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OLEMISS / OTHER / PSY 201 / How can you derive from behaviorism?

How can you derive from behaviorism?

How can you derive from behaviorism?

Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: OTHER
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Tonya marie vandenbrink
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psych Study Guide
Description: These are extended notes based on the slides and the examples he gave in class.
Uploaded: 09/28/2017
8 Pages 10 Views 9 Unlocks
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Lecture 6


How can you derive from behaviorism?



9/14/17

Test 2 Material 

Chapter 6: Learning Classical Conditioning 

∙ Learning 

o Long­term changing behavior or thought that results from experience   By experience with events in your life interactions with stimulating with  object or event. Experience with the environment

o Classical and operant conditioning explain how learning occurs

 Conditioning is the synonym for learning 

o Derived from behaviorism

 Focus on stimulus and response

 Stimuli that comes before response 

∙ Classical conditioning 

o All about making association

o The process of learning by pairing different stimuli together


Who is ivan pavlov?



 Neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that produces a reflex

o “learning by association”

 Stimuli serve as signals

∙ Ivan Pavlov

o Russian physiologist who studied digestion 

o Dogs began to salivate before they had been given any food 

o Pavlov assumed this salivation was caused by “wishes” or “thoughts” of the dog ∙ Basic terms of classical condition 

o Unconditional stimulus (US) – any stimulus that naturally elicits an automatic  response 

o Unconditioned response (UR) – the natural (innate) response to the US  (unconditioned stimulus)

o When learning starts:

 Conditioned stimulus (CS) – previously neutral stimulus that comes to  elicit the conditioned response 


What are the basic terms of the classical condition?



∙ Because it is paired with the US

 Conditioned response (CR) – the newly formed response to the 

conditioned stimulus as a result of being paired with the US

∙ Classical conditioning diagram We also discuss several other topics like when using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should _____.

o US (food)  UR (salivate)

o CS (bell)   UR (salivate)

o CS alone (bell)  CR (salivate to bell)

 Higher order conditioning: add another CS before the previous one 

∙ New CS (light) plus then old Cs

o Bell  CR

o Higher order conditioning 

 Higher­order conditioning is important because it means we can learn  associations between many, many things

 Words are a good example 

∙ Words occasion emotional and physical reactions 

∙ Why do you salivate when you hear the word “steak”?

o Because in the beginning it was paired with the sight of the 

steak (CS); the actual steak in your mouth is (US) Don't forget about the age old question of mgmt 310 purdue

o Classical conditioning specifics

 Extinction

∙ Present CS without US many times then CR is extinguished 

 Spontaneous recovery

∙ Present CS sometime after extinction has occurred will result in 

CR

 Generalization 

∙ CR occurs to stimuli that are similar to CS

 Discrimination 

∙ CR does not occur to stimuli that are similar to CS We also discuss several other topics like What is the mesoamerica period?

o Taste aversion  Don't forget about the age old question of osu lag

 Learning after only single experience 

 Often delay of several hours

 Very resistant to extinction 

 Pairs CS (some type of food) with nausea­inducing substance results in  vomiting 

 Avoid similar foods and become sick around the CS

∙ Taste aversion only takes only one time to not want that particular 

food anymore 

o Fear 

 John B. Watson studied how emotional responses are learned  If you want to learn more check out acc 131 exam 2

∙ Conditioned emotional responses 

∙ Through conditioning, an emotional response can become 

associated with neutral stimulus

 Little Albert and his fear of white rats

∙ Presented a white rat immediately before sounding a scary noise

Lecture 6

9/19/17

Test 2 Material 

∙ Phobias

o Unlearned 

 Pain (US)  fear (UR)

o Conditioning 

 Needles (CS) then pain (prick) (US)  fear (UR)

 So eventually we show fear just to see a needle or related stimulus

∙ Needle alone (CS)  fear (CR) Don't forget about the age old question of chem 1310 u of m

∙ Advertising 

o Advertising: the business of creating conditioned emotional responses to products  Advertisers pair their products with stimuli that elicit positive emotions o You are most likely to buy a product that is associated with something or  someone that you like

∙ Operant conditioning

o Learning from consequences 

 Aka the stimuli that comes after behavior 

o Keep in mind: 

 Mind voluntary behavior is done to:

∙ 1. Get something

∙ 2. Avoid something

∙ B.F. Skinner 

o Built an experimental chamber that delivered food pellets when a lever was  pressed

 Studied pigeons and rodents

o Operant learning: any procedure by which a behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences

 The behavior “operates” on the environment to produce the consequences 

Something Given

Something Taken Away

Behavior ↑

(+) reinforcement 

(­) reinforcement

Behavior ↓

Punishment

Punishment 

∙ Reinforcement strengthens the behavior that came before it

∙ Punishment weakens the behavior that came before it

∙ Positive – we are administering some stimulus  

∙ Negative – we are removing some stimulus  

DOES NOT MEAN IT IS BAD!!!!!!!!!!!!!

