KEY: RR=Railroad RED=IMPORTANT, BLUE=FUN FACT, AND BLACK TEXT=REGULAR Exam 1 Study Guide
Bargain/Compromise of 1877
Contested vote in the 1876 US presidential election between Rutherfordd B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden Vote decided by the electoral commission
Both Democrats and Republicans said that the other side was, at the time, suppressing some race or people (the South) due to their (D/R) actions
Compromise: Hayes can be president as long as Reconstruction can finish out.
Result: Democrat Governors don’t come to office for many years after that in the South.
Organization created by the Federal Government
Provided aid to the elderly, children, and others
Settled disputes between whites and blacks
Worked to secure equal treatment for all before the courts If you want to learn more check out What does law of diminishing returns entail?
Significance: First Time the Federal Government sets up an organization that is active and engaged in all of the states.
Formally outlaws slavery throughout the U.S. Don't forget about the age old question of Which factors influence sexual arousal and response?
Federal grants that freed slaves, gave them birth citizenship, and allowed them due process of the law 15th Amendment
Federal grants free men the right to vote & states that the right to vote cannot be denied based on race Civil Rights Act of 1875
Barred racial discrimination in places of public accommodation
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Created by Samuel Gompers
Focused on securing higher wages, better work conditions, and shorter hours
African-Americans were excluded
Women were excluded
Focused on Vertical Integration-Taking care of multiple parts of the supply chain. Ex: If you work to produce steel, using vertical integration meant that you would retail it as well. You are doing a combination of work, instead of hiring companies to complete parts of the supply chain. We also discuss several other topics like What characterizes terrestrial planets?
Owned and operated Carnegie Steel
Produced his own steel Don't forget about the age old question of What purpose does section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973 serve?
Held the mines for his resources
Transported it via ships and RR
Owned the ovens to cook and cool steel
Knew where and how to market and sell it
Souls of Black Folk
Published in 1903
W.E.B. Dubois explains the meaning of emancipation, the effects on the leaders of his race, and their identities. Mainly looking at the idea of double-consciousness: the sense of looking at oneself through the eyes of others.
The sensation of feeling as though your identity is split into several parts, having more than one social identity in the way you perceive yourself, and how others may perceive you. This makes it harder to develop a sense of yourself.
Battle of Little Bighorn
June 25 & 26, 1876
General Custer (Civil War Vet) is leading the US We also discuss several other topics like What is citizen journalism?
Significant: The US loses the war, and due to the way news travels, it reaches Washington on July 4th, 1876 John Peter Altgeld
Founded child labor laws in the US
8-hour shift made, but one is allowed to work more if paid overtime (Employer cannot force overtime) He commuted the sentences of two of the accused from the Haymarket Affair
After the RR strike, many changes were made to the industrialization system
Chicago tried to pass an 8-hour workday
A protest happened soon after, and 2 workers are shot in the aftermath.
During the next strike, an anarchist throws a bomb into the crowd
This becomes known as the Haymarket Affair
May 4, 1886
8 men were accused, but only 7 received sentences.
4 were hung
1 committed suicide by lighting dynamite in his mouth
And 2 had their sentences changed to life in prison
Mostly German immigrants were captured
Free, fair elections secured by a secret ballot
A more equitable burden of taxation by a larger income tax
Demand for an 8-hour workday
Call for initiative and referendum
Initiative-Citizens can propose their own laws Don't forget about the age old question of What is the importance of symbols in communication?
Referendum-Ability to vote on the proposed initiatives
Popular election of senators
Oppose any federal aid or subsidy to corporations
Govt. ownership of RRs & means of communication
Free coinage of Silver
They start winning elections
More populist senators than any other political party
Most Democrats disagreed with the Populist Party, and had their convention before the Populists William Jennings Bryan
The “Great Commoner” of Nebraska
Runs for President in 1896 as the “fusion” candidate under both Populists and Democrats At this time, many people are afraid of Populists because they don’t believe in the “Gold Standard” Plessy vs Ferguson (1896)
The Social Move Towards Jim Crow
Plessy established the “separate but equal” constitutional standard that would continue until 1954. Supreme Court decided that segregation is ok as long as the facilities were of the same standards. However, 1 justice did not agree but was outvoted.
