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FSU / Sociology / SYD 3020 / What is the study of human populations?

What is the study of human populations?

What is the study of human populations?



What is the study of human populations?

CH 1

-We are all population actors-we all contribute to demography -Sociology: how is this group being influenced by other parts of society,  groups, things, etc

-Demography: demos (population), graphia (description or writing)= writings  about population

-scientific study of human populations

-the study of three demographic processes: fertility (sex), migration  (travel), and mortality (death)

-Demography was coined by Achille Guilard (1855)

-We consider demography today to be the study of determinants and  consequences of population change

-concerned with everything that can be influenced or influences  population size (how many people there are in a given place),  population growth or decline (the number of people in that place  changing over time), population processes (levels and trends in  fertility, mortality, and migration), population spatial distribution  (where people are located and why), population structure (age  pyramid-how many males and females there are of each age), and  population characteristics (what people look like in terms of variables) -The demographic equation

What are the three demographic processes?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the actions by the government to achieve a goal. it determines who gets what, when, and how with what results?


-natural increase: (B-D)

-Net international migration: (I-E)

-this equation tells us the population size and can be used to predict  future population sizes

-Population size can only change through: being born into it, dying out of it,  moving into it, moving out if it

-Demographic characteristics: age and sex (most important measures) -influences the three processes (fertility, mortality, and migration) -Sex Ratio at birth: 105 males to 100 females

-females have higher survival probabilities so this keeps it equal -Sex composition: composition of a population with regard to sex -Sex ratio: number of males in a population per 100 females -Fecundity: ability to produce children varies by sex (females have babies) -typically occurs in females ages 15-49 and males 15-79

Who is achille guilard?

-Age composition: the composition of a population with respect to age -Females have lower mortality rates than males at every age -Death rates are high in 1st year of life then drop, then rise at old age -Cause-specific mortality is also age and sex related Don't forget about the age old question of Does high tide mean the tide is in?

-Long distance migration tends to favor men and short distance migration  favors women

-degree of gender equality influences this

-nearly half of international migrants are now woman

-migration is age selective (most are young adults)

-Cohort: group of people with something in common

-Factors that contribute to a man never finding a mate: economic inequality -TFR: total fertility rate-number of children that would be born to a woman if  she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in  accordance with current age-specific fertility rates

-US TFR: 1.9

-This is the sixth year that the US fertility rate has been below the  replacement level (the level that is needed for couples to replace  themselves in the population)

-Baby boom: fertility increased to TFR of 3.7 (1947-1964)

-Population explosion: large increase in population (happened during  baby boom)

-Baby bust: 1965 TFR dropped below 3 and at early 1970’s dropped below 2 -social and economic experiences are influenced by birth cohort size -Higher SRB in some areas (China)

-what happens when the sex ratio remains unbalanced?

-more authoritarian gov to control crime rates or unwed  

bachelors, more commercial sex markets, potentials for an  HIV/AIDS epidemic Don't forget about the age old question of Why is personality used as a concept?

-NE has the highest population density in the US, but the South is the most  populated

-Places to find demographic data: US Census Bureau, National Center for  Health Statistics, ICPSR, US Citizenship and Immigration Services, United  Nations, World Bank and Demographic Health Surveys

-Morbidity: prevalence of sickness in a population

-August Comte: founding father of Sociology

-“demography is destiny”

-demography effects every aspect of our lives and our institutions -most demographers stay away from this b/c there are too many other  intervening variables (that is why there are so many areas of  sociology)


-Satire about American culture & American hygiene

- Monthly obsession with getting our teeth fixed- dentist

- Shrine (toilet), magical potions (medicines)

-Medicine man (doctor), herbalist (pharmacist)

-Shaving face (men), bake for an hour (women getting their hair done) -“Fundamental belief is that the human body is ugly”: our obsession with  physicality and plastic surgery We also discuss several other topics like Is the atomic number the number of protons?

