Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Wednesday August 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/15
FDNS Test 1 Study Guide 08262015 Introduction to Nutrition and the Life Span Nutrient something your body needs to function without this the body cannot function 0 Example water protein carbohydrates Nutrition is a vital component to overall wellness and health Diet affects energy well being and many disease states There is a connection between lifetime nutritional habits and the risks of many chronic diseases A balanced diet can prevent chronic diseases and improve energy levels and overall health and wellness 0 There are a set of principles that will guide us on how to consume a balanced diet in moderation Increase in Life Expectancy The increase in life expectancy is primarily from decreases in infant mortality and in deaths from infectious diseases because infants are the ones who will grow to be a part of the population Other factors 0 Availability of immunizations prevents children from catching common diseases that can kill a young child 0 Improved healthcare and sanitation in countries with low life expectancy ratings the facilities are not as advanced as those where people are expected to live longer 0 Increases in the availability and quality of the food supply The US ranks 42nCI in the world and 31st among developed countries 0 Average life expectancy is about 79 0 Females average longer life expectancies than males 8283 Our menstrual cycle helps regulate and protect our hearts until we hit menopause Men tend to live riskier lifestyles 0 Reasons why we are ranked lower than 41 other countries given the amount spent on healthcare About half of the gap between US life expectancy and countries with higher life expectancy is due to heart disease rates in the US Smoking among women appears to account for lower life expectancy relative to other countries The type of services our healthcare system provides is more treatment than prevention Teenage pregnancy the children of these teens are dying Obesity rates contributes 15 to 13 of the shortfall in the US life expectancy Portion sizes What is Nutrition 0 The study of foods their nutrients and other chemical constituents and the effects of food constituents on health 0 A source of materials to nourish the body 0 The processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance What is Dietetics The application of nutrition knowledge in disease managementtreatmentprevention to improve quality of life 0 Two types of iron 0 Heme meat source and non heme plant source Why are people living unhealthy Consumers are following incorrect information for dieting and nutritional help 0 Consumers don t know how to nd out the nutritional value of foods 0 Consumers feel like they can t afford healthy food 0 Consumers don t care Connection between Nutrition and Health 0 Today there is substantial evidence that food is essential for sustenance and wellbeing 0 Depending on the choice consumers make contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases heart disease cancer stroke Foundation of Nutrition there are 10 sets of principles that govern and provide the foundation for knowledge in the eld of human nutrition Principle 1 Food is a basic need of humans 0 Food security acquiring food in a socially acceptable way always having nutritious food available at an affordable cost 0 Food insecurity not knowing where you re next meal is coming from not having access to nutritious food in an affordable way 0 About 14 of the households in American are insecure Principle 2 Food provides energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health Calorie a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body Nutrients chemical substances in food that are used by the body 0 Nutrient needs Energycalories Macronutrients Micronutrients Water 0 Essential nutrients Carbohydrates Certain amino acids Linoleic acid and alphalinoleic acid Vitamins Minerals Water o Nonessential nutrients the human body is able to synthesize or manufacture these nutrients and do not necessarily have to be present in one s diet Cholesterol Glucose Creatine and certain types of amino acids 0 Dietary Intake Standards 0 Dietary Reference Intakes DRls Recommended Dietary Allowances Adequate Intakes not any evidence to give a set amount to consume Estimated Average Requirements Tolerable Upper Levels of Intake Daily Values standards for daily intakes of nutrients used on nutrition label of food Carbohydrates 0 Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharaides Disaccharides 0 Complex carbohydrates Starches Glycogen Fiber 0 Alcohol sugars 0 Alcohol ethanol o Glycemic Index of Carbohydrate Glycemic index extent to which carbohydrate containing foods increase blood glucose levels a Foods with high glycemic index raise blood glucose levels higher a Foods with low glycemic index improve blood glucose control in diabetes Glycemic Load GI x grams of food 100 glycemic load of a serving of food can be calculated as its carbohydrate content measured in grams g multiplied by the food s GI and divided by 100 GL greater than 20 is considered high GL of 1119 is considered medium GL of 10 or less is considered low 0 Recommended intake level 4565 of calories added sugar 25 or less of total calories 2135 g berday for females 3038 g berday for males 0 food sources Protein primary function is development and