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SFSU - BIOL 212 - Study Guide - Midterm

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SFSU - BIOL 212 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: San Francisco State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Physiology
Professor: Professor Dowdy
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: Study Guide #1
Description: Chapter 1-3 and Key points & concepts
Uploaded: 09/28/2017
This preview shows pages 1 - 8 of a 68 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Chapter 1  Physiology is the study of the 
c. functions of living things 
Which example illustrates the organ level of organization in the body? 
e. the stomach 
Nervous tissue can be found in the 
d. spinal cord   
What is an example of an exocrine gland? 
c. a sweat gland 
  Which organ system contains the joints? 
b. skeletal 
What term refers to the fluid portion of blood? 
c. plasma 
When cells become too cold (i.e., the body temperature drops too low), how is their functioning 
affected? 
e. cell function slows down 
The urinary system removes excess 
c. water 
What is an example of a positive feedback system? 
-childbirth 
When temperature-monitoring nerve cells in the body detect a decrease in body temperature 
below the desired level, what behavioral response most likely occurs to correct the situation? 
-shivering 
Regulation of blood pressure depends on coordinated responses among the ________ . 
c. circulatory, nervous, urinary, and endocrine systems 
  Blood is a type of _____. 
-connective tissue 
background image The human body's response to exercise involves ________ . 
c. both short-term and long-term compensatory responses 
Which body system is not essential for homeostasis?  - reproductive  What is an example of a pathophysiological state? 
-diabetes mellitus  
What are the most basic building blocks of matter? 
-atoms 
What are the four most common chemical elements in the human body? 
-oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen 
Approximately how many red blood cells are replaced per minute in the human body on 
average? 
-150,000,000 
Which structure encloses the cells of the human body? 
-plasma membrane 
The human body is made up of approximately how many specialized cell types? 
-200 
What occurs when a cell differentiates? 
-It becomes specialized to perform a particular function. 
Which progression represents the correct hierarchy of organization, from simpler to more 
complex? 
- atom, cell, tissue, organ, system, organism  What type of tissue consists of cells specialized for exchanging materials with the environment? 
 -epithelial 
What type of tissue consists of cells specialized for transmitting messages? 
-nervous 
Of the different muscle types, which one can be voluntarily controlled? 
-skeletal  
background image What are the four primary tissue types? 
-muscle, nervous, epithelial, and connective 
The two main categories of glands are called ____. 
-endocrine and exocrine 
  What kind of glands secrete through ducts to the outside of the body (or cavity open to the 
outside)? 
-exocrine 
What compound/molecule produced by connective tissue is a rubber band-like protein fiber? 
-elastin 
What is the best definition of a body system? 
e. An integrated collection of related organs   
How many body systems does the human body contain? 
-11 
What type of fluid resides within cells?  - intracellular  Broadly speaking, how many internal factors in the body must be homeostatically maintained? 
-7 
What does “pH” measure? 
d. The relative amount of acidity based on hydrogen ions   
Electrolytes are best defined as _____. 
d. chemicals that form ions in solution and conduct electricity 
How many body systems contribute to homeostasis? 
-11 
By what means does the endocrine system regulate bodily processes? 
-hormones 
What are the two classes of homeostatic control systems? 
-intrinsic and extrinsic  
background image Homeostatic control systems resist change by operating on what primary principle? 
-principle of negative feedback 
Which sequence correctly illustrates a negative feedback system? 
c. sensor → integrator → effector → compensatory response 
In addition to feedback mechanisms, what other control mechanism does the body use? 
b. feedforward mechanisms   
What is a predicted outcome of a severe homeostatic disruption? 
-death 
Chapter 2  A cell’s cytoplasm consists of ____. 
cytosol, organelles, and cytoskeleton  
An organism’s structure and function ultimately depend on what two factors within its cells? 
c. collective structural characteristics and functional capabilities 
  What is the smallest structural/functional unit capable of carrying out life processes? 
-a cell 
What is the average size (in diameter) of a typical human cell? 
b. about 10 to 20 micrometers  
How much more powerful are modern electron microscopes compared to light microscopes? 
-100x 
What are the two major parts of a cell’s interior? 
e. the nucleus and cytoplasm   
What is the genetic material in a cell’s nucleus called? 
d. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 
  How many chromosomes do regular human cells contain? 
e. 46   
background image How many primary types of RNA play roles in protein synthesis within cells? 
c. three  
What is the type of RNA called that delivers the appropriate amino acids within the cytoplasm to 
their designated site at the ribosome? 
c. transfer RNA 
  In addition to the main types of RNA, what are the newly discovered regulatory RNA types 
called? 
c. microRNA and small interfering RNA 
  What emerging science studies environmentally induced modifications of a gene’s activity that 
do not involve a change in the gene’s DNA code? 
e. epigenetics   
The endoplasmic reticulum can be thought of as a cellular factory that produces what two 
compounds? 
c. proteins and lipids   
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum called? 
b. smooth and rough   
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is most abundant in what kind of cells? 
a. cells specialized for protein secretion    
What type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is made of tubules and lumens? 
c. smooth ER   
What is the main action of lysosomes? 
a. break down organic molecules   
On average, how many lysosomes do cells contain? 
-about 300 
What form of endocytosis do white blood cells use in order to engulf bacteria? 
c. phagocytosis 
  Pseudopods are characteristic of what form of endocytosis? 
-phagocytosis 
background image What is the main role of the mitochondria within cells? 
-power plant 
How many enzymes are used for the process of glycolysis? 
-10 
What is an alternative name for the citric acid cycle? 
-kreb’s cycle 
How many molecules of ATP are generated for each molecule of acetyl-CoA that enters the citric 
acid cycle? 
-1 
Cells use the energy stored in ATP primarily ____.  
c. synthesis, transport, and mechanical work  
What is the storage form of glucose? 
c. glycogen 
  What three distinct elements compose the cytoskeleton? 
a. microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments 
  From what structures do microtubules arise? 
c. centrosomes  
What motor protein carries secretory vesicles to the end of axons? 
-kinesin 
What term refers to the intermediate filaments found in nerve cell axons? 
-neurofilaments 
The ________ is the smallest structural and functional unit capable of carrying out life processes. 
-cell 
The plasma membrane creates a barrier that separates extracellular fluid from ________ . 
b. intracellular fluid   
Which type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) is responsible for delivery of appropriate amino acids 
within the cytoplasm to their designated site in the protein under construction? 
d. transfer RNA (tRNA) 
 