-“Latipso”-“that is where you go to die”: the hospital

-Listener (psychologist)


-The three main sources of data:  

-National Censuses

-conducted on decennial basis, everyone is required to be  included

-snapshot of the population at one point in time: cross-sectional  (static)

-typically answered by one person in household

-100 percent questions- “Short Form” (go to every house in US) -capture population size, characteristics, and spatial  


-“Long Form” questionnaire- administered to a sample of  

population (1 in 6 US households)

-capture income, occupations, recent migration  

experiences, religion, ethnic heritage (distinctions based  

on shared cultural origins)


-gathered continuously at time of event Don't forget about the age old question of Which theory is based on empirical evidence and observation?

-typically complied monthly/annually

-more focused on populations demographic events (births,  deaths, and sometimes migration


-only administered to portion of population- “sample” or “sample population”

-more useful to better uncover underlying patterns of  

demographic behavior

-De jure: covers entire territory and counts persons according to their usual  place of residence We also discuss several other topics like What are inputs and outputs in coding?

-US and Canada follow this method

-De facto: also covers entire territory but counts each person according to  their location on the day of the census undertaking

-much more common

-Only Lebanon has not conducted an official population census -The US Population census started in Virginia in 1624-1625 -1st national census in the US was in 1790 (primary purpose: House of  Rep)

-Wording is critical with any of these surveys or questionaires  -Population registers

-list of persons with their name, address, date of birth, and personal  identification #

-communism uses this for control/ US does not maintain any kind of  national population register

-Civil registration systems: gathered continuously at time of event -vital statistics: data derived from civil registration systems as well as  from actual records of events

-typically compiled monthly/annually: includes birth certificate, death  certificate, marriage license, and travel visas

-Birth certificates always include info on the mother but if there is no info on  the father then it is incomplete

-makes it harder to gather fertility info on the males

-Most unregistered deaths and births occur in developing countries -3 mutually exclusive categories

-Birth: after being separated from the mother, if the fetus shows any  evidence of life it is a live birth

-Death: permanent disappearance of all evidence of life anytime after  a live birth has taken place

-Fetal death: if there is no birth, the Fetus is classified as fetal death (a  birth must occur before death)

-miscarriages: spontaneous or accidental termination of fetal life  that occurs early in pregnancy

-abortions: premature expulsion of a fetus, spontaneous or  induced, at a time before it is viable of sustaining life

-induced abortions: termination of a pregnancy by human  intervention that causes early fetal death, legal or illegal

-still births: a late fetal death of 20 to 28 weeks or more of  gestation

-gestation: the carrying of a fetus in the uterus from  

conception to delivery

-Registration of Marriages (1957) and Divorces (1958) lagged behind births  and deaths  

-The states are responsible for collection vital data but the federal gov  gathers the materials and publishes the data annually

-Registrations of one’s birth and death are considered fundamental human  rights

-Nation states need vital statistics of both birth and deaths to protect and  enhance the life expectancy of their populations

-life expectancy: average # of years yet to be lived by people attaining a given age, according to a given demographic table

-1639: Massachusetts Bay Colony declared that birth, death, and  marriage would be part of the administrative system

-John Graunt (1620-1674) deemed by many as the founder of demography -“Bills of Mortality”: weekly accountings and reports of the London  parish of all deaths and christenings- in response to the plagues of the  late 1500’s (also has to do with vital statistics)  

-he was the 1st to notice more males born than females, 1st to  recognize females have higher life expectancies, 1st to recognize rural  to urban migration

-World Fertility Surveys

-began in 1970’s, cross-national fertility surveys

-conducted in 62 countries, data on reproductive behavior, social and  psychological behaviors

-Demographic Health Surveys

-began in 1984, conducted in 74 developing countries, every 5 years

-household surveys with data on fertility, population, health, and  nutrition

-Current Population Survey

-monthly nationwide survey conducted by US Census

-collect labor force (population that’s employed or actively seeking  employment) data monthly

-everyone in the household 14+years, nationally representative  sample

-National Survey of Family Growth

-male and female respondents (15-44), nationally representative  sample, collects data on family life and reproductive health -American Community Survey