growth we only depend on protein for energy when our body runs out of carbohydrates to use gluconeogenesis therefore our body needs a much smaller percentage of protein in our meals as opposed to carbohydrates 0 Amino acids building blocks of proteins Non essential can be synthesized by the body Conditionally essential can be synthesized by the human body except in conditions Essential cannot be synthesized by the body must be supplied through nutrition High quality proteins provide all essential amino acids Recommended intake 1035 of calories Food sources Each gram of protein produces 4 calories OOOO 0 Main functions of protein Chemical messengers hormones neurotransmitters Enzymes Acts as a source of energy Transport Immune response Regulation of uid and acidbase balance Growth building blocks for construction and replacement of all cells and tissue 0 Fats Lipids 0 00 00 Essential fatty acids Linoleic acid omega6 Alphalinoleic acid omega3 4 or less omega6 to 1 omega3 is recommended Food sources Each gram of fat produces 9 calories Saturated try to stay away from these fats Unsaturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Trans fats extremely unhealthy making an ingredient stronger than it is Hydrogenation Cis versus trans structure 0 Cholesterol non essential our bodies make them There is no cholesterol in any plant food 0 Recommended intakes 2035 pf calories from fat limiting unhealthy fats o Vitamins o Watersoluble vitamins easily excreted from the body through urine Must make an effort everyday to obtain these because we cannot see if there is a de ciency Destroyed by excessive heat Thiamin ribo avin niacin B6 folate 812 biotin panthothenic acid C o Fatsoluble vitamins A D E K 0 Functions Coenzymes Antioxidants 0 Recommended intakes de ciencies toxicities o Other substances in food phytochemicals Minerals 0 Essential minerals Calcium phosphorus magnesium iron zinc uoride iodine selenium copper manganese chromium molybdenum sodium potassium chloride 0 Water 0 Adults are 6070 water 0 Recommended intakes 1516 cupsday for males 11 cupsday for females 75 from uids 25 from foods 0 Dietary sources Best are water and nonalcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages increase water loss through urine 0 Why is water important Maintain body temperature Metabolize body fat Aids in digestion Lubricates and cushions organs Transports nutrients Flushes toxins from your body 0 Factors that In uence Nutrient Needs 0 Age Gender Growth Pregnancylactation Body compositionbody type Body size Genetic traits OOOOOO o Illnessdisease state 0 Lifestyle habits 0 Medication use Principle 3 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells Homeostasis Principle 4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive Ie vels of nutrient intake 0 Micronutrients low Deficiencies begins with inadequate nutrient intake Toxicities begins with excessive nutrient intake 0 The quotripple effectquot dietary changes introduced to improve intake of one nutrient may affect intake level of other nutrients Principle 5 Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing uctuations in food intake 0 Regulation of absorption or appetite Nutrient storage Principle 6 Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations of these causes 0 Primary malnutrition dietary in origin 0 Secondary malnutrition precipitated by a disease state surgical procedure or medication ex Someone who has down syndrome 0 NutrientGene Interactions Single gene defects Interaction of genetic environmental factors including nutrition n Ex Alcohol intake during pregnancy Principle 7 Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Pregnantbreastfeeding women 0 Infants and children 0 People who are ill frail elderly persons Principle 8 Poor nutrition can in uence the development of certain chronic diseases 0 Heart disease hypertension cancer stroke osteoporosis type 2 diabetes obesity Principle 9 Adequacy and balance are key characteristic of a healthy diet 0 Variety Nutrient density 0 Limiting quotemptycalorie foods Principle 10 There are no good or bad foods 0 All things in nutriment are good or bad relatively based on o If nutrient needs are met 0 If calorie intake maintains healthy body weight Nutrient Labeling 0 Nutrition facts panel mustlist fat saturated fat trans fat cholesterol sodium tota carbohydrates ber sugars protein vitamins A and C calcium and iron also daily values 0 Nutrient content and health claims 0 Ingredient label Other Labeling Concerns Enrichmentreplacing what was lost during processing into the food adding nutrients back 0 Re ned grain products have added thiamin niacin ribo avin and iron 0 Forti cation adding a nutrient to a food that might not naturally be present in the food substance 0 Done in order to prevent de ciencies Herbal remedies considered dietary supplements by FDA 0 Some act like drugs and have side effects 0 Vary in safety and effectiveness 0 Particularly be careful if trying to become pregnant 0 Functional food foods that have health promoting effects beyond their nutritional effects 0 Prebiotics example ber microorganisms use that for survival 0 Probiotics contain live organisms fermented foods example yogurt LifeCourse Approach whatever we eat today affects our health later on in life we must focus on long term health 0 Healthy individuals require the same nutrients throughout life 0 Amount of nutrients vary based