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FSU / Chemistry Engineering Tech / CHM 1045 / What are the three classes of matter?

What are the three classes of matter?

What are the three classes of matter?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Chemistry Engineering Tech
Course: General Chemistry I
Professor: Susan latturner
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: significant figures, naming, compound, and state of matter
Cost: 50
Name: Chm 1045 exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This notes cover everything for the first exam. From naming compound, forming formula, calculation, isotopes, significant figures, molarity, percent composition, empirical formula, and matter
Uploaded: 09/27/2017
4 Pages 31 Views 9 Unlocks
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Chm 1045 exam I study guide


What are the three classes of matter?



Significant figures 

­ Use to indicate accuracy

● All nonzero digits are significant

● Trailing zero are never significant (12000 only has 2 significant figure) ● Zero in between are always significant ( 12002)

● Leading zero are never significant ( 0.00234)

● Leading zero with decimal at the end are significant ( 1200. Has 4 sig figs)

Calculation 

   

Add and subtract:  the number with the least amount of decimal place tell  amount of sig figs Ex:  12.123 + 2.4= 14.523, but since the second number has one decimal place the answer is  14.5

Multiply and divide: the number with the least number of significant figures tell the sig figs  5x5= 15, since both numbers are one sig figs we round up and the answer is 20


What is matter?



Counted number:  conversion factors and number measure with no doubt of uncertainty have  infinite number of sig figs and should not use to decide the answer

Numbers of books is a counted number,  1l= 1000ml is a counted number.

Rounding: when the number after is 5 or more, round up. Ex: 123.5676= 123.6 for  4 sig figs                     Less than 5 no change  Ex: 123.4356 is 123.4 for 4 sig figs

Matter 

­ Anything that takes up space and has volume

Three class of matter:

Solid, liquid, and gases

Law of conversion of matter: matter never destroyed nor created during reaction. Physical property: Density, color, hardness, phase change, and electrical conductivity Chemical property: flammability, toxicity, acidity, reactivity (many types), and heat of  combustion. 


What are the classification of matter?



Don't forget about the age old question of Rationality - rational thinking in economics.
We also discuss several other topics like What is the null hypothesis?

Chemical change: is when something new is produce than the one started. Physical change:  change in the state or property of matter without a change in its chemical  composition.

Phase Change

Liquid to solid: freezing 

Solid to liquid: melting 

Liquid to gas: evaporation

Gas to liquid: condensation

Solid to gas: sublimation

Gas to solid: deposition

Classification Matter 

Pure substance: have constant composition throughout We also discuss several other topics like What is the most appropriate terminology (naming) to reference north america’s first peoples?
We also discuss several other topics like What is bandura experiment?

­ Element and compound ( two or more element)

Mixture: combination of two  or more pure substance

­ Homogeneous ( inseparable mixture)

­ Heterogeneous ( separable mixture)

Atoms and periodic table 

The atomic theory: 

­ Atoms are different from one another

­ All atoms of the same element are the same

­ Compound are made of two or more electrons

­ Elements are made with atoms

­ Laws of conservation of mass

Composition of atom: 

 Protons, neutron, and electrons.

Isotopes: same amount of protons, but different neutrons

Diatomic: Br2, Cl2, O2, N2, H2, I2, F2.

Naming compound: 

Ionic compound: between metal and nonmetal

 Cation: element + ion ( Na+ is Sodium ion)

Anion: change the end to ide ( F­ is Fluoride)

Transition metal: element ( charge in numeral number) + ion ( Cu+2 is Copper (II) ion)

Covalent compound:  between two nonmetal

­ Use prefix to indicate number of atom ( mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa) ­ Change the end of second nonmetal to ideDon't forget about the age old question of What are the two types of scientific reasoning?

       Ex: P2F5 is diphosphorus pentafluoride

Naming acid: 

Polyatomic  

­ Change to ate to ic.      Ex: SO4­­­ Sulfate­­­­Sulfuric

­Change to ite to ous      EX: SO3 ­­­­Sulfite­­­­­Sulfurous

­One element with Hydro ( Hydro(element name­­­­ic) acid

­Ex: HCl Hydrochloric acid

Determine empirical formula and molar mass 

● The molar mass is the sum average amount of mass of all the atoms in the compound: Ex: The molar mass of CO2 is 

         2 x the mass of Oxygen +  1 time the mass of Carbon

Percent composition:  is the percentage of all the element that form the compound 1. We calculate the molar mass of the compound

2. We find the  mass of each element

3. Divide the mass of element divided by the mass of the compound X 100                   % Composition=  mass of element

mass of thecompound X 100 

Empirical formula:  If you want to learn more check out Where was new france located?

­ The formal in the simplest form

1. Convert the mass of each element to mole

2. Divided each mole by the smallest number to find the ratio

Molarity: 

­ Is the mole of solute divided by the liter of solution

                   M= Mole/ Liters

Dilution: 

­ The process of lessen the concentration of the solute

            M1V1= M2V2

M is the mole

V is the volume

Mole conversion:

Conversion factor 

1 mol = 6.02E23

1 mol= 22.4 1

1 mol of element= element molar mass

Important to know: 

2.54 cm= 1 inch

454g= 1lb

1.06 qt= 1l 

Density= Mass/ volume

Kelvin= Celsius+273

oF= 9/5C+ 32

oC= (oF­32)X5/9

Dimensional analysis conversion. ­ Order of magnitude

­ Metric system conversion

­ Charge of element

­ Scientific method

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