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School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History to 1865
Professor: Scott nelson
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: history, AmericanHistory, ScottNelson, and midterm
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 2111 Midterm Study Guide
Description: This is the midterm study guide for Scott Nelson's American History to 1865 class. It contains most of the terms that Prof. Nelson listed. I have defined them. According to Prof. Nelson, 5-6 of the terms from his list of terms will be on the midterm.
Uploaded: 09/29/2017
16 Pages 10 Views 19 Unlocks
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Midterm Terms Study Guide


who was sent to Canada with mixed forces?



There will be 7 in total. You need to choose 5 to answer. According to Prof.  Nelson, 5-6 of the terms will be form this list.

On each term, must answer these questions:

1. What is it?  

2. When is it?  

3. Why does it matter?

Terms

Navigation Act 

• Under Charles II, established by England, developed/implement by the  English Board of Trade

• Went into effect -> 1651

• Permitted free trade between English and colonies/within colonies, but  restrict other nations’ trading

• English merchants were happy about this, but colonial merchants and  planters were not

o Colonies thought it restricted their market

o English wanted to destroy the ties between colonies and the Dutch • Navigations Acts

o 1651 -> All goods sent to England from America/Africa/Asia must be  in English vessels with English staff


who is General Cornwallis?



o 1660 -> Only English vessels with ¾ English staff can dock colonial  ports. Enumerated goods like tobacco must be sent England first  before anywhere else.  

o 1663 -> Non-English goods must be sent to England first and taxed  there before being sent to anywhere else (Also called Staple Act) o 1696 -> Vice-admiralty courts (custom officers) now in colonial ports,  to fix smuggling and enforce acts

⮚ You can put the 1696 Act with the 1673 and 1773 Act together.  These acts were there to close those trade loopholes, increase  If you want to learn more check out when a monopoly engages in perfect price​ discrimination, which of the following​ occurs?

the list of goods, increase tax on goods, and appoint officers at  the scene.  

• Helped develop merchant marine and created the English foreign trade  monopolyIf you want to learn more check out poculation

• Helped develop English mercantilism (controlling foreign trade is key to  securing the ruling kingdom/mother nation)

• Mainly wanted to keep those Dutch out  


who is the founder of methodist movement?



• Prompted anger from the colonies, causing rift between England and the colonies

o One of the first factor that led up to the American Revolution Colombian Exchange  

• The movement of people, plants, animals, and pathogens between the  Americans and the rest of the World

• Columbus’s Journey  If you want to learn more check out * what is the difference between transgender and transsexual?

o Columbus needed financial aid, but failed to get from John II o Moved to Spain (1485) and spend 7 yrs to get support from Ferdinand  and Isabel

⮚ Gave him over half the money, noble status, offices of admiral,  viceroy, etc.  

o Departed Spain (1492) with 3 ships/90 men

o Landed in an island in Bahamas, called the Taínos “Indians” ⮚ Saw their lack of clothing and willing to trade -> Inferior,  

innocent

o After Cuba, went to modern Haiti/Dominican Republic Island ->  named it “La Isla Española”

⮚ Natives wore gold jewelry and lived in villages governed by  caciques

⮚ Grew cassava If you want to learn more check out umb password reset

⮚ Yúcahu (God of Cassava and Sea) -> Physical form of zemis  (carved idols)

⮚ Profound impact on European perspective of natives

⮚ Said that Caribs were violent people

❖ Columbus encountered them, Europeans began to see  

Indians as savages from his account with Caribs

o Went back to Spain (March 1493)

⮚ Met with Ferdinand and Isabel  

⮚ Returned with 1500 men and two ships filled with gold, chilies,  tobacco, canoe, hammock