on age growth and development 0 Our culturereligionethnicity in uence what we eat and don t eat 0 Food is de ned most by these things Nutritional needs should be met at each lifecycle stage as it in uences health in the next stage 0 Example pregnancy nutrition in uences the health of the child Nutritional Assessment Communitylevel assessment 0 Statistics data surveys observations 0 Used to develop communitywide nutrition programs Individuallevel assessment 0 Clinicalphysical assessment doctor Inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition 0 Dietary assessment nutritionist dietician 24 hour dietary recalls and record Dietary history Food frequency questionnaires o Anthropometric assessment taking your weight height 0 Biochemical assessment blood samples urine samples genetic testing nutrient and enzyme levels Healthy Eating Intake 0 What is your variety of foods What is your intake of all of the food groups 0 Primarily used for population monitoring Nationwide Priorities for lmprovements primary prevention to inform the people of what we should eat what goals we have where we want to be as a nation in 2020 Nutritional Needs and In uences during Preconception Does caffeine intake play any role in human fertility 0 Anything in excess is harmful studies show too much coffee can affect fertility Health and nutrition are very important for successful reproduction o The most important thing to do is build your nutrient storage if you are sexually active incase of pregnancy 0 Improve your health 0 Boost your energy 0 Greatly improve your fertility Folic acid is vital in rst 34 weeks of pregnancy to avoid neural tube defects 0 Overview 0 O 0 15 of couples are infertile 44 diagnosed infertile will eventually conceive without use of technology Healthy couples have 2025 chance of becoming pregnant within a given menstrual cycle Miscarriage Most happen because of defects in fetus Maternal infection Structural abnormalities of uterus Endocrine or immunological disturbances Subfertility woman with 2 miscarriages reduced level of fertility characterized by unusually long time for conception 18 of couples are subfertile Multiple miscarriages sperm abnormalities infrequent ovulation o Preconception Health the provision of biomedical and behavioral interventions prior to conception in order to optimize women s wellness and subsequent pregnancy outcomes 0 Preconception Care an organized comprehensive programs that identi es and reduces women s medical psychological social and lifestyle reproductive risks before conception Healthy People 2020 Objectives 0 Optimum folic acid levels one a day 0 Low red bloodcell folate concentrations Preconception care services and behaviors o lmpaired fecundity Objective related to Preconception 0 Make sure you are within the weight limit before pregnancy 0 Reduce or avoid drinking alcohol 0 Type of environment advised o Underlying physical environment having access to resources 0 Intermediate family environment 0 Immediate biomedical and lifestyle risk factors avoid substances that could negatively affect the baby Reproductive Physiology Key terms Puberty period in which humans become biologically capable or reproduction Ova eggs females produce and store within the ovaries o Menstrual Cycle 4 week interval in which hormones direct buildup of blood and nutrient stores within uterus ovum matures and is released 0 Development of female and male reproductive systems 0 Begins during rst months after conception 0 Continue to grow and develop through puberty 0 Females have been hitting puberty very early because of our changing environments Capacity for reproduction establishes during puberty when hormonal changes stimulate Hormonal Effects During the Menstrual Cycle 0 Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH o Stimulates pituitary to release FSH and LH o Folliclestimulating hormone FSH o Stimulates maturation of ovum and sperm production of estrogen o Luteinizing hormone LH o Stimulates secretion of progesterone and testosterone o Estrogen o Stimulates release of GnRH in follicular phase and follicle growth and maturation of follicle o Stimulates vascularity and storage of glycogen and other nutrients within uterus 0 Stores nutrients o Progesterone o Prepares uterus for fertilized ovum increases vascularity of endometrium and stimulates cell division of fertilized ova o If pregnancy doesn t occur estrogen and progesterone levels decrease and vice versa for pregnancy 0 Progesterone helps with nutrient mobilization vascularity of endometrium Two Phases of Menstrual Cycle Follicular Phase rst half of menstrual cycle 0 Follicle growth and maturation 0 Main hormones GnRH FSH estrogen and progesterone Luteal Phase last half of menstrual cycle 0 Begins with ovulation by the 14th day in the 28day cycle I Not all women ovulate athletes or females with very low body fat Temperature rising halfway through the cycle indicates ovulation 0 Formation of corpus luteum Male Reproductive System 0 The male reproductive system is more ongoing than females every 75 days 0 Interactions among hypothalamus pituitary gland and testes Androgens testosterone stimulate sperm maturation Sperm are stored in the epididymis and released in semes Sources of Disruption in Fertility Adverse nutritional exposures de ciencies excesses Contraceptive use provides hormones to let the body think you are pregnant in order to avoid pregnancy