-random sample of 2.5% of all households each month, annual sample  size is 3 million addresses

-in hopes to reduce problems and errors in census collection -Nosologist: a person who studies the classification and categorization of  diseases and causes of death, then translates the disciplines of the cause of  death into cause of death codes of the International Classification of Disease


-Fertility: the frequency of a live birth of either sex

-Biological process strongly influenced by proximate factors such as: social,  economic, culturual, and psychological realities

-We influence our own fertility

-Reproduction: the production of only female births

-no demographic term for only male births

-females, not males have the ability to reproduce

-Fecundity: the potential or the biological capacity of producing live births  (opposite of sterile)

-Fertility is measured in 2 ways:

-Period analysis: cross sectional/ fertility is counted within one calendar year

-Cohort analysis: studied over time by women in same birth year -fertility measures reveal # and spacing of births throughout  women’s reproductive life cycle

-Wilhelm Lexis (1837-1914)

-created Lexis diagram, graphical illusion of lifetime

-X (Age), Y (year), diagonal lines (cohorts), vertical lines (periods) -Microfertility analysis of Fertility

-fertility of individuals

-# of births produced by a given time

-# of births by end of childbearing years

-timing and spacing of births at various stages of life cycle -Macro-level approach to Fertility

-determines the rate at which births occur in population or  subpopulation

-it’s the fertility of the population

-often compared to mortality levels, rates of reproductive change, and  fertility levels of subpopulation

-Measurements of fertility

-Crude Birth Rate (CBR): cross-sectional (period) measure

-refers to # of births in population in 1 year for every 1,000  persons

-(# births)/(mid year population) *1,000= CBR

-is “crude” b/c denominator is mid year population

-many of whom are not at risk of childbearing (also  

includes men)

-General Fertility Rate: cross-sectional (period) measure

-better at measuring fertility than CBR b/c it restricts it’s  

denominator to only include at risk population (women 15-49) -(# births)/ (mid year population females age

-Unique qualities  

-denominator is childbearing ages

-can change by region and over time

-the range is altered if fertility in the country is highly  

unlikely to occur

-numerator is all births that occurred that year

-this # includes births outside the specified age ranges

-how to calculate GFR using CFR data:


-4.5 is based on empirical and analytical relationships b/w  the two measures

-Age specific fertility rates: births to women according to their age -usually calculated for women in 5 year groups (15-44 or 15-49) -sometimes calculated by single age groups

- (birthsX to X+N)/ (femalesX to X+N)*1000= ASFRx to x+n -Africa has the highest fertility rates and Europe and North  America have the lowest

-Age curve of fertility: plotted ASFR’s (usually form an inverted U) -the peak of the curve shifts over time, as the median age of  childbearing changes

-Total fertility rate: most popular of all fertility rates

-provides a single fertility value/ mostly calculated by periods, but  sometimes can be calculated for cohorts

-world TFR: 2.7, less-developed countires w/China: 2.9, w/o China: 3.3,  developed countries: 1.6, US: 1.8

-cross-sectional, provides an estimate # of births a hypothetical group  of 1,000 women would have during their reproductive years, if each  one of their reproductive years followed the ASFR for a given period  (assuming no woman dies during the hypothetical years)

- Σ(ASFRx to x + n* i)= TFR

- Σ: sum (add up)

-I: width of the age interval (typically 5)

-Cohort TFR’s: not hypothetical group (imaginary set), follows a real group of  women through childbearing years and tabulates actual fertility -follows fertility from beginning to end and shows up in a chart  diagonally (also measured diagonally in Lexis diagram

-Replacement: refers to female births

-Fertility: refers to all births, regardless of sex

-Gross Reproduction Rate

-does not take into account mortality during reproductive years -GRR= TFR* (female births/births) or GRR= TFR* 0.488 (based on sex  ratio at birth (48.8% female))

-Net Reproduction Rate

-# of daughters born to hypothetical cohort of 1,000 mothers -takes into account the mortality of mothers from the time of their birth -NRR= ((ASFRx to x + n) * (0.488) * (Lx/5lo))

