Ethics Exam number 1 Study guide
Nietzsche on convictions
Nietzsche said that sometimes convictions are enemies of the truth. When someone firmly holds something as their belief (ex: democrat or republican values) they can refuse to believe or even entertain the truth because they are so firmly held in that belief Socrates’ delight at being refuted
No one likes to be refuted. Socrates delight in being refuted doesn’t come from a deluded liking to be wrong. To refute means to prove wrong, when one is refuted, they are proven wrong; hopefully closer in search for the truth. So when Socrates says he delights in being refuted he means that he delights in opportunities to come closer to the truth Royce – brings no gold with him unless… Don't forget about the age old question of psy 1012
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His work stands against the fieriest of trials. This means that his works, philosophies, ideas, cannot be properly accredited and given valor and appreciation unless they are devoid of errors in logic, and able to stand against fierce dissertations
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Socrates on the importance of the subject of ethics Don't forget about the age old question of fiu neuropsychology
Socrates said: we are discussing no small matter, but how we ought to live. Meaning that the study of ethics is important because it is what governs our conception of right and wrong
An assertion is a premise with no supporting evidence
An argument is comprised of an assertion with evidence supporting its narrative Premise
A premise is what a theory or argument is based on
The finality of a dissertation, hopefully supporting the narrative and premise of the argument
A counter example is something that disproves or goes against the evidence and prevailing logic, the exception to the rule We also discuss several other topics like the jacquerie refers to
Principle of Sympathy and Antipathy
A person approves or disapproves of certain actions because one “finds himself disposed to approve or disapprove of them:
Holding up that approbation or disapprobation as a sufficient reason for itself, and disclaiming necessity of looking out for any extrinsic ground” Jeremy Bentham. This means that one’s feelings stand as their reason for believing something, and that feeling or belief standing as the lone evidence
Rachels’ minimum conception of morality
to guide one’s conduct by reasoning, what are the best reasons for x, “Moral judgements must be backed by good reason”
What was the nature of the case Euthyphro was making
That since his father committed a crime, he should be punished
When the men rule and/or govern a society
Euthyphro is so sure he is right. His opponents are so sure he is wrong. Here we have a moral conflict. How shall we properly resolve moral conflict?
To resolve moral conflicts, we must have a standard or right and wrong to judge them by. Without morals, whoever has the “bigger stick” would win an argument or confrontation. Socrates’ dialectic – what? Aim?
It was his method of obtaining knowledge and wisdom, his process of question and answer to arrive at the truth. Its goal was vigorous back and forth to arrive at the final truth of the matter. If you want to learn more check out intro to psychology exam 1
Importance of the definition of piety
Because one can understand the difference between things that are pious and impious and therefore a standard to judge them by, a basis of morality.
What sorts of issues do/do not give rise to enmity? Why?
The just/unjust, good/evil, honor/dishonor give rise to enmity. Things that attract people’s choice on certain things, because it breeds opportunity for debate and refutation: Religion, Politics, Abortion. Things that don’t give rise to enmity tend to be irrefutable, things that people can’t change or dispute: Facts, Physics, Life & Death, Circumstance.
What evidence does Euthyphro produce to show all the gods support his decision? Euthyphro brings no proof to support his claim, only that things can be pious or impious to all the gods, meaning that everything is both right and wrong.
Euthyphro problem- what? What issues?
Are things right because someone decrees it, or is someone decreeing it because it’s right. If someone didn’t decree it, then anything would be permissible. Also the decree is arbitrary because it just as easily could’ve been another decree
Monotheistic version of Euthyphro problem?
Is conduct right because God commands it or does God command it because it’s right?
Divine Command Theory
A theory stating that morals derive from God’s commands.
Issues for DCT
If morality depended on God, and God didn’t exist, then all things would be permitted. God just as easily could have said the contrary on anything. They're arbitrary because things are good or bad just because they are commanded by God, without a given reason. God apprehends the right and commands us to do it, God apprehends the wrong and commands us to not do it.
Cultural relativism (diversity thesis)
Nobody agrees on what is generally or even basically right.
Cultural Differences Argument
Different cultures have different moral codes.
All moral principles derive validity from their individual acceptance.
Morality is simply a function of the moral beliefs/practices of societies. There is no absolute or objective right or wrong
Critiques of ethical relativism
Some rules are necessary for cultures to succeed. With no laws, there is no order; with no order, there is chaos. Anything would be justifiably acceptable.
Hume: Vice is no matter of fact in the world
Apprehension of evil is based on thoughts and feelings, morality is matter of feeling not fact.
There are no moral facts, no moral truths, no moral knowledge, People may believe there are truths about such matters, nothing is truly ever right or wrong, Nothing truly is good or bad. The foundational belief of moral nihilism
Dostoyevsky If there is no God…
Anything would be permissible
The basic subjectivist perspective
Subjectivism implies that one is always right
Nietzsche – no moral phenomena…
There are no moral phenomena, only a moral interpretation of phenomena Hamlet quote
There is nothing either good or bad, but that thinking makes it so
Moral Judgements are not statements of fact, Moral Judgements are expressions of emotion-and nothing more (a reflection of one’s feeling on something), Rather than stating facts, moral language is to be seen as expressive of emotions, Or moral language consists not of facts but-commands.
Rachels on the role of reason in ethics
Moral truths are truths of reason; that is, a moral judgement is true if it is backed by better reasons than. the alternatives, In ethics, rational thinking consists in giving reasons, analyzing arguments, setting out and justifying principles
Ethics – help us solve moral problems and live together successfully
Without societal standards all we are left with is individual perspectives
How does subjectivism achieve the above? Why?
It doesn’t because there are not moral standards to appeal to, everything differs. How does emotivism achieve the above? Why?
It doesn’t, we are only left with individual perspectives with no societal standard. How does nihilism achieve the above? Why?
It doesn’t aim to, those are presuppositions to the nihilist position.