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BU / Chemistry / CH 101 / What is photodynamic?

What is photodynamic?

What is photodynamic?

Description

School: Boston University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Dill
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Chem, Chemistry, CHEM101, Chemistry101, preme, Premedicine, pre-med, pre-medicine, Prehealth, Pre-health, and Science
Cost: 50
Name: Chem 101, Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: Covers key textbook notes from chapters 1-4. Includes lecture notes and key topics with references on where to find more information. Good luck studying guys!
Uploaded: 09/29/2017
6 Pages 77 Views 10 Unlocks
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Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW


What is photodynamic?



Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​1 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

Lecture exam 1, Monday, October 2.

The exam is based on all lecture,​ ​lab,​ ​ALEKS,​ ​and​ ​discussion​ ​material​ ​through lab 1 and Mahaffy et al., chapters​ ​1,​ ​2,​ ​and​ ​3,​ ​and​ ​chapter​ ​4​ ​(sections​ ​1,​ ​3,​ ​and​ ​4,​ ​and​ ​eBook​ ​activities​ ​e4.4 Collisional​ ​Heating​ ​by​ ​CO2​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Atmosphere​ ​and​ ​e4.5​ ​IR​ ​spectral​ ​windows​)​. You are responsible for the information in Mahaffy et al., figures​ ​3.7,​ ​3.8,​ ​3.19,​ ​3.20​ ​and​ ​3.21,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​tables 3.2​ ​and​ ​3.4​.


What is gas?



If you want to learn more check out Where did early hominins live?

THINGS​ ​TO​ ​BRING:​ ​Bring ONLY​ your BU ID, a pen (black or blue ink only) (a pencil is alright but know that if grades are incorrectly done they will only accept changes for questions answered in pen. So just go over the penciled answers when you finish. You will have enough time so don’t worry!) You may use only the Texas Instruments TI-30X IIS 2-Line Scientific Calculator, but you must not bring the calculator cover. No electronic devices! Yes, do NOT bring your phone. We also discuss several other topics like What is a random variable?

The exam is held in the following locations, 6:30–8:30 pm. Go to the location below according to the first letter(s) of your last name. The building abbreviations below are here and the campus map is here. 


What are isotopes?



● Last name starts with A–Fl, go to MOR/101

● Last name starts with Fm–L, go to CGS/129

● Last name starts with M–N, go to CAS/224

● Last name starts with O–Ro, go to KCB/101

● Last name starts with Rp–S, go to LSE/B01

● Last name starts with T–Z, go to SAR/101

TEXTBOOK​ ​KEY​ ​NOTES

Chapter​ ​1​ ​-​ ​Human​ ​Activity,​ ​Chemical​ ​Reactivity

Photodynamic​ ​Therapy​ ​(PDT)​ ​- a minimally invasive medical treatment with three collaborative components

- the administered drug (photosensitizer)

- light to excite the photosensitizer molecules Don't forget about the age old question of What is the fundamental fact of strategy?

- triplet O2 in tissue

Dophin’s​ ​PDT​ ​work​ - photosensitizer = porphyrin-containing compound -> administered to the site of rapidly growing malignant cells. Light source usually a red light from light-emitting diodes or a laser diode.

Initially developed for various skin cancers

1) Patient given a dose of photosensitizer/a substance that can be metabolized by the body into a photosensitizer

2) Might be injected at the site of the cancer/designed to attach itself to lipoprotein molecules in the bloodstream so that it is transported to the affected area. 3) After an appropriate amount of time, physician applies red light to the target site

4) One second -> Visudyne is able to make +1mil molecules of singlet O2 Don't forget about the age old question of What is fraud?

-> The singlet O2 formed only lasts for ~1 microsecond, but damages/destroys the malignant cells. If you want to learn more check out Who are the engineers created "the box" that essentially allows one person at a time to time travel 6 hours prior?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the process where green plants, algae, and certain bacteria convert light energy and co2 into chemical energy?

IMPORTANT​ - singlet O2 is only produced at the site of the cancer -> healthy cells could be killed!

Mass​ ​Spectrometry​ ​- technique for measuring relative mass of the atoms or molecules comprising a sample of a material

Chapter​ ​2​ ​-​ ​Building​ ​Blocks​ ​of​ ​Materials

Solids​ ​- rigid shape and fixed volume

Particles are closely packed, in regular array, vibrate rapidly about fixed positions Liquids​ ​- fixed volume but fluid

Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW

Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​2 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

Particles are not fixed in specific locations and can move past one another Gases​ ​- fluids that fill up the cainter they are in, whatever the volume or shape Particles are far apart and fly about very quickly, colliding with one another, go to every part of their container

Atoms​ - the building blocks for all matter

Elements​ - Characterized by atoms having the same atomic number

Reactants​ - substances that are present before reaction

Products​ ​- new substances formed during the reaction

Chemical​ ​Equation​ - A symbolic representation of a chemical reaction

Protons​ - subatomic particles that have a positive charge

Neutrons​ - subatomic particles that are neutral

Electrons​ - subatomic particles that have negative electrical, charges

Isotopes​ - atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons - similar characteristics, different masses

