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Texas State - HIST 1320 - EXAM 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Texas State - HIST 1320 - EXAM 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image KEY: RR=Railroad  RED=IMPORTANT BLUE=FUN FACT , AND BLACK TEXT=REGULAR Exam 1 Study Guide Potential IDs Bargain/Compromise of 1877 Contested vote in the 1876 US presidential election between Rutherfordd B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden
Vote decided by the electoral commission
Both Democrats and Republicans said that the other side was, at the time, suppressing some race or people 
(the South) due to their (D/R) actions
Compromise: Hayes can be president as long as Reconstruction can finish out.
Result: Democrat Governors don’t come to office for many years after that in the South.
Freedmen’s Bureau Organization created by the Federal Government
Built schools
Provided aid to the elderly, children, and others
Settled disputes between whites and blacks
Worked to secure equal treatment for all before the courts
Significance: First Time the Federal Government sets up an organization that is active and engaged in all of 
the states.
13th Amendment  1865
Formally outlaws slavery throughout the U.S.
14th Amendment 1868
Federal grants that freed slaves, gave them birth citizenship, and allowed them due process of the law
15th Amendment 1870
Federal grants free men the right to vote & states that the right to vote cannot be denied based on race
Civil Rights Act of 1875 Barred racial discrimination in places of public accommodation American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1886
Created by Samuel Gompers
Focused on securing higher wages, better work conditions, and shorter hours
African-Americans were excluded
Women were excluded
Andrew Carnegie Focused on  Vertical Integration-Taking care of multiple parts of the supply chain. Ex: If you work to produce  steel, using vertical integration meant that you would retail it as well. You are doing a combination of work, 
instead of hiring companies to complete parts of the supply chain.
Owned and operated 
Carnegie Steel Produced his own steel
Held the mines for his resources
Transported it via ships and RR
Owned the ovens to cook and cool steel
Knew where and how to market and sell it
Souls of Black Folk Published in  1903 W.E.B. Dubois explains the meaning of emancipation, the effects on the leaders of his race, and their identities.
Mainly looking at the idea of 
double-consciousness: the sense of looking at oneself through the eyes of  others. 
The sensation of feeling as though your identity is split into several parts, having more than one social identity in 
the way you perceive yourself, and how others may perceive you. This makes it harder to develop a sense of 
Battle of Little Bighorn June 25 & 26, 1876
General Custer (Civil War Vet) is leading the US
Significant: The US loses the war, and due to the way news travels, it reaches Washington on July 4th, 1876
John Peter Altgeld 1893-97
Founded child labor laws in the US
8-hour shift made, but one is allowed to work more if paid overtime (Employer cannot force overtime)
He commuted the sentences of two of the accused from the 
Haymarket Affair Haymarket Affair After the RR strike, many changes were made to the industrialization system
Chicago tried to pass an 8-hour workday
A protest happened soon after, and 2 workers are shot in the aftermath.
During the next strike, an anarchist throws a bomb into the crowd
This becomes known as the Haymarket Affair
May 4, 1886
8 men were accused, but only 7 received sentences.
4 were hung
1 committed suicide by lighting dynamite in his mouth
And 2 had their sentences changed to life in prison
Mostly German immigrants were captured
Omaha Platform 1892 Called For: Free, fair elections secured by a secret ballot
A more equitable burden of taxation by a larger income tax
Demand for an 8-hour workday
Call for initiative and referendum
Initiative-Citizens can propose their own laws
Referendum-Ability to vote on the proposed initiatives
Popular election of senators
Oppose any federal aid or subsidy to corporations
Govt. ownership of RRs & means of communication
Free coinage of Silver
They start winning elections
More populist senators than any other political party
Most Democrats disagreed with the Populist Party, and
 had their convention before the Populists William Jennings Bryan The “Great Commoner” of Nebraska
Runs for President in 
1896 as the “fusion” candidate under both Populists and Democrats At this time, many people are afraid of Populists because they don’t believe in the “Gold Standard” Plessy vs Ferguson (1896) The Social Move Towards Jim Crow Plessy established the “separate but equal” constitutional standard that would continue until 1954.
Supreme Court decided that segregation is ok as long as the facilities were of the same standards.
However, 1 justice did not agree but was outvoted. 
Justice Harlan said, “Our constitution is colorblind”, but he still doesn’t accept the Chinese as full Americans.
