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FAU / OTHER / PSY 3213 / What are the three basic procedures used in scientific inquiry?

What are the three basic procedures used in scientific inquiry?

What are the three basic procedures used in scientific inquiry?

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: OTHER
Course: Research Methods in Psychology
Professor: David wolgin
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Research Methodologies and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: EXAM 1- Study Guide (Research Methods)
Description: Answers to review questions for Dr. Wolgin's Research Methods Exam 1, using PowerPoint slides along with class notes of his examples and explanations.
Uploaded: 09/28/2017
6 Pages 34 Views 12 Unlocks
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Research Methods


What are the three basic procedures used in scientific inquiry?



EXAM 1 – Study Guide

1. Explain five ways by which information about the world may be  obtained. Which one

does the scientific method rely on?

1) METHODS OF TENACITY: long held beliefs (resistance to challenge them) -Eg: belief that Earth was flat

- Does not mean some are not correct (but no way of knowing)

2) METHOD OF AUTHORITY: rely on experts

-Eg: belief that Earth was at center of universe (by Church), Galileo  challenged it (was ostracized)

3) REASON: logic and rationality

- May make sense but may not be true (flawed sense of logic)

4) PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

-Eg: conclude heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones based on your  observations


What are the major functions of a theory?



5) EMPIRICISM: based on our senses (I believe what I can SENSE) -Beware of confirmation bias If you want to learn more check out montserrat geier

2. What are the basic characteristics of the scientific method that  distinguish it from other

ways of knowing?

The scientific method is:

-EMPIRICAL: based on information obtained through our senses/devices and  systematic observation

. What we are studying must be empirically available (eg: can’t study ghosts) . Self- correcting: importance of replication, since I may be mistaken in my  observations

-ANALYTIC: breakdown complex phenomena into its constituent parts .Eg: in chemistry, breaking down complex molecules to see elements in it . Some complex concepts (eg: motivation) require THEORETICAL analysis  since they can’t be broken down


What is the concept of strong inference in comparing different theories?



If you want to learn more check out promenades of euclid

. SYNTHESIS = proof that analysis is correct by putting elements back  together in complex unity

(hard to do in theoretical situations)

3. Explain three basic procedures used in scientific inquiry. Which one(s)  permit(s) causal inferences to be made?

1) DESCRIPTION: based on observation (describe what I’m interested in learning and the facts involved in the behavior I’m observing)

2) PREDICTION: based on established relationships and involves correlation - Use data from sets of observations (can we know something by knowing  something else?)

3) EXPLANATION: establishes conditions under which phenomenon occurs - Based on experimentation manipulate variables thought to underlie  phenomena

. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE= manipulated

. DEPENDENT VARIABLE= measured (effect)

- Permits to infer CAUSALITY, which requires:

 . Covariation = as x changes, y changes

 . Temporal order: change in x precedes the change in y

 . Other factors have to be ruled out (controlled) If you want to learn more check out chespon

4. Explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. . INDUCTIVE= explain phenomena (data) by formulating a theoryDATATHEORY . DEDUCTIVE= collect data to see whether it’s consistent with theory THEORYDATA

5. What are the major functions of a theory?

.Organize data (eg: the periodic table)

.Generate predictions

6. Why can’t a theory be considered “proven” when it is supported by  experimental data?

Confirmation does not prove a theory is correct, since only disconfirmation (falsifiablity) is useful. This disproves your theory and can be objectively ruled out.

7. Explain three criteria for evaluating theories.

1) PARSIMONY: can explain many occurrences with few statements (proved  simplest possible explanation for a phenomena) If you want to learn more check out clutch fiu

2) PRECISION: the more precise, the better (best if quantitative) 3) TESTABILITY: if you can’t test it, it can’t be falsified (eg: Freud’s ego and  superego)

8. Explain the concept of “strong inference” in comparing different  theories.

The concept of strong inference involves comparing different theories by putting  one against the other. The theory that did not predict the resulting outcomes is  rejected, but that does not mean that the one that did is correct, only that data is  consistent with it.

- Problem: blind men/elephant analogy (restrictive data leads to partially  accurate guesses)

- Science proceeds by this process: DATA  THEORY  NEW DATA  NEW  THEORY  ETC.

9. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? A theory is a set of statements that explain a variety of occurrences, which  organizes data and generates predictions. Those predictions are the hypotheses,  which are suggested explanations of observable phenomena and the possible  correlations among multiple phenomena.  

10. What are the major threats to validity in (a) naturalistic observations  (b) case studies

and (c) surveys? How can they be minimized?