Mass​ ​Number​ ​(​A​)​ - Sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in atoms of an isotope Relative​ ​Atomic​ ​Mass​ ​(A​r​)​ - the mass of an atom of an isotope on a scale in which the mass of a12C atom = 12

- or the ratio of the mass of an atom to 1/12 the mass of a12C atom (it’s a ratio) -> you divide the mass of the atom by the mass of a12C atom to get the Ar Atomic​ ​Mass​ ​Units​ ​(u)​ - 1/12th of the mass of a12C atom

-12C = 12u

Measuring Atomic Mass and Isotope Abundance 

1 - a gaseous sample of an element is introduced into an evacuated chamber

- molecules/atoms are converted to ions by the loss of electron(s)

2 - beam of these ions is directed through a magnetic field -> causes the path of these ions to be deflected - degree of deflection depends on the ration mass/charge of the particle

3 - separated ion beams are detected as an electric current at the end of the chamber

4 - amount of current measure is related to the number of ions of a particular mass -> the abundance of the ion 5 - the mass spectrum shows one peak for each isotope.

Atomic​ ​Weight​ - the average Ar of a representative sample of its atoms, taking into account the relative abundances of its isotopes

- unitless

THE​ ​ATOMIC​ ​WEIGHT​ ​ON​ ​THE​ ​PERIODIC​ ​TABLE​ ​IS​ ​NOT​ ​THE​ ​WEIGHT​ ​OF​ ​ANY​ ​ATOM ---->​ ​IT​ ​IS​ ​THE​ ​AVERAGE​ ​WEIGHT​ ​OF​ ​ISOTOPES​ ​AND​ ​THEIR​ ​ABUNDANCE Mole​ ​(mol)​ - the unit of the amount​ ​of​ ​substance

One​ ​mole​ ​of​ ​all​ ​substances​ ​contain​ ​the​ ​same​ ​number​ ​of​ ​particles,​ ​regardless​ ​of​ ​the identity​ ​of​ ​the​ ​particles.

Avogadro​ ​Constant​ ​(N​A​)​- the number of particles in one mole (6.0221415 x 1023) Molar​ ​Mass​ - mass (in grams) of 1 mol of a substance

Unit = g/mol

Tips​ ​for​ ​dimensional​ ​analysis

List: what you know, what you want

Then set up the equation, calculate

Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW

Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​3 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

KEEP IN MIND: sig figs & unites

Chapter​ ​3​ ​-​ ​Models​ ​of​ ​Structure​ ​to​ ​Explain​ ​Properties Ionic​ ​Compound​ - Generally solid compound that conducts electricity only when molten, and which is modelled as a lattice of anions and cations (I personally don’t like this definition) -> particles are held together very tightly

Ions​ - Charged particles in which the number of protons is different from the number of electrons Cation​ - a particle with positive charge (bc it has more protons than electrons) Anion​ - a particle with negative charge (bc it has less protons than electrons)

A​ ​cation​ ​formed​ ​from​ ​an​ ​atom​ ​of​ ​Group​ ​1,​ ​2,​ ​or​ ​13​ ​elements​ ​has​ ​the​ ​same​ ​number​ ​of electrons​ ​as​ ​an​ ​atom​ ​of​ ​the​ ​noble​ ​gas​ ​that​ ​precedes​ ​it​ ​in​ ​the​ ​periodic​ ​table Ex. Mg2+ cation has the same number of e- as Ne (10 e-)

Atoms​ ​of​ ​the​ ​non-metallic​ ​elements​ ​commonly​ ​gain​ ​one​ ​or​ ​more​ ​electrons,​ ​forming anions​ ​with​ ​the​ ​same​ ​number​ ​of​ ​electrons​ ​as​ ​atoms​ ​of​ ​the​ ​next​ ​noble​ ​gas Ex. O2-forms anions with atoms of 10 e-, the same as Ne

Molecular​ ​Substances​ - Substances believed to be composed of molecules Organic​ ​Compounds​ ​- substances composed of molecules with carbon atoms Single​ ​Bond​ - a covalent bond formed by sharing 2 electrons btwn the bonded atoms Double​ ​Bond​ - a covalent bond formed by sharing 4 electrons btwn the bonded atoms - Important for analyzing IR Spectroscopy

High-Resolution​ ​Mass​ ​Spectrometry​ - an instrumental technique in which the accurately measure mass/charge (m/z) ratio of ions of molecules is used to determine a molecular formula Isotopologue​ - molecules that are identical except that the atoms of one or more elements are different isotopes

Molecular​ ​Weight​ - the value obtained from adding up atomic weights in the periodic table Molar​ ​Mass​ ​(​M​)​ ​- the mass, in grams, of one mole of the compound

Constitutional/Structural​ ​Isomers​ - 2 substances w/the same formula but different connectivity of atoms

Fragment​ ​Ions​ - ions formed in mass spectrometry by the breaking of bonds in the molecular ion

- Important in analyzing mass spectra

Spectroscopy​ - a method of finding out about the structure of molecules that depends on the interaction of molecular compounds with radiation.

