Exam 1 Study Guide
Basics of Social Psyc (weeks 1 & 2):
● Social psychology is the scientific study of how we think about, feel, and behave towards others, and how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors influence and are influenced by the other people in our lives
● Social facilitation people perform better when others are present
○ Triplett: had people race on bikes against each other and in timed trials ■ People were faster consistently when racing against others instead of the
● Triplett’s study included observational, experimental, and correlational methods ○ Started w/ observations of bicycle races
○ Found that when raced against other person raced faster than against timed trial ○ Then did experimental fishing rod study
● Kurt lewin field theory the behavior of people is always a function of the field of
forces in which they find themselves
○ B = f(individual*situation)
○ Heider (1958)
■ Internal attribution
■ External attribution
■ Naïve psychology humans love to figure out why people do what they do ■ Balance theory the triangle of likes and dislikes Don't forget about the age old question of british literature final exam study guide
● Important Names to know:
○ Norman triplett first social psyc experiment
○ Gordon allport first to write a textbook on and define social psyc
○ Kurt lewin field theory and importance of situation
○ Heider attribution and balance theory
● The journal of personality and social psychology is the premier journal for social psyc research today
● Research objectives
○ To describe
○ To predict
○ To explain
● Deception withholding info about the true purpose and or procedure of a study ○ May produce emotional harm to participants
○ May produce negative attitudes toward research in psychology If you want to learn more check out wcu csd
○ Shouldn’t be used to convince people to take part in the experimentDon't forget about the age old question of a front is a narrow zone of transition between air masses that contrast in
● Phacking is adding more data sets and makes it more likely to lead to type 2 errors ● Type 1 error rejecting a true null hypothesis
● Type 2 error retaining a false null hypothesis
● Reasons for nonreplication
○ Statistical problems
■ Sample size
■ P hacking
○ Change in the conceptual variable
○ Scientist error
● How to fix it
○ Change in priorities
■ Academic careers
○ Registering studies
■ Based off of methods not results
● How is naive scientist related to Lewin’s field theory:
○ Naive scientist we want to know why people do what they do and we tend to
discount either individual or situational reason
○ Field theory situational and individual reasons come together to explain why people do what they do
Social Cognition and Attitudes (week 3):
● The social thinker
○ Feelings are affected by thoughts
■ Ex. we think to see if compliment is genuine or sarcastic and feel angry or
mad based on outcome of thought process
● The naive scientist
○ Fritz Heider
○ All humans are all trying to be scientists and figure out why everyone does what If you want to learn more check out what is the ideal temperature for pathogens to flourish
● The cognitive miser
○ We always try to save our cognitive power
○ Not quite accurate
■ Ex. you focus better when watching tv than in class b/c that's what is If you want to learn more check out mmgeg
important to you
Automatic Thinking w/ Schemas
● Automatic thinking nonconscious, unintentional, effortless, involuntary ○ Schemas mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the
social world and that influence the info people notice, think about, and remember
○ Accessibility what's easiest to remember in your brain
○ If one part of schema becomes more accessible, the whole schema becomes more
○ Priming process of making something more accessible
Implicit Attitudes Don't forget about the age old question of delta g naught prime
● IAT (implicit association test)
○ Attitude evaluation of an object
○ Test of implicit bias not heuristic
Persistence of Schemas
● Perseverance effect: people’s beliefs persist even after the evidence supporting these
beliefs is discredited
○ Backfire effect contradicting info reinforces existing schema
■ Ex. if gets award, must have bribed someone, is even more evil
○ Confirmation bias
● Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently ○ Availability heuristic hear about things more so think they’re more common ○ Representativeness heuristic use stereotypical info to make a judgement instead
of base rate info (info about the frequency of members of different categories in
■ Ex. deep tan and mellow = from california
○ Opposite of algorithm, uses limited info to make judgement
○ Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
■ Tversky & Kahneman, 1974
● Had people spin wheel w/ numeric values
● Then asked question w/ numeric answer
● Made judgement based off anchor (number spun) and adjusted up
or down logically
● Need to find sources that have same IV or DV
● Doing new research
● Can do conceptual replication of study w/ same hypothesis
● Creating actual experimental proposal
○ Must be doable and ethical
■ Can be expensive or hard
● Thinking that is conscious, voluntary, intentional, and effortful
○ Ex. studying, paying attention in class, etc.