⮚ Came back with 7 Taínos and presented them to Ferdinand and  Isabel  We also discuss several other topics like differential equations study guide

o Aftermath

⮚ 1495 -> Colonist fought with the caciques

⮚ Columbus shipped 500 Taínos to present that they could be  enslaved for livestock, justified that Spain could make a profit • Columbus’s Journey -> Established the Columbian Exchange  o Led to the first permanent town in the New World (Santo Domingo)  • Led to establishment of a separate group of people called “Mestizos” o One Columbian form of Exchange -> Sex/Marriage between  European men and Taíno women  If you want to learn more check out british literature final exam study guide

o Created form of Syphilis  

o This group was formed from the children of Taíno women and  European men  

o Established name in 1530s  

• Exchange of Plants/Animals

o Spanish transported European plants/animals (wheat, grapes, olives,  sheep, etc.) to Española, but it didn’t work with the climate

o Cattle/Pigs did work and were FIRST introduced to the Americas in  1493 by Europeans  

⮚ Did not have any predators in the New World so they overran  the lands and reduced its biodiversity  

o Spanish introduced hides/sugar from canes in 1493

⮚ Became island’s two main exports  

⮚ Animals skinned by enslaved Africans, Spaniards, and Indians • Exchange of Pathogens

o New animals/domestication and European people -> exposed Indians  to new diseases

o Pigs -> Influenza

o Gold mining crowed Taínos together, put them in big houses together  so they can be taxed, worked, and converted to Christianity easily  (death traps for disease)

o Smallpox reached Jan 1519, thousands of Taínos died

⮚ In fact, Smallpox was one of the deadliest disease caused from  the Columbian Exchange  

❖ Another account of smallpox breakthrough along with  

Cocoliztli in Mexico

▪ 1520s, smallpox, 8 million deaths

▪ 1545, cocoliztli, 12-15 million deaths

▪ 1576, cocoliztli, 2 million deaths

• Exchange of People  

o Spanish raided the Caribe, emptying the people of the lands

o Shipped Taínos to Spain and established their own  

colonies/encomiendas  

• Changed both sides of the Atlantic forever

o Impacted social and cultural values  

o Created advancements in agriculture (with the introduction of new  crops), evolution of warfare, increased mortality rates (disease  diffusion), and education

o Developed new races (Mestizos)

Militia Muster (During American Revolution for Colonies) 

• 250,000 soldiers

• Not Formal

• Defined hierarchy  

• Most fought in ragtag groups

• Not well trained

o They had difficulties in advance and retreating  

o Tactically brilliant, strategically horrible, didn’t know how to work  together

• Knew guerrilla warfare

o Knew important things like landscape, how to hid and shoot, etc.  (Advantage to the colonies cause British soldiers didn’t know this,  only knew formation and advancing forward)

o Learnt from the Indians/skirmishes  

o Shot officers before shooting the normal soldiers

o Great network of Spies

• Officers elected by soldiers

• Soldiers were often connected by complex ties (family, friends, etc.) • Older men -> In charge of the supplies

• In the war, saw themselves as part of something huge (nationalism) • Moved around from town to town, harassing British officers • When they met with men of a different militia, they would kiss and hug each  other

• Very well-respected Militia officer -> George Washington

o He didn’t like how disorganized the militia was so he bought  German/Prussian officers to train them

o Main priority was to survive

• Throughout the war, American militias were constantly retreating

Battle of Saratoga 

• Sept. 19, 1777 – Oct. 7, 1777

• Saratoga County, NY

• Actual Events

o Major General John Burgoyne was sent to Canada with mixed forces  of British, Canadians, Hessians, Loyalists, and Indians  

⮚ Plan to invade from Canada, going down the Hudson Valley to  Albany where he would be General Howe

o Captured Fort Ticonderoga in early July (with 7,000 men)

o Overtime, abandoned by Howe and other allies, Gen, Burgoyne’s  troops’ supply lines became smaller and less reliable  

o Battle at Freeman’s Farm  

⮚ Early Sept.  

⮚ Major General Horatio Gates dealt Gen. Burgoyne’s forces a  major blow, weakening their army

