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# NYU - PSYCH-UA 007 - Study Guide - Midterm

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NYU - PSYCH-UA 007 - Study Guide - Midterm

##### Description: Frequency tables, graphs, and distributions Measures of central tendency and variability Standardized test scores and the normal distribution
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FORMAT
SECTION
​ ​#1​ ​:​ ​Multiple​ ​choice/Fill-in-the-blank/True​ ​or​ ​False  - Independent ​ ​vs.​ ​Dependent​ ​Variables  - Levels ​ ​or​ ​Scales​ ​of​ ​Measurement  - Parameter ​ ​or​ ​Statistic  - Continuous ​ ​vs.​ ​Discrete  - Frequency ​ ​Distributions/Charts  - Definitions ​ ​of​ ​Percentile​ ​vs.​ ​Percentile​ ​Rank  - Skew/Floor ​ ​&​ ​Ceiling​ ​Effects  - Measures ​ ​of​ ​Central​ ​Tendency/Dispersion  - Causality  - Sampling ​ ​Distribution  - Central ​ ​Limit​ ​Theorem  - Z-Score/Z-Score ​ ​Distribution  - Properties ​ ​of​ ​Mean/Properties​ ​of​ ​Standard​ ​Deviation  - Basic ​ ​Components​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Distribution
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​ ​#2​ ​:​​ ​​Computations  - Mean, ​ ​Median,​ ​Mode​ ​etc.   - SS, ​ ​Variance,​ ​SD  - Scores ​ ​from​ ​%  - Percentile ​ ​Rank  - Probabilities ​ ​of​ ​Group​ ​Means

Bring ​ ​a​ ​​calculator  One ​ ​page​ ​of​ ​notes​ ​-​ ​handwritten​ ​back​ ​&​ ​front  Show ​ ​your​ ​work!!   (use ​ ​4​ ​decimal​ ​places​ ​in​ ​calculation​ ​&​ ​round​ ​final​ ​answer​ ​2​ ​decimal​ ​places)
Chapter ​ ​1:​ ​Intro​ ​to​ ​Statistics   DIFFERENCE ​ ​BETWEEN​ ​POPULATION​ ​PARAMETER​ ​&​ ​SAMPLE​ ​STATISTIC  Population ​​ ​​:​ ​all​ ​the​ ​things​ ​you’re​ ​interested​ ​in​ ​in​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​study   Parameter ​​ ​:​ ​#​ ​calculated​ ​from​ ​or​ ​measured​ ​from​ ​a​ ​​population​​ ​(i.e.​ ​mean)​ ​(noted​ ​with​ ​​Greek​​ ​letters)  Sample ​​ ​:​ ​subgroup​ ​of​ ​your​ ​population  Statistic ​​ ​:​ ​#​ ​calculated​ ​from​ ​or​ ​measured​ ​from​ ​a​ ​​sample​​ ​(noted​ ​with​ ​​Roman​​ ​or​ ​​English​​ ​letters)    SCALES ​ ​OF​ ​MEASUREMENT  Nominal ​​ ​:​ ​values​ ​of​ ​variable​ ​are​ ​always​ ​​names​​ ​(i.e.​ ​cats,​ ​dogs,​ ​fish)  - Only ​ ​can​ ​tell​ ​how​ ​many​ ​dogs,​ ​cat,​ ​fish,​ ​etc.   - Useful ​ ​but​ ​limited  Ordinal ​​ ​:​ ​order​ ​to​ ​the​ ​values​ ​(hi→​ ​lo)  - Differences ​ ​between​ ​adjacent​ ​values​ ​are​ ​not​ ​necessarily​ ​the​ ​same​ ​(i.e.​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​sm  ​ ​med​ ​will​ ​not​ ​be​ ​the​ ​same​ ​as​ ​the​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​med​ ​→​ ​large)  Interval ​​ ​:​ ​intervals​ ​between​ ​any​ ​adjacent​ ​values​ ​are​ ​the​ ​​same​​ ​(i.e.​ ​F​ ​or​ ​C)  Ratio ​​ ​:​ ​includes​ ​order​ ​&​ ​interval​ ​&​ ​​absolute 0 point  - Means ​ ​absence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​characteristic​ ​or​ ​trait​ ​(i.e.​ ​weight,​ ​height,​ ​time)     Continuous ​ ​Variable  Discrete ​ ​Variable   Infinite ​​ ​#​ ​of​ ​values​ ​between​ ​adjacent​ ​values   (i.e. ​ ​weight,​ ​height,​ ​time)  Finite ​​ ​#​ ​of​ ​values​ ​and​ ​gaps​ ​between​ ​adjacent  values ​ ​(i.e.​ ​#​ ​members​ ​of​ ​a​ ​family)    Independent ​ ​Variable  Dependent ​ ​Variable   Variable ​ ​we​ ​are​ ​observing/manipulating  Variable ​ ​used​ ​to​ ​assess​ ​or​ ​evaluate​ ​whether​ ​ur  manipulation ​ ​worked​ ​or​ ​caused​ ​a​ ​difference​ ​in  results      Chapter ​ ​2​ ​:​ ​Frequency​ ​Tables,​ ​Graphs​ ​&​ ​Distributions    Simple  Frequency Distributions

Use
​ ​this​ ​when​ ​you​ ​have​ ​limited​ ​possible​ ​stress​ ​scores​ ​like​ ​1-10.
The  Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Calculates
​ ​the​ ​#​ ​of​ ​scores​ ​​at or below​​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​value
Accumulate
​ ​the​ ​scores​ ​as​ ​you​ ​go​ ​up

The  Cumulative Percentage Distribution
rf
​ ​:​ ​ N F requency   crf ​ ​:​ ​ N cf   cpf ​ ​:​ ​ rf 00 × 1
Percentile
​​rank​​ ​:​ ​%​ ​of​ ​people​ ​​at or below​​ ​a  particular ​ ​score;​ ​cumulative​ ​percentage  Percentile  ​​:​ ​the​ ​​score​​ ​that​ ​cuts​ ​off​ ​a​ ​certain  percentage ​ ​of​ ​scores    Bar  Graphs

Discrete
​​ ​variables​ ​because  the ​ ​bars​ ​do​ ​​not​​ ​touch.
Height
​ ​of​ ​bar​ ​=​ ​frequency
Nominal
​ ​Data

Histogram

Bars
​ ​touch​ ​→​ ​​continuous​​ ​variables
#
​ ​is​ ​in​ ​the​ ​middle​ ​of​ ​the​ ​bar​ ​because​ ​it​ ​is​ ​continuous
Stress
​ ​is​ ​a​ ​continuous​ ​variable
Real
Limits​​ ​:​ ​½​ ​unit​ ​above​ ​&​ ​below​ ​whatever​ ​you​ ​are​ ​measuring

Frequency
Polygon

No
​ ​values​ ​above​ ​175​ ​or​ ​below​ ​35​ ​so​ ​the  endpoints ​ ​​must​​ ​be​ ​at​ ​0.

Cumulative  Frequency Polygon

Never
​​ ​goes​ ​​down​​ ​because​ ​it's​ ​going​ ​up​ ​towards​ ​the  “N” ​ ​value.
Shape
​ ​:​ ​​cogive  Measured ​ ​to​ ​the​ ​0.5
Apparent
Limit​​ ​-​ ​5  Real  Limit​​ ​-​ ​5.5  Grouped  Frequency Distributions    Grouped ​ ​because​ ​there’s​ ​more​ ​than​ ​just​ ​10​ ​levels.

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