∙ Types of reinforcers

o Primary reinforcer  

 Innately reinforcing (requires no experience)

 Not dependent on association with other reinforcers

 Food, sex, drug effects, water

o Secondary reinforcers

 Dependent on association with other reinforcers

∙ This is also called “conditioned reinforcers”

∙ Acquire their power by being paired with other reinforcers

 Money, praise, grades, positive feedbacks, tokens

∙ Extinction  

o Extinction – occurs in operant conditioning too:

 Extinctions: withholding reinforcement for a particular behavior ∙ Behavior decreases because it is no longer reinforced

 Extinction burst: abrupt increase in behavior when extinction  trials first begin

∙ Why babies cry louder when their parents leave them?  

∙ Why ex boyfriends/girlfriends act “crazy” when they are  

broken up with (no longer reinforced by the partner)

∙ Schedule of Reinforcement  

o 1. Fixed ratio (assembly line)

o 2. Variable ratio (casino, car salesmen)

o 3. Variable interval (stargazing, Walmart checkout, hunting)

o 4. Fixed interval (baking, studying)

o ratio schedules reinforce based on number of responses, interval  schedules based on periods of time

Lecture 8

9/26/17

Test 2 Material

Memory 

• You probably think of memory as physical things that are stored  in our brain  

• Like boxes in a warehouse  

• More of a metaphor than how memory actually works  • Memories are not simply “stored away”  

• Kinds of Memory: Retention Interval  

• Some memory types are distinguished by the retention  interval - period between learning and recall  

• Sensory memory  

o Perceptual info that fades within a few seconds  

• Short term memory  

o Lasts less than a minute or so  

o Limited capacity; 7 ± 2 pieces of information  

o Chunking - phone numbers, social security  

numbers, phone numbers  

• Long term memory  

o Lasts longer than a minute (sometimes forever) 

o

• Cow burrito refrigerator vomit tongue computer happy  jacket bean orange - why did we remember certain  

words?  

• Kinds of Memory: Type of Information  

• Declarative memory (Explicit)  

• Semantic memory: knowledge of the world  

• Episodic (autobiographical) memory: memory for  

personally experienced events  

o Events that you’ve personally experienced  

o Flashbowl memories: things that you can  

remember vividly like where you were when 9/11  

occurred  

• Non-declarative memory (implicit)  

• Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning

• Procedural memory: memory for procedures/skills  o Physically do things like change a tire  

• A Case Study of Amnesia: Henry Mullison (HM) 

• Amnesia is an extreme, global inability to remember  particular periods of time 

• HM had really bad epilepsy  

• Doctors removed his hippocampus removed to stop  seizures  

• Could make no new LTM  

• Retrograde amnesia: cannot remember events prior to brain  damage 

• Anterograde amnesia: cannot later remember events that  occur after brain damage 

• USUALLY amnesia is temporary  

• Variables Affecting Forgetting  

• Forgetting allows us to not be overloaded with information • Length of retention interval: forgetting increases with passage of time  

• Degree of learning: the better we learn something, the less  forgetting  

• Order of Learning  

• Primacy Effect - things learned early on 

• Recency Effect - things learned more recently  

• Other Learning  

• Proactive interference: when previous learning  

interferes with new learning  

• Retroactive interference: when new learning  

interferes with previous learning  

• This is one reason why sleep helps us learn  

o Cerebrospinal fluid flushes out toxins and debris  o When we are asleep, there is no interference  

• Context: in which the original learning occurs

• Forgetting is less (performance is better) if the  testing situation is similar to the original learning  

situation (remember stimulus control?) 

o Context dependent learning  

o State dependent learning  

• False Memories  

• Memory is a reconstructive process  

• Not a perfect replica of what happened  

• Can be implemented fairly easily  

• By misleading questions  

• If false memory is similar to other memories  

• By using hypnosis  

• In people who are suggestible or have vivid mental  images 

• Implications: testifying, child abuse, lineups  

• Eyewitness Testimony  

• Major cause of wrongful convictions  

• Eyewitness testimony is less accurates:  

• When much times passes between the crime and the  recall  

• When they interview a crime under stress  

• When they talk to other witnesses  

• When simultaneous lineups are used 

• ELIZABETH LOFTUS RED TALK ON EYEWITNESS  TESTIMONY

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