Ida B. Wells (Remember her case against lynchings ONLY) From Memphis
African American journalist with her own power
1884-ejected from segregated RR car and sues the RR company
1889-Co-owner of newspaper in Memphis (The Free Speech)
1892-Three friends of Ida lynched by a mob. Ida begins her career as anti-lynching activist. Publishes Southern 
and A Red Record
This gets the mob to burn her paper down She moves to Chicago after this, and it marks the beginning of a movement from the South to Chicago 1909-Founder of NAACP What is “Progressivism”? Middle-Class reform movement
Called for Govt regulation of industry & a planned approach to urban modernity
Embraced rationalism, objectivity, and science
Sought bureaucracies to monitor problems overtime in a predictable way.
Progressivism came from both Democrats and Republicans Booker T. Washington Leader of the “Atlanta Compromise” of 1895
Proposed African Americans recognize white political dominance of the South. 
However, wanted Afro-Americans to have extended due process of law & a chance at education & vocational 
No lynchings/violence against Afro-Americans outside the law.
Spanish-American War The independence movement in Cuba led to war with Spain in  1898 USS Maine blew up on the Cuban shore, getting the US involved, even though no one knew who did it
Yellow Journalists, who used sensational headlines and pictures blamed the Spanish for the bombing.
War lasts 4 months
“Rough Riders,” including Theodore Roosevelt, helped defeat Spain in both Cuba and Puerto Rico
Spain defeated by US
US gains: Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines 
Fourteen Points Created by Woodrow Wilson
Called For: An end to secret alliances
Safe and free seas whether in peacetime or war
Free trade relations between nations
Reduction of the arms race among nations
Re-evaluation of colonial claims
Freedom for Russian territories and global acceptance of its new government
Freedom for Belgian territories in Germany
Immediate evacuation for all French territories
Re-evaluation of the Italian border
Freedom for various people in Austria-Hungary
Restoration of all the Balkan nations
Protection of minorities in Turkey
Polish Independence
Establishment of 
The League of Nations to oversee all of this United States vs Wong Kim Ark 1892
In Short: 
Supreme Court rules that the 14th Amendment now applies to Chinese born in America.
Wong Kim Ark was born in San Francisco to Chinese immigrants
U.S. law was passed prohibiting Chinese nationals from becoming U.S. citizens.
Wong was detained at the port on the way back from visiting his family in China. 
Originally, the US said that since his parents were not citizens, Wong was not, but at the Supreme Court, they 
ruled that anyone born in America was American.
Appomattox Courthouse Place where the Civil War ended
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
April 6 1865
Signaled the end of the war
NAWSA National American Woman Suffrage Association
Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Tried to win suffrage state by state at first
Then went for a constitutional amendment
Lusitania 1915
Germany sinks the British cruise ship Lusitania
killing 1,200 people; including 128 Americans.  However, this wasn’t what forced the US into WWI
Zimmerman Note did push them to war: a secret message from Germany to Mexico telling Mexico to attack 
the US if the US declared war on Germany
US declared war on Germany in 1917
League of Nations One of Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”
Creating an international organization that would solve disputes via communication in order to avoid war
 disputes failed here, then countries would no longer trade with the aggressive nations, and IF that also failed, 
then and only then would they start a war.
Eugene Debs Election of 1912
American Socialist Party 
RR union movement that wanted the nationalization of industries
In other words, certain industries ought to be treated as public utilities, making it cheaper and easier to use
The Jungle Upton Sinclair Brought attention to the meat industry and their shady practices
The Jungle  Led to the Pure Food & Drug Act as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Progressivism in Journalism/Literature
Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom Urges the Govt to fight back against the “curse of bigness” in both Govt and Business, using effective 
regulation to establish a competitive economy
Lucy Burns Formed the National Women’s Party in  1917 Influenced by Alice Paul
Wilson is President at the time, and WWI is about to begin
Party members picket in front of the White House in order to try to convince the government to give women the 
right to vote
Picketing after the start of the war was considered to be unpatriotic, and Lucy Burns was arrested among 
others that were picketing
Lucy Burns is quickly found out to be a leader, but to prove her point further, she protests in jail, and goes on a 
hunger strike
State and Federal Govt don’t want a martyr on their hands, and so they force feed her eggs through her nose
However, news of this treatment gets out, and Congress decides to take the matter of suffrage into their own 
19th Amendment Not formally in effect until  1920 Right to vote cannot be denied on the basis of sex The Western states had given full voting rights to women before this amendment
The North allowed for women to vote for the President only
The South did not allow women to vote at all until the passing of this amendment
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Law passed by Congress
Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese from becoming full U.S. citizens
First Act based on Race Election of 1912 4 Way Race
Bull Moose Party with Teddy Roosevelt
Republican with Taft (incumbent President)
American Socialist Party (RR union movement that wanted the nationalization of industries. In other words, 
certain industries to be treated as public utilities, making it cheaper and easier to use) with Eugene Debs
Democratic with Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson vs Theodore Roosevelt Comes down to these two in the end and their 2 ideals Election of 1912 (End Result) Wilson wins  The Farmer’s Alliance Founded in 1877
Founded Populism
Non-partisan organization geared towards co-operative buying/marketing.