⮚ British did win, but sustained heavy losses  

o Battle of Saratoga

⮚ Oct. 7, 1777

⮚ Gen. Burgoyne vs. Gen. Gates

⮚ Gates won, surrounding Burgoyne’s forces  

⮚ Burgoyne surrendered his 6,000 men forces to Gates

• Aftermath/Importance

o Turning point in the Revolution

o Proved that American forces were serious and that they could deal a  heavy blow to the British, win a battle

o Convinced France to form an alliance with the Colonists  

⮚ Comte de Vergennes (French minister) authorized secret aid to  colonies

⮚ Aristocrats/merchants aided and sent supplies/money

⮚ From 1776, French supplied Americans with 90% of their  

gunpowder

⮚ 1777 -> French granted America diplomatic recognition  

⮚ 1778 -> Treaty of Amity and Commerce, Treaty of Alliance  Battle of Yorktown 

• Sept. 28 1781 – Oct. 19, 1781

• Yorktown, NY

• Actual Events:

o General Cornwallis landed in Virginia, fortified Yorktown, joined  with the other Virginia British troops (9,000 men)

o General Rochambeau joined the American army

o Marquis de Layfayette and an American army blocked the British  troops by land, French navy blocked them by sea

o Washington took command of allied forces (17,000 men)

o Cornwallis surrendered after weeks of bombardment, cut off from  getting supplies

• Aftermath/Importance

o Ended the American Revolution  

o Sept. 3, 1783 -> Treaty of Paris (recognized America as an  independent nation)

The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) 

• 18th century, became prominent around 1730s in Americas

• Use of reason -> key to progress

• Tried to determine a system of universal laws that governed nature and  development of human societies  

• Clergy, monarchs -> Obstacle to progress

• Expansion of Newspaper Industry (1728-1760)

o Began to produce in Southern colonies  

o Became vehicles to political dissent

o Led colonists to understand more about each other, became more  unified colonies

• Creation of more colleges

o Five opened: College of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Princeton, Rutgers,  Brown

o To train minsters, doctors, lawyers, etc. to all denominations • Creation of Libraries  

o Library Company of Philadelphia

o History Books -> Increased knowledge of the past and colonists’  understanding of colonial unity  

o Early books -> About females, marriage, virtue

• Ambitious Scientists developed accounts of animals/plants

• Benjamin Franklin -> Created many inventions. Develop laws how  electricity works. Proved experiment could yield practical benefits. • American Philosophy

o Europeans -> Believe Americans incapable to developing true  scientific laws

o Americans judged only they could understand American flora/fauna o Led to the American Philosophical Society (APS) -> Headed by  Franklin

• Importance of the Enlightenment in America

o Set the stage for ideology behind the American Revolution  

o Part of the development of the modern American government  o Took part in the creation of the Constitution, Declaration of  Independence, etc.  

o Major role in the Revolution and creation of America

Alexander Hamilton  

• 1755-1804

• Played a role in the Ratification of Constitution

o Federalist leader

o Published the Federalist Papers

o Used impressive financing, coordination, access to newspaper to win  converts in cities and ports form creditors (to favor a strong  

government)

• Secretary of Treasure (under Washington)

• Found a solution to the Inflation issues

o Creation of the first Bank of America

Bank of America 

• Set up by Alexander Hamilton

o Chartered -> 1791 (only for 20 yrs)

o Modeled after Bank of England where merchants would take out loans  in high interest rates -> Helped develop British empire

• Hamilton wanted to create American merchant empire, unite all state debt ->  national debt through the bank

• How it worked

o Capital comes from the Europeans (French, English, Dutch)

⮚ Cause Napoleon destroyed banks and aristocrats/merchants  

needed a place too kept their money safe  

⮚ Invested in the bank with bonds or bought stocks

⮚ Lend their money at 5% interest rate (SAFE INVESTMENT) o Took the Capital and paid federal government  

⮚ Government -> Need money cause of the war, took up states’  debts

o Government would take the money from the bank and then tax its  citizens to pay it back by 7% interest

o Also issued notes (currency) to American famers/tradesmen ⮚ Who help BUS currency instead of gold, didn’t collect interest • Importance

o It was a major success  

⮚ Merchants gained a lot of profit

❖ Europeans -> fighting each other

❖ They would go around trading with Europeans (who  

needed supplies)

o Unified credit

o Ensured peace with British Empire (1791-1811)

⮚ Who was also buying stocks and loans from the bank

o Crucial early factor of developing the USA economy  

• Emptied out cause Jefferson didn’t allow 2nd charter to pass o Many made a lot of profit

o Prompted the War of 1812

The Great Awakening (Note: Not in textbook or notes? Got this from online) 