Justice Harlan said, “Our constitution is colorblind”, but he still doesn’t accept the Chinese as full Americans. Ida B. Wells (Remember her case against lynchings ONLY)
African American journalist with her own power
1884-ejected from segregated RR car and sues the RR company
1889-Co-owner of newspaper in Memphis (The Free Speech)
1892-Three friends of Ida lynched by a mob. Ida begins her career as anti-lynching activist. Publishes Southern Horrors and A Red Record
This gets the mob to burn her paper down
She moves to Chicago after this, and it marks the beginning of a movement from the South to Chicago 1909-Founder of NAACP
What is “Progressivism”?
Middle-Class reform movement
Called for Govt regulation of industry & a planned approach to urban modernity
Embraced rationalism, objectivity, and science
Sought bureaucracies to monitor problems overtime in a predictable way.
Progressivism came from both Democrats and Republicans
Booker T. Washington
Leader of the “Atlanta Compromise” of 1895
Proposed African Americans recognize white political dominance of the South.
However, wanted Afro-Americans to have extended due process of law & a chance at education & vocational training
No lynchings/violence against Afro-Americans outside the law.
The independence movement in Cuba led to war with Spain in 1898
USS Maine blew up on the Cuban shore, getting the US involved, even though no one knew who did it Yellow Journalists, who used sensational headlines and pictures blamed the Spanish for the bombing. War lasts 4 months
“Rough Riders,” including Theodore Roosevelt, helped defeat Spain in both Cuba and Puerto Rico Spain defeated by US
US gains: Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
Created by Woodrow Wilson
An end to secret alliances
Safe and free seas whether in peacetime or war
Free trade relations between nations
Reduction of the arms race among nations
Re-evaluation of colonial claims
Freedom for Russian territories and global acceptance of its new government
Freedom for Belgian territories in Germany
Immediate evacuation for all French territories
Re-evaluation of the Italian border
Freedom for various people in Austria-Hungary
Restoration of all the Balkan nations
Protection of minorities in Turkey
Establishment of The League of Nations to oversee all of this
United States vs Wong Kim Ark
In Short: Supreme Court rules that the 14th Amendment now applies to Chinese born in America. Wong Kim Ark was born in San Francisco to Chinese immigrants
U.S. law was passed prohibiting Chinese nationals from becoming U.S. citizens.
Wong was detained at the port on the way back from visiting his family in China.
Originally, the US said that since his parents were not citizens, Wong was not, but at the Supreme Court, they ruled that anyone born in America was American.
Place where the Civil War ended
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
April 6 1865
Signaled the end of the war
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Tried to win suffrage state by state at first
Then went for a constitutional amendment
Germany sinks the British cruise ship Lusitania, killing 1,200 people; including 128 Americans. However, this wasn’t what forced the US into WWI
Zimmerman Note did push them to war: a secret message from Germany to Mexico telling Mexico to attack the US if the US declared war on Germany
US declared war on Germany in 1917
League of Nations
One of Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”
Creating an international organization that would solve disputes via communication in order to avoid war 1919
IF disputes failed here, then countries would no longer trade with the aggressive nations, and IF that also failed, then and only then would they start a war.
Election of 1912
American Socialist Party
RR union movement that wanted the nationalization of industries
In other words, certain industries ought to be treated as public utilities, making it cheaper and easier to use The Jungle
Brought attention to the meat industry and their shady practices
Book The Jungle
Led to the Pure Food & Drug Act as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Progressivism in Journalism/Literature
Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom
Urges the Govt to fight back against the “curse of bigness” in both Govt and Business, using effective regulation to establish a competitive economy
Formed the National Women’s Party in 1917
Influenced by Alice Paul
Wilson is President at the time, and WWI is about to begin
Party members picket in front of the White House in order to try to convince the government to give women the right to vote
Picketing after the start of the war was considered to be unpatriotic, and Lucy Burns was arrested among others that were picketing
Lucy Burns is quickly found out to be a leader, but to prove her point further, she protests in jail, and goes on a hunger strike
State and Federal Govt don’t want a martyr on their hands, and so they force feed her eggs through her nose However, news of this treatment gets out, and Congress decides to take the matter of suffrage into their own hands
Not formally in effect until 1920
Right to vote cannot be denied on the basis of sex
The Western states had given full voting rights to women before this amendment
The North allowed for women to vote for the President only
The South did not allow women to vote at all until the passing of this amendment
Chinese Exclusion Act
Law passed by Congress
Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese from becoming full U.S. citizens First Act based on Race
Election of 1912
4 Way Race
Bull Moose Party with Teddy Roosevelt
Republican with Taft (incumbent President)
American Socialist Party (RR union movement that wanted the nationalization of industries. In other words, certain industries to be treated as public utilities, making it cheaper and easier to use) with Eugene Debs Democratic with Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson vs Theodore Roosevelt
Comes down to these two in the end and their 2 ideals
Election of 1912 (End Result)
The Farmer’s Alliance
Founded in 1877
Non-partisan organization geared towards co-operative buying/marketing.