● Complex, unusual situation for which you have no preexisting knowledge or where the
implications are very important
● Thought suppression
○ When try to not think of something, ironically prime it and think about it more ● Counterfactual thinking mentally changing what happened in the past ○ Ex. what if this had happened instead of that?
○ Medvec and Savistky (1997)
■ Students preferred grade farther from cutoff to grade letter than grade
closer to the cutoff for letter grade
● Rather get an 87% than an 89%
Affect and Cognition
● Affect feeling state
○ Ex. emotions
● Affect affects cognition
○ Schwarz & Clore, 1983
■ Asked about life satisfaction
■ Knew whether of the place
■ Life satisfaction was significantly lower on a cloudy day
Self and Identity & SelfRegulation and Conscientiousness (week 4): thinking about oneself
● We naturally look to others in order to define ourselves
● Our identity is often influenced by the social situation
● Selfconcept (the “me”) collection of beliefs and attitudes about oneself ○ Selfschema guide the processing of selfrelevant information
● Most likely to use social comparison theory on things that are subjective ○ How “good” you are, not what your gpa is
● Study on selfperception: pen in mouth pen in teeth (strack et al)
○ Perceive yourself as happy or sad and like/dislike the cartoon based on where the pen is
No concept of self
● Recognizing yourself in the mirror (Gallup 1977)
○ “The lookingglass self” we come to know ourselves by imagining what others
think of us
● Theory of mind
● Independent vs interdependent self
○ Interdependence collectivistic
■ Ex. I go to UMD, I’m a twin
○ Independent not affected by anything else
■ Ex. I love my family, I am smart
● Some cultures are more independent and some are more interdependent The Origins of SelfConcept
● Introspection knowing what you like and how you feel about things
○ You know what you like b/c you think about it and feel it
○ Ex. study w/ socks: show people socks from same pack and ask to choose favorite
even though the socks are the same b/c of biases
● Implicit egotism situation affects things they like
● Affective forecasting forecasting how you’ll feel in the future
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation
● Intrinsic = individual
○ Part of identity
● Extrinsic = situation
● Kids that got stickers for drawing unexpectedly drew more than kids that got no stickers for drawing and they drew more than kids that expected the sticker for drawing The origins of the Self
● Self perception figuring out yourself based on your past behaviors
○ I.e. i spend all my time w/ Joe so I must have a crush on him
● Social comparison theory people learn about their attitudes and abilities by comparing
themselves to other people
○ When there is no objective standard to measure against and/or when they
experience uncertainty about themselves in a particular area
○ Festinger 1954
○ Upward comparison comparing yourself w/ someone you feel is higher so it
makes you feel lower
○ Downward comparison comparing yourself w/ someone you feel is lower so it makes you feel higher
● Selfmonitoring the tendency to change behavior in response to selfpresentation
○ People act differently in different situations to act as if they have different
● High selfmonitors are more likely to change to adapt to the situation ○ Not necessarily changing to conform, can also change to go against the norm ■ Ex. act shy at club/party to seem like a good girl
● Attitudes about oneself
● The selfevaluation made by each individual; one’s attitude toward oneself along a
● State selfesteem fluctuates situationally
● Trait selfesteem stable characteristic over time
● Tells people how they are doing "in the eyes of others"
○ Sociometer theory your selfesteem is measurement of your
relationship with others
● To ensure selfpreservation (terrormanagement theory)
○ Self esteem measures how well you keep yourself alive
Self Discrepancy Theory
● You have 3 selves, 3 schemas of self
○ Actual self who you are right now
○ Ought self who you should be
○ Ideal self who you want to be
■ Ex. Actual: homely; ought: good; ideal: bombshell
■ In general, negative aspects of your actual self tend to be strong.