• 1720s – 1740s  

• A spiritual revival/growth, questioning Old Faith/religious systems • Causes

o Glorious Revolution (17th Century)

⮚ Established Church of England as the reigning church in  

England

⮚ Everyone -> Common religion  

⮚ Religion -> Became more as a pastime

⮚ The lack of faith -> Driving factor towards the Great  

Awakening  

o Began with John Wesley in England

⮚ Founder of Methodist movement in the Church of England

⮚ Spent 2 yrs in the colonies, organized classes of religious  

teachings

o Georgia Whitefield in the Colonies

⮚ Minster from Britain who came to colonies (1739-1740)

⮚ Anglican/Calvinist priest inspired by John Wesley

⮚ Preached to many crowds, gaining many converts

❖ Excellent for brining passion into his preaching, sermons  

with much sorrow and love

❖ Converted slaves and natives  

o Problems with the old Religious ministers

⮚ Represented an upper class

⮚ But awakening minsters were much more commoners, breaking  down the nobility  

• Old Light vs. New Light

o New light minsters  

⮚ Created sermons and set up their own schools

⮚ More democratic

⮚ Message of Great Equality  

o Old light minsters refused new style of worship

• Significance/Effects  

o With so many denominations, created new tolerance to many  religions/types of worships  

o Stimulated growth of many educational institutions (Princeton,  Brown, Rutgers, Darthmouth)  

o Democratic approach to Christianity later affected Revolutionary  values and building up the government of America (Prepared  

colonists for the Revolution)

⮚ Gave an understanding to colonists that they can question  

authority  

⮚ Realized religious authority was under their own control, not  the Church

⮚ Religious authority mindset (they have control) -> Political  authority mindset

❖ Fueled the American Revolution!

o Being the 1st national movement in the colonies, it united the colonies  to stand up and work together (also contributing the ideal to American  Revolution)

⮚ Gave colonies a NATIONAL IDENTITY  

Proclamation Line of 1763 

• Issued on Oct. 1763 by King George III

• Prohibited all settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains (from Hudson  river to Florida) and restricted land sales to the east, away from Indian land • Purpose -> To prevent outbreaks of war between the colonists and Indians • Causes

o Indians Attitude

⮚ Distraught that English won in the French-Indian war

⮚ Better trade relations with the French

⮚ Feared the British would seize their lands  

o Sir Jeffery Amherst

⮚ Governor general of British America

⮚ New restrictions -> Indian fur traders

⮚ Took Seneca lands

o Pontiac’s War/rebellion

⮚ Ottawa Chief

⮚ Gathered forces from different Indians (Ohio Valley, Great  

Lakes area)

⮚ Attacked Detroit (May 1763)

⮚ Allied forces of Potawatomie, Miami, Huron, Mingo, Ojibwa,  and Shawnee -> Attacked 11 ports, many communities  

⮚ Captured many forts

• In order to stop this, signed Proclamation of 1763

• Aftermath/Significance

o Many colonists ignored it and continued to settle the west  

o Colonists also had to pay a tax to maintain the line, bringing  disagreement with the Crown

o Angered the colonists, causing the rift between the Americas and  Britain

⮚ Colonists wanted to settle west because they saw it a key to  wealth

⮚ Colonist decided to write a petition against this line (1764)

⮚ Britain ignored this petition

o One of the factors that caused the American Revolutionary War  Salem Witch Trials (Not in the textbook or notes? Got this from online) 

• June 1692 – May 1693, Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony • Series of investigations and persecutions that led 19 girls to be claimed as  witches and hanged and many others to be imprisoned  

• Causes -> Combination of religious fanaticism, power hunger, local  disputes, misogyny, anxiety, political turmoil, psychological distress, mass  hysteria

• Actual Events

o 3 girls (Betty Parris, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam Jr.) began to act  strangely -> juvenile delinquency

o They blamed Tituba (their slave) and three other women

o Tituba admitted she was visited by the man who wrote her, the two  other women, and 7 other names in a devil’s book

o Outrage/Hysteria occurred  

o Those identifying witches -> upstanding members of society o 19 girls were hanged, many more connected to the girls were  imprisoned (for collaboration)

o After several months, public opinion turned against the trials o Massachusetts Colony passed legislation -> restoring the names of the  accused and providing finance to their heirs  