-Lx: person-years lived b/w ages x and x+1

-lo: number of persons surving to age x

-John Bongaarts (1978-1982)

-re-specified intermediate variables by Davis and Blake to more easily  quantify these concepts

-proximate determinants: marriage/marital disruption (intended to  reflect the proportion of women in population of reproductive age and  engaging in sex on a regular basis), contraceptive use and  effectiveness, prevalence of induced abortion, duration of postpartum  infecundibility, waiting time to conception, risk of intrauterine  mortality, onset of permanent sterility

-the first four are the most important b/c the last three have to  work through the first four in order to affect fertility

-Demographic Transition Theory: proposes 4 stages of fertility and mortality -Stage 1: pre-industrialized era

-high birth and death rate, stable population growth (lots of  babies born, most of them not making it to adulthood and the  population pyramid remains the same)

-Stage 2: onset of industrialization and modernization

-society transitions to lower death rates, most reductions in  mortality here are infant and maternal

-birth rates remain high resulting in rapid population growth (lots  of babies being born and more of them and their moms  


-improvements were made in sewage and water sanitation  efforts, later in public health (germ theory, penicillin, and  


-Stage 3: birth rates begin to lower, so birth and death rates are similar -decrease in population growth (everything slows down)

-urbanization occurs (farm to city), family size decreases due to  women joinig workforce, the cost of children in urban areas is  much higher than in rural (education and rec activities)

-Stage 4: low and stable population growth (births and mortality are  low)

-very slow and gradual population growth (most developed  countries)

-Wealth Flow Theory (John C Caldwell): if the wealth flow runs from children  to their parents, the children will want to have larger families/ if the wealth  flow is from parents to children the children will want smaller families or  maybe no children

-Human Ecological Theory: macro level explanation of population growth and  decline

-negative relationship b/w organizational complexity and fertility and  population change

-high fertility (reduces resources), low fertility (maximizes resources) -Most developed countries TFR: at or below 2.1

-Most developing countries TFR: well above 2.1  

- TFR is “low” if TFR is <2.1, “very low” if TFR is <1.5, “lowest low” if TFR is  <1.3

-Replacement level fertility: TFR 2.1

-Population momentum: lag between decline in TFR and decline in CBR’s -caused by lots of women still in childbearing years

-Developed worlds depopulation has harsh economic consequences through  aging populations

-fertility declines, each cohort becomes smaller

-Old-Age Dependency Ratio: proportionally larger population >65, and  smaller population in working ages (15-64) (the old are living longer) -High fertility in the US resulted from > half of the population was fecund -Since 1990’s TFR has stayed around 2.1 in US (highest of any developed  country)

-people are living longer, having fewer babies, the population as a  whole is aging

-Adolescent Fertility Rate (AFR) is the ASFR of 15-19

-an important indicator of women’s status, more variation in this rate  than fertility rates overall

-AFR in developed countries: 24, US: 43, US varies by race and  ethnicity (Anglo-28, Hispanic-83, Black-66)

-Male fertility is rarely examined and compared to female fertility but it  should be b/c of biological, methodological, and sociological reasons -Period rate (cross-sectional rate): a rate based on behavior occurring at a  particular point in time

-Menarche: the beginning of the female reproductive period signaled by the  first menstrual flow

-Menopause: the end of that period signaled by the termination of  menstruation

-3 groups of low fertility rates

1. Northern and Western Europe, Agrentina, Australia, Canada, New  Zealand, and US

2. Southern and Eastern Europe

3. South Korea, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore

-Depopulation: decline in the size of population (reason: sustained low  fertility)


-The US fertility rate has fallen during period of economic decline -Fertility rates of black and Latina women are approaching those of Whites  and asian women

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY (KIRKS ARTICLE) -All of the countries will experience this theory, even if they haven’t already -People who contradict this theory created a second theory based on culture

-social and economic factors, but also social and economic factors  across countries

