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UD - HDFS 220 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UD - HDFS 220 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: University of Delaware
Department: Human Development
Course: CHILD DEVELOPMENT I: PRENATAL TO AGE 3
Professor: Jennifer Carrano
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1 -4
Uploaded: 10/01/2017
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background image Chapter 1: Issues, Theory, and Research in Child Development  Why Study Childhood Development?  Experiences influence who we are as adults
o
Understanding how children attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are  shaped  Example: rules -- if parents are consistent in disciplining you  early on then later in life you are more likely to follow rules  o Marshmallow test  Ability to be able to pursue goals is important skill Skills can be taught at 4, 14, or 40 -- never too late to be  taught these skills EARLY BEHAVIORS MATTER - self regulation, self control  this leads to positive outcomes later in life (lower BMI, higher 
test scores)
EARLY EXPERIENCES provide the foundation for who we will  become later in life  Improve lives of children
o
Fostering positive development requires understanding of how children feel, learn, grow, what's developmentally appropriate at different ages  o Important for the following groups: Parents -- reasonable expectations from what children can do Professionals --  huge influence on development due to  background  Policymakers -- direct effect on how children develop; hope to  optimize development for all children Example: Child trends' cost associated with teen  pregnancy is $9.2 billion/year -- we need data to effect change!  Example: head start programs   
How does Development Occur 
Physical Development 
o
Biological changes (changes in size, hormones, motor ability, neural  pathways, etc.)  Cognitive Development 
o
Changes in how we think, understand, and reason (knowledge  accumulation, ability to problem solve, and make decisions) Social-Emotional Development 
o
Ways we learn to connect with others (understand emotions, interact  effectively, and express/ Regulate our own emotions)  
THESE ALL OVERLAP WITH EACH OTHER 
Example: ability to crawl/walk (physical) influences both cognitive 
and social-emotional growth (changes interaction with others -- if 
they want someone they can move to them) 
Nature and Nurture 
o
IT IS BOTH - NATURE THROUGH NURTURE  o Genes, neighborhoods, and delinquency 
background image Kids who grow up in a violent neighborhood are more likely to  live a life of delinquency, but not all - it could be genetics -- the 
interaction of gene and the bad neighborhood produced violent 
behavior 
Continuous vs. Stage- like Development 
o
Series of small steps that gradually alter behavior or a discrete set of  specific stages that alter behavior in leaps and bounds  o Quantitative and Qualitative Changes  o Theories differ - there are both incremental (quantitative / continuous)  theories or stage (qualitative) theories Continuous Stage-like Height
Vocabulary
Factual 
knowledge
Movement (crawling -- walking)
Learning abstract concepts, such as justice 
or fairness  
Stability vs. Change 
o
Are we the same person we've always been or do we change and  reinvent ourselves along the way? EVIDENCE FOR BOTH  Shyness, anxiety, depression are relatively stable over  time (people who were shy as adults were most likely shy as 
children) BUT the way we express these traits change over time 
(ex: kicking and biting as toddlers vs. cyber bullying/social 
aggression as adolescents) 
Some characteristics like antisocial behavior, show high  stability in some individuals (life-course persistent?)  but 
discrete changes in other people 
Individual differences 
o
Studies must examine both what happens on average (what is  universal- ex: smiling) and how individuals differ  o Some things that are generally true in child development, but even  then, individual differences matter  Example: children with harsh parents are more aggressive on  average, but not every child will be  o Risk and protective factors play an important role  May have aggressive parents but protective factors such as  school life, genetics, etc.  o Equifinality- different pathways of development can result in same  outcome o Multifinality- same pathway can lead to different outcomes 
background image   The Role of the Child in Development
o
Niche picking  o Experiences influence the child and the child influence their  experiences -- both are at play -- feedback loop   
What are the Contexts of Development?
The ways in which children develop varies greatly depending on contexts  within which they grow  Context- broad term encompassing all of the settings in which development  occurs  o Family  Primary context  Take many different forms  SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN -- instilling norms, values,  attitudes, and beliefs -- could be dependent on culture  Within cultures, family resources vary ($, family structure,  religion, where you live, etc. ) which influences development in many 
ways 
Example: SES affects children from the prenatal through  the end of life -- good education, good food, good healthcare  o School  Academic, cognitive, social-emotional growth, physical  development (nutrition programs, phys. Ed., health screenings) Resources vary  o Community  Affects resources (availability of educational/recreational  opportunities, nutritious food, clean water, safety, etc.) o Culture- the system of behaviors, norms, beliefs, and traditions that  form in order to promote the survival of a group living in a particular 
environmental niche 
A way of describing similarities within one group and differences  between groups  A lot of development is very culturally specific 
background image Cultural differences are very important (ex: studies of harsh  parenting -- in certain environments like inner city this harsh style of 
parenting led to children being more safe)
Culture as a Context  "I am ……."  Individualism vs. Collectivism
o
Expectations and behaviors vary depending on which type of group  you grow up in  o Individualism- emphasizes the importance of the individual with  emphasis on independence and reliance on one's own abilities   o Collectivism- emphasizes obligations to others within your group Culture is reflected in play  Affects how children are parented 
o
Japan lets kids walk to school solo (some schools actually mandate it)  vs. in the US mom was arrested for letting child walk to park by himself  Japanese expected traits: communication skills, independence,  trusting others/ problem solving,  Americans: dependence on parents (normal for here), social  skills,  These things are based on what society values  Culture formed around religion, income, immediate family, schools  
How to be a Smart Consumer 
Know your sources 
o
Peer review (nothing gets published until this happens -- experts in the  field evaluating others work)  Become a critical thinker 
o
Be open to new ideas but look for evidence  o Ask questions, new ideas must be reviewed and critiqued o Research findings must be tested and replicated  Beware of generalizations 
o
Keep in mind both individual and group differences  Avoid perceptual bias: the tendency to see and understand something  based on how you expected it to be  o Example: if you hear a child scream, what would you think? -- your first thought is due to your own perceptual bias  Question "common sense" 
o
Commonly held beliefs about child development are not always correct and is more complicated than common sense 
 
background image Chapter 2: Theory & Research in Child 
Development 
Why are theories important? Developmental Theories are models of development that allow us to … 
o
Predict why something happens or what is going to happen -- about  new information  o Interpret information  o Organize knowledge  Helps shape the types of questions that we ask, the research we conduct, and our interpretations of findings  Development involves stability and change over time 
o
Must explain how change happens (example: is it quantitative or  qualitative)  o Why some aspects of behavior stay the same  o Whether change is due to nature, nurture, or an interaction between  them -- what is driving that change?   
A theory must be testable!
Most will never be definitively proven, but research allows us to provide  evidence for and/or against it 
background image Then we look to see whether evidence supporting a theory outweighs the  evidence against or vice versa  Constantly evolving over time, based on accumulated evidence   
Theories of Child Development 
Psychoanalytic theories: Erikson's Psychosocial Stages 
o
Focus on how internal processes (thoughts, emotions) shape  development  o Erikson expanded on Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development  o Major issue is identity development  o Stages of development rooted in psychosocial experiences rather than  just sexual urges  At each stage a central conflict must be resolved in order to  form a healthy identity  o Emphasizes culture, environment, and social experiences  o Child is an active participant, helping shape development  Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory 
o
Learning theories focus on how the environment (rather than internal  processes) influences behavior 

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School: University of Delaware
Department: Human Development
Course: CHILD DEVELOPMENT I: PRENATAL TO AGE 3
Professor: Jennifer Carrano
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1 -4
Uploaded: 10/01/2017
31 Pages 30 Views 24 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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