations of what the government SHOULD be doing,
and what was expected of the government
FDR's aim: Equality of opportunity, jobs, ending special privilege, regulation of Wall Street and banks, preservation of civil liberties
for all etc..
∙ Four Freedoms Speech, 1941
Freedom of speech and expression
Freedom of Worship
Freedom of Want
∙ Entirely about government based market regulation
Freedom of fear
o New deal order
∙ Massive and lasting national federal growth
Bank Regulations, FDIC
Fair labor standards
Social Security Act
∙ Unemployment insurance
∙ AFDC (Now TANIF) aid to families with dependent children All massive and new infrastructure to protect new rights, especially freedom from want
Remaking of the federal government, whole new administrative apparatuses
o Percentage of nonmilitary spending
∙ Local spending went down
∙ Federal went up
o Courts vs. New Constitutional order
∙ Interbranch conflict…Supreme court wanted to protect the more modest constitutional order
∙ FDR claimed he has electoral mandate, election of 1936 ∙ Court Packing!
To "increase the youth and vitality of the court"
Wanted to appoint an additional 6 justices to supreme court, thought the supreme court needed younger justices
FDR lost counties confidence in him
New constitutional order: Not through formal constitutional amendments
∙ The court is not protecting the constitution
∙ Start of the modern presidency
o New deal as a constitutional Moment
∙ 1937 often referred to as a switch in time: Courts back down and start moving with "The new younger blood"
∙ Stated to affirm interventionist policies of FDR
∙ Transformation of the scope of government
Founding: No priority of national over state: Dual sovereignty
Reconstruction: Some shift, but no distinct economic or social
role of national
New deal, true national government
∙ Transformation of the BALANCE of government
Founding: Separation of powers of "Dual Sovereignty"
Reconstruction: Led by congress
New deal: Start of the modern presidency
More Notes from the next few classes to come!!
Week 3 Questions:
Quizlet for this discussion topic: https://quizlet.com/16597046/federalist10flashcards/ 1. What is a faction? (Federalist #10)
A faction is "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to other rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community…"
2. How can society “cure the mischiefs” of factions? (Federalist #10)
A society cannot "Cure the mischiefs" of a faction. As said on page 2, " A pure democracy…can admit of no cure for the mischiefs of faction." This is because "a common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole…but there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious inarguable."
3. Why is “removing the causes” unworkable? (Federalist #10)
The two methods of "removing the causes" of a faction are 1. destroying liberty and 2. giving every citizen the same opinion, same passions and same interests. The first method does not work because "Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires." Which means that a faction cannot live without liberty and would cease to exist without it. The second method also does not work to "remove the cause" because it is clearly unwise to take away a mans opinion and will not work. "As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed."
4. What is a “pure democracy?” Why does a pure democracy make majority factions dangerous? (Federalist #10)
A Pure Democracy is "a society consisting of a small number of citizens who assemble and administer the government in person". In a pure democracy, each citizen represents him or herself. Having a pure democracy makes the majority factions dangerous because there isn't anything to control a majority interest because political equality does not translate into equality of possessions, opinions, and passions.
5. What is a Republic according to Madison? How is a Republic better than a “pure democracy” at checking factions? (Federalist #10)
According to Madison, a republic is a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect and promises the cure for which we are seeking. A republic, especially a large one can represent larger numbers of citizens. A republic also makes it harder for "unworthy candidates" to be in control where they would disturb the rights of the free. The people in power will be more likely be men who possess "the most attractive merit and the most diffusive and established characters." There is also always guarding against the confusion of a multitude and against the "cabals of a few" set by max and min number requirements for representatives.
6. Why are large Republics preferable to small Republics? (Federalist #10)
Large republics are preferable to small republics because, a large one can control the effects of factions better in its enlarged territory. Large republics offer better/more opinions for electing representatives with good character because there are more to chose from. Also it is more difficult for bad candidates to become elected when they are under the scrutiny of a larger electorate.
7. According to Madison in The Federalist #63, what is the purpose of the Senate?
In The Federalist #63, the senate's purpose is to be a stable part of government, the national reputation is important. Each member of the Senate should share the praise and blame for public measures. They need to be reasonable (knowing their limits) and effectual (Goals need to be related to operations of that power the constituents can judge). The Senate needs to be able to provide objectives that require constant attention and a train of measures so they can be "effectually answerable for the attainment of those objectives".
8. According to Hamilton in The Federalist #71, why do the people so often fail to understand the correct means of promoting the public good?
In The Federalist #71, The people so often fail to understand the correct means of promoting the public good because people exercise bad judgement and are often fooled by charismatic leaders. They hear what they want to hear. The people also are most likely intend for the public good but their actions don't always achieve this intention.
9. According to Hamilton in The Federalist #68, who should choose the president? What kinds of qualities should those people have?
In The Federalist #68, Hamilton show he believes that the Presidential Electors should choose the president. Those presidential electors will be chosen by citizens of the state for which they are electors. They will be chosen at the specific time for the specific purpose of making the decision. Hamilton explains that the electors should show they are able to analyze qualities in which the president should have. They should "act under circumstances favorable to deliberation and a judicious combination of the reasons and inducements proper to govern their choice." A small amount of people chosen by the citizens of the area will most likely be able to "possess the information and the discernment required in such complicated investigations". The electors should allow for no possibility for "tumult and discord." Because the people are choosing a whole body of electors, there is less likely to be violent actions or anger in response to decisions made by them, than if there just one. An elector will not be elected if they are suspected of having bias towards one presidential candidate or another and the dispersal of the electors over the 13 states is another protection. The people of each state will choose a number of electors, equal to the number of senators and representatives of each state in the national government. Lastly, the electors will assemble within the state and vote for a fit president. Their votes are sent to the seat of the national government and the person with a majority vote of the total will become the president.
Week 4 Questions:
1) According to Dahl, what constrains or factors limited the opportunities available to the Framers of the Constitution? Provide detailed answers.
The Constraints/Factors that limited the opportunities available to the framers included; Them being limited to a republican form of government, which was a good thing. The framers and most of America at the time were strong believers of republicanism being the superior. They could NOT propose a monarchy. Then there was the existence of the thirteen states, with more to come. They weren't removable. A unitary system with exclusive sovereignty lodged in the central government, was out of the question. There was a need for a federal republic was known. Next was the necessity for a compromise, it was needed to secure agreement on any constitution at all. Everyone held different views on very basic issues, like slavery and equal representation in the senate.
Dahl Related Quizlet: https://quizlet.com/192331462/govmidtermflashcards/
2) List and describe each one of Dahl’s seven undemocratic elements of the Framers’ Constitution. Why is each one considered "undemocratic?"
a 3/5th compromise
a Women, native Americans and African Americans were not given the right to vote
2 Election of the President
a Electoral College didn’t allow the people to elect the president 2 Choosing Senators
a State legislatures chose the senators, not the people
2 Equal Representation in the Senate
a Each state got the same number of representatives in the senate, small or large
2 Judicial Power
a Framers of the constitution failed to limit the powers of the judicial powers 2 Congressional Power
a No clear constitutional autorotation