background image The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in liver cells contains enzymes specialized for which 
function?-   
-detoxification  
Newly synthesized proteins from the ER travel by vesicular transport to which organelle? 
b. Golgi complex 
  Endocrine cells utilize which type of system to deliver their product? 
d. secretory vesicles   
Flu viruses and HIV are able to gain entry into cells by exploiting which mechanism? 
e. receptor-mediated endocytosis 
  Cristae increase mitochondrial surface area for what purpose? 
e. Housing important proteins  
In order to obtain usable energy, cells break down ATP, yielding ________ . 
-ADP 
What is the correct order of the stages of cellular respiration? 
b. glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation 
  Each 'turn' of the citric acid cycle produces how many NADH molecules? 
-3 
The availability of what element makes the cell able to convert energy more efficiently? 
b. O2   
Adult humans typically store enough fat to provide energy for how long? 
d. 2 months   
One example of an inclusion in the cytosol is a ________ . 
e. fat droplet   
Which type of human cells possess flagella? 
-sperm cells 
background image Chapter 3  The plasma membrane consists mostly of lipids and proteins plus small amounts of ____. 
-carbohydrate 
How many layers of phospholipids make up plasma membranes? 
-two 
Proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer are called ____. 
e. integral proteins 
  What are the three important functions of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane? 
-forms the basic membrane structure; hydrophobic interior acts as barrier; responsible for fluidity 
Which type of proteins are located on the inner membrane surface and bind lock-and-key fashion 
with secretory vesicles? 
a. docking-marker acceptors 
  What is the main role of membrane carbohydrates? 
b. self-identity markers 
Cells organized into appropriate groupings are held together by what three means? 
d. CAMs, extracellular matrix, and specialized cell junctions 
What tissue contains the most amount of extracellular matrix (ECM)? 
b. connective tissue    
What kind of junctions are impermeable junctions that join the lateral edges of epithelial cells 
near their luminal borders, thus preventing movement of materials between the cells? 
-tight junctions 
Gap junctions are especially abundant in what kind of tissue? 
-cardiac muscle and smooth muscle 
In terms of plasma membrane transport, which descriptor is the most accurate? 
-selectively permeable 
Two properties of particles influence whether they can permeate the plasma membrane without 
assistance are: ____. 
c. size and the relative solubility of the particle in lipid 
 

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School: San Francisco State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Physiology
Professor: Professor Dowdy
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: Study Guide #1
Description: Chapter 1-3 and Key points & concepts
Uploaded: 09/28/2017
68 Pages 146 Views 116 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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