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OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE / OTHER / PHI 1610 / minimum conception of morality

minimum conception of morality

minimum conception of morality


School: Oakland Community College
Department: OTHER
Course: Ethics
Professor: Lawrence stark
Term: Fall 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 study guide
Description: This study guide covers subjectivism, ethical relativism, and Euthyphro.
Uploaded: 09/28/2017
6 Pages 5 Views 5 Unlocks

Ethan Jackson

Socrates’ delight at being what?

Ethics Exam number 1 Study guide

Nietzsche on convictions

Nietzsche said that sometimes convictions are enemies of the truth. When someone  firmly holds something as their belief (ex: democrat or republican values) they can refuse  to believe or even entertain the truth because they are so firmly held in that belief Socrates’ delight at being refuted

No one likes to be refuted. Socrates delight in being refuted doesn’t come from a deluded  liking to be wrong. To refute means to prove wrong, when one is refuted, they are proven  wrong; hopefully closer in search for the truth. So when Socrates says he delights in  being refuted he means that he delights in opportunities to come closer to the truth Royce – brings no gold with him unless… Don't forget about the age old question of psy 1012
Don't forget about the age old question of definite and steady vibrations create a

His work stands against the fieriest of trials. This means that his works, philosophies,  ideas, cannot be properly accredited and given valor and appreciation unless they are  devoid of errors in logic, and able to stand against fierce dissertations

What did Socrates say about Philosophy?

We also discuss several other topics like psychology 101 midterm

Socrates on the importance of the subject of ethics Don't forget about the age old question of fiu neuropsychology

Socrates said: we are discussing no small matter, but how we ought to live. Meaning that  the study of ethics is important because it is what governs our conception of right and  wrong


An assertion is a premise with no supporting evidence


An argument is comprised of an assertion with evidence supporting its narrative Premise

Ethan Jackson

A premise is what a theory or argument is based on


The finality of a dissertation, hopefully supporting the narrative and premise of the  argument


A counter example is something that disproves or goes against the evidence and  prevailing logic, the exception to the rule We also discuss several other topics like the jacquerie refers to

Principle of Sympathy and Antipathy

A person approves or disapproves of certain actions because one “finds himself disposed  to approve or disapprove of them:

What was the nature of the case Euthyphro was making?

Holding up that approbation or disapprobation as a sufficient reason for itself, and  disclaiming necessity of looking out for any extrinsic ground” Jeremy Bentham. This  means that one’s feelings stand as their reason for believing something, and that feeling  or belief standing as the lone evidence

Rachels’ minimum conception of morality

to guide one’s conduct by reasoning, what are the best reasons for x, “Moral judgements  must be backed by good reason”

What was the nature of the case Euthyphro was making

That since his father committed a crime, he should be punished


When the men rule and/or govern a society

Euthyphro is so sure he is right. His opponents are so sure he is wrong. Here we have a moral  conflict. How shall we properly resolve moral conflict?

Ethan Jackson

To resolve moral conflicts, we must have a standard or right and wrong to judge them by.  Without morals, whoever has the “bigger stick” would win an argument or confrontation. Socrates’ dialectic – what? Aim?

It was his method of obtaining knowledge and wisdom, his process of question and  answer to arrive at the truth. Its goal was vigorous back and forth to arrive at the final  truth of the matter. If you want to learn more check out intro to psychology exam 1

Importance of the definition of piety

Because one can understand the difference between things that are pious and impious and  therefore a standard to judge them by, a basis of morality.

What sorts of issues do/do not give rise to enmity? Why?

The just/unjust, good/evil, honor/dishonor give rise to enmity. Things that attract people’s  choice on certain things, because it breeds opportunity for debate and refutation:  Religion, Politics, Abortion. Things that don’t give rise to enmity tend to be irrefutable,  things that people can’t change or dispute: Facts, Physics, Life & Death, Circumstance.

What evidence does Euthyphro produce to show all the gods support his decision? Euthyphro brings no proof to support his claim, only that things can be pious or impious  to all the gods, meaning that everything is both right and wrong.

Euthyphro problem- what? What issues?

Are things right because someone decrees it, or is someone decreeing it because it’s right.  If someone didn’t decree it, then anything would be permissible. Also the decree is  arbitrary because it just as easily could’ve been another decree

Monotheistic version of Euthyphro problem?

Is conduct right because God commands it or does God command it because it’s right?

Ethan Jackson

Divine Command Theory

A theory stating that morals derive from God’s commands.

Issues for DCT

If morality depended on God, and God didn’t exist, then all things would be permitted.  God just as easily could have said the contrary on anything. They're arbitrary because  things are good or bad just because they are commanded by God, without a given reason.  God apprehends the right and commands us to do it, God apprehends the wrong and  commands us to not do it.

Cultural relativism (diversity thesis)

Nobody agrees on what is generally or even basically right.

Cultural Differences Argument

Different cultures have different moral codes.

Dependency thesis

All moral principles derive validity from their individual acceptance.

Ethical relativism

Morality is simply a function of the moral beliefs/practices of societies. There is no  absolute or objective right or wrong

Critiques of ethical relativism

Some rules are necessary for cultures to succeed. With no laws, there is no order; with no  order, there is chaos. Anything would be justifiably acceptable.

Hume: Vice is no matter of fact in the world

Ethan Jackson

Apprehension of evil is based on thoughts and feelings, morality is matter of feeling not  fact.

Moral nihilism

There are no moral facts, no moral truths, no moral knowledge, People may believe there  are truths about such matters, nothing is truly ever right or wrong, Nothing truly is good or bad. The foundational belief of moral nihilism

Dostoyevsky If there is no God…

Anything would be permissible

The basic subjectivist perspective

Subjectivism implies that one is always right

Nietzsche – no moral phenomena…

There are no moral phenomena, only a moral interpretation of phenomena Hamlet quote

There is nothing either good or bad, but that thinking makes it so


Moral Judgements are not statements of fact, Moral Judgements are expressions of  emotion-and nothing more (a reflection of one’s feeling on something), Rather than  stating facts, moral language is to be seen as expressive of emotions, Or moral language  consists not of facts but-commands.

Rachels on the role of reason in ethics

Moral truths are truths of reason; that is, a moral judgement is true if it is backed by  better reasons than. the alternatives, In ethics, rational thinking consists in giving reasons,  analyzing arguments, setting out and justifying principles

Ethan Jackson

Ethics – help us solve moral problems and live together successfully

Without societal standards all we are left with is individual perspectives

How does subjectivism achieve the above? Why?

It doesn’t because there are not moral standards to appeal to, everything differs. How does emotivism achieve the above? Why?

It doesn’t, we are only left with individual perspectives with no societal standard. How does nihilism achieve the above? Why?

It doesn’t aim to, those are presuppositions to the nihilist position.

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