(a) NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONS

 .Threats

- Reactivity (reaction of subjects)

- Observer Bias

 . Minimized by:

- Using unobtrusive observations/measures

- Habituating subjects to presence of observer

- Using deception as to what is really being measure We also discuss several other topics like determining formal charge

- Observer bias: using well-developed coding system and operational  definitions, using rigorous  

observer training, assessing inter-rater reliability, keeping observers “blind”  to experimenter’s hypothesis

(b) CASE STUDIES

 . Threats:

- Forgetting (patient may forget details critical to investigation) We also discuss several other topics like texas russian class

- Repression (some facts may be too painful and repressedincomplete  information)

- Observer Bias

 . Minimized by:  

- Getting corroborative evidence

(c) SURVEYS

 . Threats:

- Response style: habitual ways of responding

1) Response acquiescence (yea saying)

2) Response deviation (nay saying)

- Social Desirability: people answer questions in a way that’s socially  acceptable

- Sampling issues: inadequate/non representative sample, volunteer  problems (limit generality),  

don’t know anything about non-responders

 . Minimized by:

- Social Desirability: use forced choice between equally desirable/undesirable  alternatives

(eg: instead of asking, do you use illegal drugs?, ask, which of these drugs do  you prefer?)

11. What is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r)? What  would a

scatter plot look like for r = +1? r = -1? r = 0? What kind of relationship do each of these

values denote?

. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) = measures the direction and  strength of linear

 relation between 2 variables

. Scatter plots:  

r=+1 r=0

r=- 1

- r=+1  perfect positive linear relationship (as one increases, the other too) - r=-1  perfect negative linear relationship (as on increases, the other  decreases)

- r=0  no linear relationship

12. Why doesn’t a strong correlation imply causation? Why doesn’t a ‘0’  correlation

necessarily imply a lack of relationship between two measures? Correlation does not imply causation given that they may be a third variable that is  actually causing the effects. But a ‘0’ correlation does not imply no relationship  either since: may have truncated (limited) data range, or relationship may not be  linear (eg: relationship between age and memory  bell curve)

13. Explain the multiple meanings of “control” as it applies to  experiments.

1) A control condition (for comparison)

2) The treatment is produced/manipulated by experimenter

3) All other aspects of the experimental setting are held constant

14. Define independent variable, dependent variable and control variable. - INDEPENDENT= variable that is manipulated

- DEPENDENT= variable that is measured

- CONTROL= variables held constant by experimenter (potential independent  variables, as they could

 affect the dependent variables)

15. How do retrospective studies differ from true experiments? They may not be comparable due to lack of random assignment to groups and,  thus, may present confounding.  

16. Critique the following statement: When there are no significant  differences between

the experimental and control groups, we can safely conclude that the  independent

variable does not have an effect.

This is not true since null effects are difficult to interpret.  

. Possible interpretations other than the independent variable having no effect: - Independent variable was not adequately manipulated (eg: dosage too low  to see results)

- Problem with the dependent variable (eg: “floor”/“ceiling” effects  a  balance that only goes  

 up to 300 lbs. may be unable to reflect weight loss)

- Insufficient control of extraneous (control) variables

17. What is an interaction?

When effects produced by one independent variable are NOT the same across levels of a second independent variable.

- Proves effect you saw is only possible under those certain circumstances - Reflect complexity of real world (influence of context)

- Eg: to what extent are bystanders willing to help someone w/medical  emergency

. Effect of one independent variable (birthmark) depends on level of  other

 independent variable (presence of medical professional)

18. Who is responsible for overseeing that research at universities  involving human

subjects is conducted ethically? What are the major criteria for defining a  research

project as “ethical”?

The IRB (Institutional Review Board) must oversee that research at universities  involving human subjects is conducted ethically. The major criteria are: - Informed consent  

- Ethical deception (if absolutely necessary, and must debrief at conclusion of experiment)

- Risk/Benefit ratio (minimize harm and maximize benefits)

- Confidentiality

19. What is the rationale for the claim that animals have rights and should not be used as

subjects in research projects? What is the counter-argument put forth by  Cohen (1986)

regarding animal rights?

. The rational is that animals are equal to humans and, thus, have rights. Species ism is like racism.

. Counterargument: Cohen questions the idea that animals have rights by saying  that rights imply having a moral sense, which animals lack.

20. Explain two advantages of using animals as research subjects. 1) ETHICS: some procedures are unethical to do on humans (eg: brain tissue  destruction)

2) EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL (over extraneous variables)

21. Who is responsible for overseeing that research at universities using  animal subjects

is conducted ethically? Who sets the standards governing the proper use  and care of

animal subjects?

The IACUC (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) is responsible. The  standards are set by:

- APA Guidelines: focused more on behavioral research

- NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: provides funding  (guidelines apply

 only for those funded)

- U.S Department of Agriculture Regulations: oversees animals in general, not just for research

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