-def: societies will experience a modernization progress from a pre-modern  regime of high fertility and high mortality to a post-modern one in which both are low

-Formulated by the Office of Popuation Research in 1944

-1st major criticism of the theory related to the accuracy of its presentation of European demographic history

-advocated postponement of marriage as a means of restraining  population growth

-differences in pre-modern marital fertility: differences in breast  feeding practices and the upper class had birth control

-2nd criticism: mortality decline always precluded fertility decline -3rd criticism: in several European regions actual decline was not tied closely  to socio-economic modernization but rather to diffusion within a specific  cultural or linguistic region

-Greatest strength: the theory will occur in every society that is experiencing  modernization/ the weakness: inability to forecast the precise threshold  required for fertility to fall

-fertility must be within the calculus of conscious choice, reduced  fertility must be perceived as advantageous, effective techniques of  fertility reduction must be available

-The European Fertility Project

-Reasons for mortality decline in the modern world

-improvements in agriculture, improved nutrition and resistance to  infections or diseases, improved hygiene

-Richard Easterlin: he broadens the usually defined factors of demand,  supply, and costs of fertility regulation

-demand: standard socio-economic determinants of the transition

-supply: cultural elements that constrain natural fertility

-costs: the monetary, time, and psychic constraints on the use of birth  control

-Wealth flow theory of fertility decline: the fundamental issue in demographic transition is the direction and magnitude of intergenerational wealth flows -Two opposing theoretical perspectives:  

-sees population growth and especially rapid population growth as a  major brake on economic development

-views it as a stimulant to economic growth

-3 central propositions of the theory:

-the chronological sequence of mortality declining, then declining  fertility

-a model for the reproductive transition in 2 phases: restriction of  marriage followed by limitation of births

- the influence of modernization on the onset of fertility decline

CH 4

-Oldest surviving documents describing contraceptive methods are the  Egyptian papyri/ there are 5 different ones stating different contraceptive  preparations (most were ineffective besides withdrawal or abortion) -All contraception methods (except for hormonal) were available or used by  1800’s  

-condoms (1600), IUD (1920’s- Germany), abortion was described by  Queen Victoria’s gyno

-Nonusers of contraception: women who are pregnant, women who have just  given birth, women who are surgically sterile via a hysterectomy (the  surgical removal of the uterus and sometimes Fallopian tubes and ovaries),  women who are non-surgically sterile or their male partners, women who are  trying to get pregnant

-other users who are not using family planning methods: women who  are not engaging in sexual intercourse, women who are engaging in  sexual intercourse (they are the only ones at risk of getting pregnant)

-Main modern methods of family planning: oral contraceptive (the pill), the  intraurine deivce (IUD), contraception injection, the male condom, male and  female sterilization, diaphragm, vaginal spermicides (foams and jellies),  contraceptive implants, the female condom

-“natural” family planning methods: fertility awareness methods like  Standard Days Method, and the Billings Ovulation Method

-Traditional methods: calendar rhythm methods (periodic absitinence), coitus  interruptus (withdrawl), long term abstinence, and prolonged breast feeding -Most common family planning methods worldwide:

-female sterilization, then IUD, oral contraceptive, male condoms,  injections, and male sterilization

-The most induced abortions re from countries where abortion is legal,  abortions do not occur more frequently in countries where there are legally  performed versus countries where they are not legally performed -US women favor oral contraceptives (least fav is IUD)

-married women: sterilization, single or cohabitating women: pill -second options; married women: pill, single or cohabitating women:  condoms

-90% of US women have engaged in sexual intercourse prior to marriage -In a first sexual experience, the condom was the most popular, then pill,  then withdrawl

-Every year around 2% of women in childbearing years have abortions -Most women that have abortions have previously had a child: stigmatized,  many women don’t tell anyone about their abortions

-Ways to categorize contraceptions:

-whether or not the contraceptive acts as a barrier to keep the sperm  from entering the woman

-whether the contraceptive contains hormones

-whether they are long-lasting (IUD and implants) or require continuous input (pill or condom)