Severe stress infection Tubal damage an abortion that doesn t go completely right Chromosomal damage Undernutrition and Fertility Undernutrition in women previously wellnourished is associated with a dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does Food shortages in countries have been accompanied by dramatic declines in birth rates Chronic undernutrition the body adapts to an undernourished mother that can result in a baby born with a birth defect 0 Primary effect birth of small and frail infants with likelihood of death in the rst year of life Acute undernutrition associated with a dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does Weight loss and Fertility Decreased fertility seen with low or high body fat due to alterations in hormones Estrogen and leptin levels increase with high body fat and reduce with low body fat 0 Both extremes lower fertility Body fat to support pregnancy should be between 2030 because a doctor uses the fat to monitor hormones Weight loss greater than 1015 of usual weight decreases estrogen LH FSH 0 Results in amenorrhea lack of menses anovulatory cycles and short or absent luteal phases 0 Weight loss in men can result in sperm not being able to move easily or it could change the shape 0 Antioxidant nutrients can counteract this stuff Oxidative Stress Decreases sperm mobility Reduces ability of sperm to fuse with an egg Harm egg and follicular development Interfere with corpus luteum function Interfere with implantation of the egg Antioxidants protect the cells from damageoxidation o Vitamins E and C Betacarotene Selenium 0 Found in vegetables and fruits 0 Protect cells of the reproductive system including eggs and sperm 0 Phytochemicals also have antioxidant properties 0 Zinc in men plays a role in the reduction of oxidative stress in sperm mutation and in testosterone synthesis Fertility and 0 Plant Foods lowfat high ber linked to irregular menstrual cycles 0 lso avones from soy decrease levels of estradiol progesterone LH Caffeine study results are mixed on effects of caffeine 0 Alcohol may decrease estrogen and testosterone levels or disrupt menstrual cycles HeavyMetal Exposure high lead levels decreased sperm production abnormal motility and shape buildup of cadmium molybdenum manganese boron and other metals also affect male fertility 0 Exercise adverse affects of intense physical activity 0 Delayed age at puberty 0 Lack of menstrual cycles Periconceptual Period 4 weeks to conception 0 Life Course Perspective maintaining nutrition throughout your life so that each point in your life you are able to meet your nutrient needs 0 Iron status is extremely important about 12 of females enter pregnancy anemic Folate status important prior to conception to avoid neural tube defects Nutrition Care Process 0 Nutrition care standards developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics The Nutrition Care Process Step 1 Nutrition assessment Step 2 Nutrition diagnosis Step 3 Nutrition intervention 0 o o 0 Step 4 Nutrition monitoring and evaluation Book Notes Chapter 1 0 Nutrition an interdisciplinary science focused on the study of foods nutrients and other food constituents and health Principles of Human Nutrition 1Food is a basic need of humans 2 Foods provide energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health 3 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells 4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake 5 Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing uctuations in food intake 6 Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations of these causes 7 Some groups od people are at a higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others 8 Poor nutrition can in uence the development of certain chronic diseases 9 Adequacy variety and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet 10 There are no good or quotbadquot foods Essential Nutrients nutrients the body cannot manufacture or generally produce in sufficient amounts Carbohydrates Certain amino acids Linoeic acid and alphalinoleic acid Vitamins Minerals Water Nonessentia Nutrients present in food and used by the body but they do not have to be a part of our diets All humans require the same set of essential nutrients but the amount of nutrients needed varies based on the body type Dietary Intake Standards account for the major factors that in uence nutrient needs such as age gender growth pregnancy and lactation DRl s RDAs levels of essential nutrient intake judged to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons while decreasing the risk of certain chronic diseases Als based on less conclusive scienti c information than are the RDAs EARs nutrient intake values that are estimated to meet the requirements ULs upper limits of nutrient intake compatible with health represent total daily levels of nutrient intake from food forti ed foods and supplements that should not be exceeded Daily Values used to identify the amount of a nutrient provided in a serving of food compared to the standard eve Carbohydrates used by the body mainly as a source of readily available energy Monosaccharide disaccharides polysaccharides Dietary sources of ber Alcohol sugars 4 caloriesgram of carbohydrates Protein provides the body with amino acids used to build and maintain tissues can also be used as a source of energy not a primary function 4 caloriesgram of protein Essential amino