Third Party Group
Started among the farmers in S & SW
Farmers that are sharecropping are coming more into debt due to the falling prices of cotton Before the Civil War, cotton was the #1 cash crop o the U.S., and was sold internationally. During the Civil War, the Union blockade prevented cotton from the South to reach many of these international companies, and so they had to find alternate sources of cotton, such as Egypt and India.
After the Civil War, the price of cotton started to fall because now, the South was not the only producer of it, so demand was spread throughout.
So, since these alternate sources now exist, farmers that bet on the price of cotton end up losing money trying to sell their crops overseas.
The Farmer’s Alliance was created in order to grow and manage this business
Think Labor Unions for Farmers
As the Farmer’s Alliance goes forward, they also form a political party for the people.
Minor v. Happersett (1875)
Virginia Minor of Missouri attempted to register to vote arguing that since she was a citizen, she had the right to vote
The Supreme Court decided that voting was not an automatic privilege of citizenship, setting back the movement for women’s suffrage
Govt attempt at de-tribalization
Meant to break-up communally held lands into privately-owned farms.
Theory: Looked neutral to those signing off the act in Washington
Practice: Size of the parcels of land, determining the border lines, quality of land given, and associated costs were not clear and determined.
Filipino leader who helped the U.S. contain Spanish troops, hoping that the U.S. would grant the Philippines independence after the war.
When Aguinaldo found that the U.S. had no interest in doing that, he separated his forces from the US forces, and proclaimed independence in 1899
Start of the Philippine-American War (1899-1902)
Rebellion lasted until 1902
War claimed 4,000 American lives and cost the US $400 million
U.S. did not grant the Philippines independence until 1946
Quanah Parker in Texas
Was originally an American citizen, but his mother was captured and he was eventually raised as a Comanche Adopted their culture
Famous because he mounted the last resistance in the Southern Plains during the Red River Wars (1874-75) A common tactic to hold out against chases of the US Govt was to leave extra horses in caves as a distraction, and recapture those horses later because the Indians knew the land better than the military sent to chase them. The General that was sent to capture Quanah knew this tactic, and when Quanah left his horses, the General decides to massacre those 1500+ horses. Depleted of his resources, Quanah decides to surrender. June 1875: Quanah surrenders
He commands the last Comanche band to enter Oklahoma
Quanah Parker in Indian Territory
The surrender happens at Fort Sill
He keeps his status as a Comanche leader
He decides to selectively assimilate->his personal choice, not forced
Becomes a very successful rancher, and has another business: hunting buffalo
Business becomes so big due to him being “The Last Comanche” and famous people approach to hunt with him, including Teddy Roosevelt.
Declaration by President James Monroe
Stated that the U.S. would not tolerate any European nation attempting to colonize any independent nation in North or South America.
Interventions would be considered hostile acts
In return, U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the European territories
Open Door Policy
China’s “doors” for trade are open to merchants of all nations
Protects the trading rights of foreign powers
China free from colonization by other nations
Basically, no single country should have a monopoly on trade with China
Knights of Labor
Founded by Terrence Powderly
Part of the Great Railroad Strike of 1885-86 (Knights won this strike)
Movement was eventually slowed because they wanted to go back to a craft/artisan system WCTU
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Founded by Frances Willard
Working to outlaw alcohol/make Prohibition happen
Key reason it was started: Alcohol linked to domestic abuse
Frances says that separate spheres meant that the woman takes care of the human and family, however, the man must save his money for the family.
However, according to Willard, the man would normally spend it on alcohol, which according to Willard, was not separate spheres.