■ When you are good or decent at something, you don’t worry about it.
■ Ideas of ought self come from others, societal standards
Mechanisms of selfenhancement
● Selfserving biases (cognitions)
○ People tend to attribute positive outcomes to internal causes (their own abilities
and dispositions) but negative outcomes to external factors
● Selfhandicapping (jones and Berglas, 1978<research this)
● Behaviors designed to sabotage one's own performance in order to provide a subsequent
excuse for failure
○ Ex. Procrastination (in part)
● Bask in reflected glory
○ People associate themselves with successful others
○ Ex. Day after football game, count how many people wearing Maryland gear next day based on win or loss of the game
Selfregulation vs. selfcontrol
○ Standards what you want
○ Monitoring how well you are doing
○ Capacity ability to get what you want
■ Ego depletion your ability to regulate is a fixed resource. If you deplete it,
you can’t do it later on.
● If you apply resources to one thing, you can’t use it on something
● One of biggest problems when discussing replication crisis
● Is it a selffulfilling prophecy?
● Chocolate vs. radish experiment
Judgement and Decision Making & Motives and Goals (week 5):
Attitude changes through persuasion
Persuasive communication communication advocating one side of an issue Yale Communications Research Program (1940s and 1950s)
● Work on mass communication for the army during WW2
○ The rational deliberate process involved in attitude change
■ Attending to the message
■ Comprehending it
■ Incorporating it into previous knowledge and beliefs
■ Accepting and remembering it
○ 3 components of the persuasive message
■ WHO source of the message
● Source characteristics are more important than the content of the
■ Sleeper effect memorable message from unreliable
source can have an effect later on
■ WHAT the content of the message
● Message characteristics
○ Desirable yet novel consequences of taking action in
response to the message
○ Straightforward messages
○ Explicit conclusions OR implicit arguments that will allow
a knowledgeable audience to reach its own conclusions
○ Vivid info, emotional reach rather than stats and facts
■ Identifiable victim effect people more moved by
one individual’s story
■ WHOM the audience or target
● Receiver characteristics
■ Message content should match the goals and
content of the mood
■ Young people are more susceptible to persuasion
● We are naive b/c we discount important info when we make judgements ● Ex. Blame actions on personality
The cognitive processes underlying persuasion
● Elaboration Likelihood Model (petty & Cacioppo, 1986) and Heuristic Systematic Model
○ Dual process models of persuasion
● ELM and HSM
○ Whether persuasion occurs through one route or the other depends on people’s
motivation and cognitive resources
● Central(ELM)/systematic(HSM) route of persuasion
○ The arguments are what persuades you
○ When you have high motivation and or cognition capacities
○ Also called system 2
○ Cold cognition unemotional
● Peripheral(ELM)l/Heuristic(HSM) route of persuasion
○ People attend to superficial cues unrelated to the message arguments
○ Used when low motivation or cognition capacities
○ Also called system 1
○ Hot cognition very emotional
Petty and Cacioppo (1979)
● Participants read a persuasive communication advocating for comprehensive
○ Strong vs weak arguments
■ Manipulate the WHAT
○ High vs low involvement
■ Manipulate the WHOM
● Unimodel (Kruglaski)
○ Subjective relevance
○ Motivation to process
○ Difficulty of processing
○ Ability to process
○ Biasing motivations
○ Processing sequence
When Attitudes Resist Change
● Forewarning and resistance
○ Inoculation hypothesis (McGuire 1964)
■ Exposure to weak arguments increases later resistance to those messages ○ Reactance (Brehm, 1966)
■ When people feel that their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which can be
reduced by performing the threatened behavior
Measures the association between two variables, or how they go together. Dependent variable
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate in an experiment. Independent variable
The variable the researcher manipulates and controls in an experiment. Longitudinal study
A study that follows the same group of individuals over time.