• Importance/Legacy

o The Crucible by Arthur Miller

o Provided colonists caution to dangers of misinformational  

persecution/intolerance

⮚ Part of the construction of the judicial system

❖ Modern courts: Innocent until proven guilty

o Memorable tale of the fragility of society

o Come to represent mass paranoia and xenophobia (Modern societal  significance)

Constitutional Convention (Mainly on the second one) 

• May 25, 1787 – Sept. 17, 1787

• Every state sent delegates except Rhode Island

• Prominent members that attended: Georgia Washington, Benjamin Franklin,  James Madison, John Dickinson, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson • Causes -> Many problems with the Articles of Confederation  • Purpose of the Convention

o To fix these issues like inflation

o Create a new, more efficient form of government (national) for the  USA

o Created the Constitution

• George Washington -> presiding officer (Accepted by militia since they had  great respect from him)

• James Madison -> Detailed outlines of the convention, led the convention • Debates

o Problems with how to balance regional and economic interests o Power between the national government and state

o James Madison -> Virginia Plan (More federalist)

⮚ 2-house national legislation with representation, judicial  

branch, president elected from legislature

⮚ Enlightenment value -> Balance of Powers

o William Paterson -> New Jersey Plan (More anti-federalist) ⮚ Unicameral parliament with equal representation

⮚ More power to the state  

o Great Compromise (between the 2 plans)

⮚ House of Representatives -> Proportional representation  

⮚ Senate -> Equal state representation  

o Creation of Electoral College (restrain popular democracy)

o 3/5 slaves -> Given presentation (Ensured South -> more political  power)

o George Mason -> Bill of Rights  

⮚ Excluded from the convention, upsetting many colonists/states • Largest Significance: Creation of the Democratic-Republic government of  America and developments of the Constitution  

Articles of Confederation 

• Created by a committee (who was in charge of creating a national  constitution)

• Drafted -> 1777

• Created a weak national government, strong individual state governments o Limited centralized power

o Most decisions made by the states

o Congress -> Could not tax

o Forbade Congress from sustaining a military after the war

o 9/13 colonies vote needed to change national policies  

• Problems with the Articles of Confederation

o The congress -> Little power of national tax

⮚ Combined with inflation and state laws -> Created many heavy  state taxation (poll taxes, land taxes, etc.)

❖ Heavy Debts

❖ Over a 1,000 each state -> Landed in debtor’s prison

❖ Tried to petition to redress their issues, reinstatement of  

paper currency

❖ Shay’s Rebellion

▪ Revolt against Massachusetts government

▪ Led by farmers, Leader: Daniel Shay

o Heavy Hyperinflation

⮚ Congress and state was making too much money

⮚ States were supposed to levy national taxes but created their  own money instead

⮚ Soldiers’ pays became worthless -> Causing anger/outrage

o Couldn’t make treaties

⮚ Many colonists tried to take Indian land -> Indian/Colonists  skirmishes

⮚ Couldn’t deal with these skirmishes

⮚ Couldn’t deal with the British ports

o Competing Governmental Powers  

⮚ Congress couldn’t stop the importation of cheap British goods  • Fixed later by the Constitutional Convention -> Developed a stronger  national government, contribution to the modern American government  

William Pitt (the Elder) 

• May 1708 – 1778

• Contribution for French-Indian War

o British Secretary of State

o 1757 -> Took up English war policy

o Authorized large payments to Hanover and Prussia, to enable them to  continue fighting

o English Royal Navy -> raid French ports, disrupt oceanic supplies o Wanted to tie down France to Europe and lose its  

colonies/supplies/currency

o His plan did succeed!