acids must be provided by the diet Nonessential amino acids manufactured amino acids by the body 1035 of total energy intake Animal products and dried beans are particularly good sources of proteins Fats Lipids Fats oils choestero Made up of various types of triglycerides 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol 9 caloriesgram of fat Essential fatty acids must be supplied in the diet 0 Linoeic acid most vegetable oils and meats human milk o Alphalinoleic acid dark green vegetables vegetable oils axseed SaturatedUnsaturated fats whether a fat is saturated or unsaturated depends on whether it has one or more double bonds between carbon atoms in one or more of its fatty acid components 0 Monounsaturated vs polyunsaturated 0 Saturated fat is more animal foods unsaturated is more plant foods Hydrogenation oils can be made solid by adding hydrogen to the double bonds of their unsaturated fats Cholesterol Unhealthy fats trans fats saturated fats and cholesterol Recommended intake 2035 of total calories from fat Vitamins chemical substances in foods that perform speci c functions in the body 14 vitamins fat soluble stored in the body s fat tissues and the liver or water soluble excreted out of the body through urine Some play critical roles as coenzymes in chemical change metabolism Others act as antioxidants by preventing or repairing damage to cells due to oxidation help maintain body tissues and prevent disease Minerals Combine with other minerals to form stable complexes in bone teeth cartilage and other tissues Serve as a source of electrical power in uids that stimulates muscles to contract Help the body maintain an adequate amount of water in tissues and control how acidic or basic body uids remain Water Adults are about 6070 water by weight Provides the medium in which most chemical reactions take place in the body plays a role in energy transformation the excretion of wastes and temperature regulation 1516 cupsday for men 11 cupsday for women Cels the functions of each cell are maintained by the nutrient it receives 0 problems arise when a cell s need for nutrients differs from the amounts that are available 0 Normal cell health and functions are maintained when a nutritional environmental utopia exists within and around cells homeostasis Steps in the development of Deficiency Inadequate nutrient intake Depletion of tissue reserves of the nutrient Decreased blood nutrient level Insufficient nutrient available to cells Impaired cellular functions Physical signs and symptoms of de ciency Longterm impairment of health 0 Toxicity Excessive nutrient intake Saturation of tissue reserves of the nutrient Increased blood nutrient level Excessive nutrient available to cells Impaired cellular functions Physical signs and symptoms of toxicity Longterm impairment of health Adaptive mechanism healthy humans have adaptive mechanisms that partially protect the body from poor health due to uctuations in nutrient intake Malnutrition quotpoor nutritionquot FP P FP N FP P FP N Results from either inadequate or excessive availability of energy and nutrients Can result from poor diets as well as from diseases that interfere with the body s ability to use the nutrients consumed Primary malnutrition results when a poor nutritional state is dietary in origin Secondary malnutrition is precipitated by a disease state surgical procedure or medication Healthy diets contain all types of food that together provide calories nutrients and other bene cial substances in amounts that promote optimal functioning of cells and health Nutrientdense foods foods that are good sources of a number of nutrients but not packed with calories adequate diets are most easily obtained by eating these foods Emptycalorie foods foods that provide calories and low amounts of nutrients Nutrient Labeling Nutrition Facts Panel must list the content of fat saturated fat trans fat cholesterol sodium total carbs bers sugars protein vitamins A and C calcium and iron in a standard serving Ingredient Label food products must list ingredients beginning with the ingredient that contributes the greatest amount of weight to the product Dietary Supplement Labeling must show a quotSupplement Factsquot panel that lists serving size ingredients and DV of essential nutrients contained Enrichment the replacement of thiamin ribo avin niacin and iron that are lost when grains are re ned Forti cation the addition of one or more vitamins or minerals to a food product 0 Functional Foods a variety of products that have theoretically been modi ed to enhance their contribution to a healthy diet Take out potentially harmful components Increase the amount of nutrients and bene cial non nutrients Add new bene cial compounds to foods Prebiotics berlike indigestible carbs that are broken down by bacteria in the colon the break down foster the growth of bene cial bacteria Probiotics live bene cial bacteria that enter food products during fermentation and aging processes Nutritional Assessment 4 major components Clinicalphysical Assessment involves visual inspection of a person by a trained registered dietitian or other quali ed professional to note features that may be related to malnutrition DietaryAssessment 24 hour dietary calls food frequency questionnaires dietary history Anthropometric Assessment individual measures of body size height weight percent body fat bone density and head and weight circumferences