How researchers specifically measure a concept.
When participants behave in a way that they think the experimenter wants them to behave.
When receiving special treatment or something new affects human behavior. Random assignment
Assigning participants to receive different conditions of an experiment by chance.
Social Cognitions and Attitudes
Predicting how one will feel in the future after some event or decision. Attitude
A psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.
A behavior or process has one or more of the following features: unintentional, uncontrollable, occurring outside of conscious awareness, and cognitively efficient. Availability heuristic
A heuristic in which the frequency or likelihood of an event is evaluated based on how easily instances of it come to mind.
The motivation to reach a particular outcome or judgment.
Evaluative priming task
An implicit attitude task that assesses the extent to which an attitude object is associated with a positive or negative valence by measuring the time it takes a person to label an adjective as good or bad after being presented with an attitude object. Explicit attitude
An attitude that is consciously held and can be reported on by the person holding the attitude.
A mental shortcut or rule of thumb that reduces complex mental problems to more simple rulebased decisions.
The mental processes that are influenced by desires and feelings.
Implicit Association Test
An implicit attitude task that assesses a person’s automatic associations between concepts by measuring the response times in pairing the concepts.
An attitude that a person cannot verbally or overtly state.
Implicit measures of attitudes
Measures of attitudes in which researchers infer the participant’s attitude rather than having the participant explicitly report it.
The tendency to be better able to recall memories that have a mood similar to our current mood.
Need for closure
The desire to come to a decision that will resolve ambiguity and conclude an issue. Primed
A process by which a concept or behavior is made more cognitively accessible or likely to occur through the presentation of an associated concept.
A heuristic in which the likelihood of an object belonging to a category is evaluated based on the extent to which the object appears similar to one’s mental representation of the category.
A mental model or representation that organizes the important information about a thing, person, or event (also known as a script).
The study of how people think about the social world.
Our general beliefs about the traits or behaviors shared by group of people.
Self and Identity:
The ability, typically developed in adolescence, to derive substantive conclusions about the self from analyzing one’s own personal experiences.
A broad taxonomy of personality trait domains repeatedly derived from studies of trait ratings in adulthood and encompassing the categories of (1) extraversion vs. introversion, (2) neuroticism vs. emotional stability, (3) agreeable vs. disagreeableness, (4) conscientiousness vs. nonconscientiousness, and (5) openness to experience vs. conventionality. By late childhood and early adolescence, people’s selfattributions of personality traits, as well as the trait attributions made about them by others, show patterns of intercorrelations that confirm with the fivefactor structure obtained in studies of adults.
Sometimes used synonymously with the term “self,” identity means many different things in psychological science and in other fields (e.g., sociology). In this module, I adopt Erik Erikson’s conception of identity as a developmental task for late adolescence and young adulthood. Forming an identity in adolescence and young adulthood involves exploring alternative roles, values, goals, and relationships and eventually committing to a realistic agenda for life that productively situates a person in the adult world of work and love. In addition, identity formation entails
commitments to new social roles and reevaluation of old traits, and importantly, it brings with it a sense of temporal continuity in life, achieved though the construction of an integrative life story.
An internalized and evolving story of the self designed to provide life with some measure of temporal unity and purpose. Beginning in late adolescence, people craft selfdefining stories that reconstruct the past and imagine the future to explain how the person came to be the person that he or she is becoming.
The idea that the self reflects back upon itself; that the I (the knower, the subject) encounters the Me (the known, the object). Reflexivity is a fundamental property of human selfhood.
Self as autobiographical author
The sense of the self as a storyteller who reconstructs the past and imagines the future in order to articulate an integrative narrative that provides life with some measure of temporal continuity and purpose.
Self as motivated agent
The sense of the self as an intentional force that strives to achieve goals, plans, values, projects, and the like.