Third Party Group
Started among the farmers in S & SW
Farmers that are sharecropping are coming more into debt due to the falling prices of cotton
Before the Civil War, cotton was the #1 cash crop o the U.S., and was sold internationally.
During the Civil War, the Union blockade prevented cotton from the South to reach many of these international 
companies, and so they had to find alternate sources of cotton, such as Egypt and India. 
After the Civil War, the price of cotton started to fall because now, the South was not the only producer of it, so 
demand was spread throughout.
So, since these alternate sources now exist, farmers that bet on the price of cotton end up losing money trying 
to sell their crops overseas.
The Farmer’s Alliance was created in order to grow and manage this business
Think Labor Unions for Farmers As the Farmer’s Alliance goes forward, they also form a political party for the people. Minor v. Happersett (1875) Virginia Minor of Missouri attempted to register to vote arguing that since she was a citizen, she had the right to 
The Supreme Court decided that voting was not an automatic privilege of citizenship, setting back the 
movement for women’s suffrage
Dawes Act 1887
Govt attempt at de-tribalization
Meant to break-up communally held lands into privately-owned farms.
Theory: Looked neutral to those signing off the act in Washington
Practice: Size of the parcels of land, determining the border lines, quality of land given, and associated costs 
were not clear and determined.
Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino leader who helped the U.S. contain Spanish troops, hoping that the U.S. would grant the Philippines 
independence after the war.
When Aguinaldo found that the U.S. had no interest in doing that, he separated his forces from the US forces, 
and proclaimed independence in 
1899  Start of the Philippine-American War  (1899-1902) Rebellion lasted until  1902 War claimed 4,000 American lives and cost the US $400 million
U.S. did not grant the Philippines independence until 
1946 Quanah Parker Quanah Parker in Texas Was originally an American citizen, but his mother was captured and he was eventually raised as a Comanche
Adopted their culture
Famous because he mounted the last resistance in the Southern Plains during the Red River Wars (1874-75)
A common tactic to hold out against chases of the US Govt was to leave extra horses in caves as a distraction, 
and recapture those horses later because the Indians knew the land better than the military sent to chase them.
The General that was sent to capture Quanah knew this tactic, and when Quanah left his horses, the General 
decides to massacre those 1500+ horses. Depleted of his resources, Quanah decides to surrender.
June 1875: Quanah surrenders 
He commands the last Comanche band to enter Oklahoma
  Quanah Parker in Indian Territory The surrender happens at Fort Sill
He keeps his status as a Comanche leader
He decides to selectively assimilate->his personal choice, not forced
Becomes a very successful rancher, and has another business: hunting buffalo
Business becomes so big due to him being “The Last Comanche” and famous people approach to hunt with 
him, including Teddy Roosevelt.
Monroe Doctrine Declaration by President James Monroe
Stated that the U.S. would not tolerate any European nation attempting to colonize any independent nation in 
North or South America. 
Interventions would be considered hostile acts
In return, U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the European 
Open Door Policy China’s “doors” for trade are open to merchants of all nations
Protects the trading rights of foreign powers
China free from colonization by other nations
Basically, no single country should have a monopoly on trade with China
Knights of Labor 1869
Founded by Terrence Powderly
Part of the Great Railroad Strike of 1885-86 (
Knights won this strike) Movement was eventually slowed because they wanted to go back to a craft/artisan system WCTU Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Founded by 
Frances Willard Working to outlaw alcohol/make Prohibition happen
Key reason it was started: Alcohol linked to domestic abuse
Frances says that separate spheres meant that the woman takes care of the human and family, however, the 
man must save his money for the family.
However, according to Willard, the man would normally spend it on alcohol, which according to Willard, was not 
separate spheres.

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School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: History of the United States, 1877 to date
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Study Guide, exam1, and history
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