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GWU - ANTH 1001 - Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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GWU - ANTH 1001 - Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Shannon McFarlin
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1-6. This includes important notes from the book as well as from the class, and don't forget to review the labs!
Uploaded: 09/27/2017
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background image [Biological Anthropology 1001]  Exam 1 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle            Highlight = Important Concept           Highlight = Key Term  [Chapter 1] ­ Anthropology and its Subfields ­ Anthropology is the study of humankind in a cross­cultural perspective ­ Humans share a recent ancestry with apes ­ Products of evolution by natural selection ­ Evolved through adaptation ­ The frequency of traits and the genes it controls change with genetics ­ Anthropologists study cultures in far­flung places, and they also study subcultures in our own society ­ Anthropology has four subfields: ­ Archeology, cultural, biological, and linguistics anthropology ­ ­ The Scope of Biological Anthropology ­ Biological anthropology is one of anthropology’s four subfields ­ Archeology, cultural anthropology, and  linguistics  anthropology ­ Biological Anthropology study the process of evolution and how it affects us today ­ Sociological anthropology: study of human societies in a cross­cultural perspective ­ Archeology: material remains ­ Linguistic anthropology: language ­ Biological anthropology: humans as biological organisms, considered within an evolutionary framework ­ The Roots of Modern Biological Anthropology ­ What is Science? ­ An approach to gaining information about natural phenomena through  observation and experimentation ­ Step 1: observation and description of natural phenomena  ­ Step 2: formulate hypothesis to explain with clearly states predictions  that are falsifiable  ­ Step 3: Test hypothesis against empirical evidence ­ Step 4: If hypothesis has not been falsified after repeated testing… it  becomes a theory (robustly supported set of generalizations that allow us to predict what 
happens under particular conditions and why)
­ What is evolution? ­ Evolution is change over time in adaptation in organisms – limited to  things that are alive based on their mechanisms of heredity (allows genes and traits to be
passed down through generations)
­ Availability (food) ­ Mating patterns ­ Habitat (humans have escaped the habitat they used to live in and are  able to live anywhere
background image ­ Detected by changes in morphology ­ Extinction (those who can’t make it in new environment) ­ What are the history of ideas that led to the development of the evolutionary theory? ­ Without anatomical knowledge, they did not recognized fossils or artifacts (until travel) ­ History of evolution: ­ Anaximander  observed through morphology that humans and other  animals descended from fish ­ Plato  coined the concept of the “eidos,” an abstract ‘form’ that is  imperfectly imitated in the real world ­ Aristotle  appreciated organic diversity, organized and classified  organisms into ‘scala naturae’ of Great Chain of Being ­with humans on top­ and argued 
for fixed species. He also argued a very early birth of the Earth
­ Li Shih­Chen  recognized that organisms influenced by the environment,  came up with a binominal system of naming organisms with a hierarchical classification 
scheme
­ Galileo  had a systematic empirical approach to looking at natural  phenomena ­ John Ray  defined species as a group of organisms that can reproduce  with each other (with fully fertile, non­reproductive isolated offspring). He recognized that 
species share similarities with each other—called it ‘genus’
­ Linnaeus  came up with the modern method of naming the world,  organized from least to most similar ­ Buffon  observed variations in organisms may be a result by  environmental influences ­ Cuvier  established a systematic empirical approach to looking at natural  phenomena, understood fossil fragments, believed the earth changed through a series of 
disasters which lead to the change of organisms (catastrophism). He did not understand 
‘how’ it changed them, or created new species
­ Lamarck  came up with the dominant heredity theory (all cells of the body  contributed to creating offspring). Traits would strengthen or weaken with use or disuse 
and result in correlating strong or weak features of the offspring – inheritance of acquired 
traits. *Uniformitarianism: theory that the same gradual geological process we observe 
today was operating in the past
­ Lyell  believed that the processes of the present lead to by changes of the past  [Chapter 2] ­ Pre­Darwin to Darwin ­ Theory of Inheritance discredited: theory of evolution of acquired characteristics ­ Changes occur during the lifetime of an individual, through use or disuse  can be passed down to offspring ­ Notion of organic change ­ Appreciation of diversity in the natural world, methods of classifying this ­ Concept of species ­ Darwin’s voyage/ Darwin’s influences ­ Voyaged on the Beagle (run by Fitzroy, an exploratory expedition) to the Galapagos Islands in place of 
Henslow 
­ Made geological and biological observations which honed his idea of natural selection
background image ­ Observed of within­and between­ species diversity of flora and fauna ­ Experience of earthquake while in Chile ­ Argentina­ found fossils of extinct species ­ Observed finches in the Galapagos Islands ­ Although the plants and animals were very similar to  those of the mainland, there were variations from island to island ­ Darwin’s finches differed in behaviors, morphology, and diet from island to island ­ Differences in beaks correlated with food ­ Darwin decided that they must have descended from the finches in the  mainland, and modified according to the new environment  ­ His reading of Tomas Malthus’s “An Essay on the Principle of Population” (overpopulation, survival of the 
fittest in human population, struggle for existence)
­ Darwin applied these concepts to animals  ­ Darwin also observed artificial selection (breeding by humans of animals) and applied the concept to nature’s process of natural selection ­ Darwin’s Process of Publication ­ Darwin concluded individuals of a species who have advantageous attributes would more likely survive in 
limiting conditions and would reproduce 
­ Darwin may never have published if he hadn’t received an essay from Russell Wallace that was identical 
to his theory of evolution and natural selection
­ They ended up publishing together ­ Darwin got all the credit due to this social standing, money, and  Wallace’s misfortune (his notes were burned along with a ship) ­ “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” ­ Biological evolution accounts of nature’s diversity ­ Change is gradual ­ Descent, with modification, from ancestors ­ Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution acting on inherent variability ­ The further back species are related, the more different they are ­ Fitness: reproductive success ­ Natural Selection success: ­ Traits in question must be inherited ­ Traits must show variation between individuals ­ The filter between organisms and genetic makeup is the environment,  which must exert some pressure in order for Natural Selection to act ­ Evolution is to population, Natural Selection is to Individual ­ Adaptation: Changes in response to environmental pressure [Chapter 3] ­ Genetic studies include: cellular and molecular, classical or Mendelian, population, phylogenetics, and 
behavioral genetics
­ Cellular and Molecular: the level of cells and genetic transmission (DNA) ­ Classical/Mendelian: looks at the pedigree (diagram that shows transmission of a genetic trait over 
generations) of related individuals and tracks how traits are passed down
­ Mendel experimented with garden peas because it was easy to track  their varying traits (disproved *blending theory [red+yellow=orange] by demonstrating 
*Particulate Inheritance)
­ Each heredity characteristic is controlled by particular unit factors, which  exist in pairs in organisms (one from each parent)

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School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Shannon McFarlin
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1-6. This includes important notes from the book as well as from the class, and don't forget to review the labs!
Uploaded: 09/27/2017
10 Pages 78 Views 62 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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