Self as social actor
The sense of the self as an embodied actor whose social performances may be construed in terms of more or less consistent selfascribed traits and social roles. Selfesteem
The extent to which a person feels that he or she is worthy and good. The success or failure that the motivated agent experiences in pursuit of valued goals is a strong determinant of selfesteem.
The traits and social roles that others attribute to an actor. Actors also have their own conceptions of what they imagine their respective social reputations indeed are in the eyes of others.
The self as knower, the sense of the self as a subject who encounters (knows, works on) itself (the Me).
The self as known, the sense of the self as the object or target of the I’s knowledge and work.
Theory of mind
Emerging around the age of 4, the child’s understanding that other people have minds in which are located desires and beliefs, and that desires and beliefs, thereby, motivate behavior.
SelfRegulation and Conscientiousness:
A personality trait consisting of selfcontrol, orderliness, industriousness, and traditionalism.
The state of diminished willpower or low energy associated with having exerted self regulation.
Keeping track of a target behavior that is to be regulated.
The process of altering one’s responses, including thoughts, feelings, impulses, actions, and task performance.
Ideas about how things should (or should not) be.
Judgement and Decision Making:
The bias to be affected by an initial anchor, even if the anchor is arbitrary, and to insufficiently adjust our judgments away from that anchor.
The systematic and predictable mistakes that influence the judgment of even very talented human beings.
The systematic ways in which we fail to notice obvious and important information that is available to us.
The systematic ways in which our ethics are limited in ways we are not even aware of ourselves.
Model of human behavior that suggests that humans try to make rational decisions but are bounded due to cognitive limitations.
The systematic and predictable ways in which we care about the outcomes of others. Bounded willpower
The tendency to place greater weight on present concerns rather than future concerns. Framing
The bias to be systematically affected by the way in which information is presented, while holding the objective information constant.
The bias to have greater confidence in your judgment than is warranted based on a rational assessment.
Our intuitive decisionmaking system, which is typically fast, automatic, effortless, implicit, and emotional.
Our more deliberative decisionmaking system, which is slower, conscious, effortful, explicit, and logical.
Motives and Goals:
Balancing between goals
Shifting between a focal goal and other goals or temptations by putting less effort into the focal goal—usually with the intention of coming back to the focal goal at a later point in time.
The sense that a goal is both valuable and attainable
Conscious goal activation
When a person is fully aware of contextual influences and resulting goaldirected behavior.
The exhaustion of physiological and/or psychological resources following the completion of effortful selfcontrol tasks, which subsequently leads to reduction in the capacity to exert more selfcontrol.
Motivation stemming from the benefits associated with achieving a goal such as obtaining a monetary reward.
The cognitive representation of a desired state (outcome). Schema related. Goal priming
The activation of a goal following exposure to cues in the immediate environment related to the goal or its corresponding means (e.g., images, words, sounds). Implemental phase
The second of the two basic stages of selfregulation in which individuals plan specific actions related to their selected goal.
Motivation stemming from the benefits associated with the process of pursuing a goal such as having a fulfilling experience.
Activities or objects that contribute to goal attainment.
The psychological driving force that enables action in the course of goal pursuit. Nonconscious goal activation
When activation occurs outside a person’s awareness, such that the person is unaware of the reasons behind her goaldirected thoughts and behaviors.
One of two selfregulatory orientations emphasizing safety, responsibility, and security needs, and viewing goals as “oughts.” This selfregulatory focus seeks to avoid losses (the presence of negatives) and approach nonlosses (the absence of negatives).
The perception of reducing the discrepancy between one’s current state and one’s desired state in goal pursuit.
One of two selfregulatory orientations emphasizing hopes, accomplishments, and advancement needs, and viewing goals as “ideals.” This selfregulatory focus seeks to approach gains (the presence of positives) and avoid nongains (the absence of positives).
The capacity to control impulses, emotions, desires, and actions in order to resist a temptation and adhere to a valued goal.