-Theoretical effectiveness: the “effaciousness” of the method when it is used  “consistently according to a specified set of rules” and used all the time  -the degree of effectiveness that would occur with “perfect” use -Use effectiveness: measures the effectiveness of the method taking into  account the fact that some users do not follow the directions perfectly or  carefully or may not use the method all the time

-reflects how effective the method is in typical use

-The percentage of couples “typically” using a specific method and  experiencing accidental pregnancies over the course of a year is the failure  rate for that method according to use effectiveness

-non users have the highest failure rate (85%)

-Spermicides: least effective contraception method (creams, jellies, foams  that cover the vagina mucus and cervix)

-creates a physical barrier to the movement of sperm and has a sperm  killing chemical called nonoxynal-9 which further reduces the chance of conception (very old-Aristotle)

-Withdrawal/ Coitus Interruptus or Pull-Out Method: the oldest contraceptive  and causes problems with Roman Catholic Church

-similar to coitus reservatus (amplexus reservatus): keeps penis in but  doesn’t ejaculate

-Fertility awareness refers to several so-called natural family planning  methods that employ awareness of information about the women’s  menstrual cycle to predict the time of the month when the probabilities are  high that she will become pregnant

-calendar method: (1st) based on the idea that a woman can avoid  pregnancy if she refrains from intercourse around the time of  ovulation, when the egg is produced

-basal body temperature method/basal body temperature chart:  ovulation produces a rise in the basic metabolic rate, causing a  corresponding increase in body temperatures b/w 0.3-0.9 C

-Billings method/ ovulation method: women checks herself every day to see  if her discharge is more vaginal mucus or cervical secretions (ovulation) -Standard Days Method: women with regular menstrual cycles lasting 26-32  days can prevent pregnancy by avoiding un-protested intercourse on days 8- 19

-used in women not from US (el Salvador, India, etc)

-The Diaphragm and Cervical cap: device that erects a barrier b/w the sperm  and the ovary

-Male condoms: not until the invention of rubber that they became  popularized (mid 1800’s)/ mid-1930’s the introduction of liquid latex -Female condoms: like the males but for the vagina  

-Hormonal-based Methods  

-Birth Control Pill: 1960s-combined pills b/c they contained 2 hormones  similar to estrogen and progesterone produced by the ovary and  governed by the pituitary gland  

-when taking the pill the pituitary gland gets fooled into thinking  its pregnant

methods differ according to the types of hormones in the  contraceptive, the amount of hormones, the way the woman  receives the hormones, and whether the exposure to the hormone is continuous or periodic

-Oral: 1950 Planned Parenthood

-Mini-pill: only progestin and was first marketed in 1973, acts more like  a barrier method than contraceptive

-Contraceptive patch: adhesive patch that works like a combination pill except it gets changed weekly

-Vaginal ring: similar to combined pill and is a thin, transparent, flexible ring (inserts after period for 3 weeks, removes the ring, puts a new one in)

-Contraception Injection: can be like the combined pill or mini-pill but is injected into the arm monthly

-Subdermal contraceptive implant: small silicone capsules type rods  placed into the arm for up to 5 years (the most effective form of birth  control)

-Surgical sterilization:

-Laparoscopic sterilization: uses a laparoscope (small cameria and cuts each tube)

-Minilaparatomy: sterilization performed on a woman a few days after  she delivers a baby, sometimes burn or cut tubes

-Hysteroscopic sterilization: performed with local anesthesia, a tiny coil is introduced into each Fallopian tube through the vagina and uterus results in scar tissue

-Quinacrine sterilization: 2 treatments, one month apart of seven tiny  quinacrine pellets, scar tissue

- No-scapal vasectomy: keyhole vasectomy

-The emergency contraceptive pill (morning-after pill): taken after  unprotected intercourse and are designed to prevent pregnancy by  interfering with the implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterine lining -Abortifacients: pharmaceutical medications that cause the termination of an early pregnancy by interfering w/ the viability of an already implanted zygote

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