• Sympathized with the colonist and declared that Parliament had no right to  tax the colonies (during the Stamp Act)

• Significance  

o His war policies led to the English winning the French-Indian War,  but his generous payments to the troops caused Britain to be left with  a great debt

o This great debt -> Caused Britain to tax the colonies -> Prompting the  start of the American Revolution

William Duer 

• March 1743 – May 1799

• A federalist

• Assistant Secretary to the Board of Treasury (appointed by Hamilton) • Bought too many stocks (liked to gamble in the economy)

• Got rich off speculating stocks (took way too many risks in the market)

• Robert (?), Thomas Jefferson, James Madison (3 Federalists) -> tried to  bring him down, stop him  

o Caused the Panic of 1792 by prompting removal of cash

⮚ Duer and others speculated too much, bought too many stocks ⮚ Distrust of bank -> Many to take out cash

⮚ Bank lost credit causing it to crash, stock value crashed

⮚ Caused Duer -> bankrupt, land in debtor’s prison, Bank of  

America to be shut down

Tenochtitlán 

• Founded by Mexica/Aztecs in 1325

o Ruled by tlatoani (“the one who speaks”, emperors)

• System of canals and waterways supplied thousands of citizens • Fall of Tenochtitlán

o Hernán Cortés, leader of Spanish expedition, found the city (1519) o Aztecs though he was Quetzalcoatl (Aztec God – The Creator) o Tenochtitlán leader -> Montezuma

o Montezuma gave Cortés housing and gold, but Cortés was not  satisfied

o Cortés’ forces sacked the city, took Montezuma as prisoner, later  killed him

o Cortés persuaded leaders of Tlaxcala to fight against Mexica (1519) o Spanish Forces Advantages

⮚ Horses -> Speed, Mobility, Height

⮚ Metal in blades and armor

⮚ Maritime Connections  

⮚ Pigs -> Source of food, bought disease to natives

o Mexica reclaimed city (1520)

o Spanish found safety in Tlaxcala before taking the city two months  later with the Tlaxcala forces  

• Conquest of Tenochititlán -> More Spanish invasions

o Conquered and established Spanish colonies, encomienda system later  o Became Mexico City -> Capital of Spanish Empire

The Spanish Main 

• 16th – 18th Centuries, Española, The Spanish Empire

• Location: Present-day Florida, western coast of Mexico, Texas, western  coast of Central and South America, Present-day Gulf of Mexico

• Point of enormous wealth and trading of gold, silver, spices, sugar, hides,  etc.  

• Main base and wealth for the Spanish Empire

o Spanish exported products in large treasure ships that were traveled  with naval fleets

• Popular spot for pirates/English and French privateers wo raided Spanish  ships for gold

Encomienda System 

• 1503 – 1717 (prominent in the 1500s)

• Established to control and regulate Natives labor and behavior • Spanish government granted land, villages, and people to military leaders  who conquered land in the Americas

o So they could civilize the Natives and convert them to Christianity  (prime purpose of the system)

o In return, would be granted with labor and goods

• Given also to people of the Reconquista  

o Monarchs licensed private entrepreneurs who shared the spoils on  conquest, because they could not afford military campaigns  

themselves  

o These people who succeeded got the encomienda in the Americas • Spaniards conquered the Caribbeans

o Overran Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica (1508-1513)

o Established encomiendas

• Revolting against the system

o Law of Burgos (1512) -> Abolish mistreatment of natives

o New Laws (1514) -> Gave status of free men to natives

• Results

o Diseases brought by encomiendas/Spanish killed off most the native  population

⮚ Introduced to pathogens they had no immunity over

⮚ Encomiendas for gold mining crowded the Taínos together into  large settlements -> became death traps of disease (mainly  

smallpox)

Boston Massacre 

• An altercation between occupying British troops and a Boston mob,  resulting in the death of five colonists.  

• Actual Events

o British government sent British soldiers to keep order

o 4,000 British men policed Boston in Oct. 1768

⮚ Stationed around the city

⮚ Clashed with citizens, intruded in private residences

o Soldier shot Christopher Seider (a young child) -> causing Mob action o On March 5, crowd harassed British soldiers by taunting them,  throwing rocks/snowballs

⮚ Soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 men and wounding many  others  

⮚ 40 soldiers vs. a crowd of colonists

⮚ 8 British soldiers were arrested and 2 of them found guilty of  manslaughter

• Significance -> Built up the tensions between the colonists and British,  which eventually led to the American Revolution

Note: Will be adding more terms overtime before Midterm date so please keep  checking the study guide!

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