DO NOT CONFUSE WITH SPECTROMETRY

Absorption​ ​Spectrum​ ​- a plot of the % of radiation transmitted by a substance over a range of incident radiation energies (or wavelengths)

Molecular​ ​Ion​ ​Peak​ - peak on a mass spectrometer of a positively charged molecular compound

Transparent​ ​- when light goes through the sample

Absorption​ - when light is absorbed by the sample

Energy​ ​is​ ​absorbed​ ​if​ ​the​ ​energy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​radiation​ ​matches​ ​the​ ​energy​ ​of​ ​a​ ​vibrational mode​ ​of​ ​its​ ​molecules

Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW

Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​4 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

REDOX

Reduction -> gains e- 

Oxidation -> loses e- 

Units​ ​of​ ​Mass

Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) - unitless! - it’s a comparison

Atomic Weight - unitless! - uses Ar 

Molar Mass - g/mol

Light​ = wave = 2.9979 x 108 m/s

An electric wave that oscillates (attracts and repels charged particles)

Frequency​ ​( υ )​ ​- speed of oscillation

- unit = Hertz (Hz) = --/sec

Wavelength​ ​( λ )​ ​- length of a wave

- unit = distance (ex. Meters, nm)

Wavenumber​ ​(ṽ​ )​ - ṽ = λ1 

υ =​ ​ λc 

υ ∝ m1​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ υ ∝ k ​ ​ ​ ​ ​->​ ​ υ ∝√( )km

MEMORIZE​ ​THESE​ ​POLYATOMIC​ ​IONS

CATION:​ ​Positive​ ​Ion

NH4+ ammonium ion

ANIONS:​ ​Negative​ ​Ions

Based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​Group​ ​14​ ​element

CN- cyanide ion

CH3COO- acetate ion

CO32- carbonate ion

HCO3- hydrogencarbonate ion (or

bicarbonate ion)

Based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​Group​ ​15​ ​element

NO2- nitrite ion

NO3- nitrate ion

PO43- phosphate ion

HPO42- hydrogenphosphate ion

H2PO4- dihydrogenphosphate ion

Based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​Group​ ​16​ ​element

OH- hydroxide ion

Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW

Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​5 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

SO32- sulfite ion

SO42- sulfate ion

HSO4- hydrogensulfate ion (or bisulfate ion)

Based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​Group​ ​17​ ​element

ClO- hypochlorite ion

ClO2- chlorite ion

ClO3- chlorate ion

ClO4- perchlorate ion

Based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​transition​ ​metal

CrO42- chromate ion

Cr2O72- dichromate ion

MnO4- permanganate ion

Chapter​ ​4​ ​-​ ​Carbon​ ​Compounds

Isomers​ - substances whose molecules have the same number of atoms of different elements but differ in the way the atoms are arranged

PPM​ = parts per million

EXAM​ ​KEY​ ​NOTES​ ​&​ ​predictions​ ​of​ ​what​ ​will​ ​be​ ​on​ ​it

Lecture numbers correspond to Abrams lectures

Dimensional​ ​Analysis​ (lecture​ ​#1,​ ​discussion​ ​packet​ ​#1​)

Concept​ ​of​ ​Moles​ (lecture​ ​#1,​ ​2,​ 3, + dp​ ​#2&3​) *dp = discussion packet What they are, usage (conversion), UNITS

Ionic​ ​Compounds​ ​+​ ​Formation​ (lecture #3, ALEKS​ ​+ dp #2)

Being able to recognize its components -> solve for ratio of moles/grams Isotopes​ ​+​ ​abundance​ (lecure #2, dp #2)

Electromagnetic​ ​Spectrum,​ ​Wavelength,​ ​Frequency,​ ​Wavenumber​ (lecture​ ​#5​, dp #2) Usage, analysis, relations, equations

Mass​ ​Spectrometry​ ​(lecture #2, #3, #4​, dp​ ​#3​)

Analysis (isotopologues), isotopes + abundance, molecular ion peak

IR​ ​Spectroscopy​ ​(lecture​ ​#5,​ ​#6​, dp​ ​#4)

Bond movements, analysis, bond energies

Polyatomics​ (Memorize these) (lecture #3, chapter 3)

Additional​ ​Notes

Know that Cl and Br have 2 significant isotopes (lecture #4)

Cl35 & Cl37-> 3:1

Red​ ​=​ ​Super​ ​Duper​ ​Important,​ ​MUST​ ​KNOW

Grey = read over but don’t need to memorize Tayun​ ​Park​ ​6 Lavender​ = Basics, don’t spend too much time on these

Br79 & Br81-> 1:1

Know the electromagnetic spectrum

Please​ ​look​ ​over​ ​Lecture​ ​Turning​ ​Point​ ​qs​ ​for​ ​example​ ​problems! Discussion​ ​Packets​ ​too!

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