Biochemical Assessment nutrient and enzyme levels DNA characteristics and other biological markers Review Questions answers at bottom True or False 1 Nutrition is de ned as quotthe study of foods their nutrients and other chemical constituents and the effects that food constituents have on healthquot 2 Nutrients are classi ed into ve basic groups carbohydrates protein fats vitamins and water 3 Almost all multipleingredient foods must be labeled with nutrition information 4 The term enriched on a food label means that extra vitamins and minerals have been added to the food to bolster its nutritional value 5 Healthy individuals require the same nutrients throughout life but the amounts of nutrients needed vary based on age growth and development Chapter 2 Overview 0 About 15 of all couples fail to conceive within 12 months of attempting pregnancy Fertility refers to the actual production of children 0 Fecundity addresses the biological capacity to bear children 0 lnfertility involuntary absence of production of children 0 3050 of conceptions are lost by resorption in the uterine wall within the rst 6 weeks after conception o 9 are lost by miscarriage in the rst 20 weeks of pregnancy 0 Subfertie women who experience multiple miscarriages men who have sperm abnormalities women who ovulate infrequently 18 of couples in America Female Reproductive System During puberty females develop monthly menstrual cycles to prepare an ovum for fertilization by sperm and the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg 0 Result from complex interactions among hormones secreted by the hypothalamus the pituitary gland and the ovary o 28 days long on average 0 First half of cycle follicular phase Last 14 days luteal phase Hormonal Effects 0 At the beginning of the follicular phase estrogen stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete gonadotropinreeasing hormone GnRH Causes the pituitary gland to release the follicle stimuating hormone FSH and lutenizing hormone LH o FSH prompts the growth and maturation of 620 follicles or capsules in the surface of the ovary in which ova mature o The presence of FSH stimulates the production of estrogen by cells within the follicles o Estrogen and FSH further stimulate the growth and maturation of follicles while rising LH levels cause cells within the follicles to secrete progesterone o Estrogen and Progesterone prompt the uterine wall to store glycogen and other nutrients and to expand the growth of blood vessels and connective tissue 0 These changes prepare the uterus for nourishing a conceptus after implantation the surge in LH levels just prior to ovulation result in the release of an ovum from a follicle which results in ovulation 0 Much of the hormonal activity that regulates biological processes during the luteal phase is initiated by the cells in the follicle left behind when the egg was released These cells grow in number and size and form the corpus luteum The corpus luteum secretes large amounts of progesterone and some estrogen which inhibit production of GnRH and the secretion of FSH and LH a Without these things ova within follicles do not mature and are not released I Estrogen and progesterone further stimulate the development of the endometrium Male Reproductive System Reproductive capacity in males is established by complex interactions among the hypothalamus pituitary gland and testes Testosterone and other androgens stimulate the maturation of sperm which takes 7080 days Sperm is stored in the epididymis 0 Eiaculation sperm mixes with secretions from the testes seminal vesicle prostate and bulbourethral gland to form semen Factors Related to Altered Fertility Inadequate and excessive levels of body fat Weight loss in normalweight individuals Oxidative stress Low antioxidant intake High alcohol intake Eating disorders Some chronic health problems High soy food diets Inadequate zinc status Heavy metal exposure Review Questions answers at bottom True or False 1 Nutrient intake from food and dietary supplements calorie intake and body fat affect fertility primarily by altering the environment in which eggs and sperm develop and modifying levels of hormones involved in reproductive processes 2 Weight loss of 1015 of body weight in normalweight men but not in normal weight women decrease fertility 3 Studies have consistently shown that high intakes of caffeine or coffee reduce fertility 4 Women should enter pregnancy with a good level of stored iron because it is easier to build up iron stores before than during pregnancy Matching Choices puberty subfertility luteinizing hormone progesterone miscarriage 1 A hormone that stimulates secretion of estrogen progesterone and testosterone and growth of the corpus luteum 2 Generally de ned as the loss of a conceptus in the rst 20 weeks of pregnancy 3 The period in life during which humans become biologically capable of reproduction 4 A hormone that prepares the uterus for a fertilization ovum and helps to maintain a pregnancy stimulates uterine lining buildup during menstrual cycle 5 Reduced level of fertility characterized by unusually long time to conception or repeated early pregnancy losses Answers Chapter 1 1 True 2 False 3 True 4 False 5 True Chapter 2 0 True or False 1 True 2 False 3 False 4 True 0 Matching Luteinizing hormone Miscarriage Pube y Progesterone Subfertility U39lbUUNH
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