Exam 1 study guide: 319 all sections
Questions are numbered, answers are bolded
American Indian Studies (AIS)
1. Why is it important to unsettle the historical narrative about Columbus’s “discovery” of the Americas? The dominant narrative is a bit onesided. There are other sides to the story which are valid.
2. What is the most appropriate terminology (naming) to reference North America’s First Peoples? Identify them by their connections to their location
3. What were/are the demographics of North American’s First Peoples (pre and post EuroAmerican colonization)? 566 federallyrecognized tribal nations in the U.S., Ca home to 110 federallyrecognized tribes, 1.9 million american indians and alaska natives, La county largest urban indian pop. in U.S. If you want to learn more check out isb 202
4. What are the relational aspects of American Indian identity formation? The degree of indian blood, this included a social construction of race and legalization of race/racialization of american indian people
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5. Define colonization and settler colonialism and describe their impacts on the way American Indian people view these systems of oppression. Define: Colonization refers to both formal and informal methods that maintain subjugation and exploitation of indigenous peoples, lands and resources
Settler colonialism specific formation where foreign entities move into an indigenous occupied region, displace and dispossess indigenous people from their aboriginal lands and reproduce
Impacts: Colonization took away their sense of themselves. It also erased a lot of their history because of the forceful ways Europe put their values and traditions on them. Settler colonialism also did that.
6. What are US Federal definitions of American Indians—blood quantum and treatmaking; “nations not minorities”? They are sovereign nations and not minority groups. The US saw them as small, largely uncivilized nations. Seen as political and economical allies.
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7. How are the federal definitions different from the cultural definitions that American Indians use to describe themselves and their community? AI terms and definitions predate euro
american rules and their identity is rooted in people, place, and experience whereas federal definitions are rooted in the constitution and legal statuses. 8. What is the Doctrine of Discovery, its significance, and ongoing impact to American Indian people? How do its ideologies diverge from the philosophies of the First People of the Americas? The doctrine of discovery was a document stating that the europeans in the new world could, upon discovering nonchristian inhabitants, take away their land and resources and were only allowed occupancy of the territory. It highlights the colonial attitude of manifest destiny and how europeans used faith as a way to claim ownership of things that belonged to others. AI’s still aren’t allocated their original ownership of all their land to this day. The first people believed it was their land because they had always been there. If you want to learn more check out mgmt 10th edition
9. What examples of imposition of EuropeanAmerican settlers on America’s First People that Treuer and Wilkins allude to? Treuer talks about how religious practices were forbidden by the US government in 1883 and how the integration of christianityideas, values, and customsfound its way into traditional indian religious rituals.
Wilkins talks about how plenary power was allowed to restrict AI’s from selling their land to people.
10. How have American Indian resisted to EuroAmerican colonization according to Treuer? The tribes maintained a high triballanguage literacy. Performed ceremonies alongside Christians and federal ones, cloaked tradition in the flag, and practiced in hiding
11. What is the connection for American Indian people to land and place (sacred sites)? Cultural identity
12. What are the significance of place names for American Indian people? Cultural positionality
13. What indigenous territory is CSULB is built on? Puvungna
Africana Studies (AFRS)
1. ancient classical civilizations of Africa Egypt, Ethiopia, Nubia
2. moral v. commercial interpretation of enslavement inhumane vs. economic benefit
3. the Holocaust of Enslavement Human and moral dimension, destruction of: Human life 10 to 100,000,000/Human culture/
Human possibility Impact: Depopulations/Disruption/Destruction/Underdevelopment System: Violence and brutality/Cultural genocide/Terrorism/Domination
4. modes of resistance to enslavement cultural: retention daytoday: strikes/assault/suicide abolitionism: publications/fundraising armed resistance: revolts/ship mutinies/alliances/guerilla warfare
5. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Upheld separate but equal, segregation of public facilities 6. 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments 13: freedom 14:citizenship 15:right to vote
7. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional
8. racism vs. racial prejudice racial prejudice is a negative attitude toward a race based on assumptions. Racism is the ability to turn this attitude into public policy and socially sanctioned practice; systematic.
9. Freedom’s Journal first black newspaper
10. Achievements of the African American Freedom Movement desegregation end of a system similar to apartheid.
affirmative action processes of inclusion of marginalized groups. National focus on social justice issues. Mass organization and HBCUs. Armed revolt against abuse and exploitation.
11. Common goals of the Million Man March/Day of Absence and the Million Woman March; reaffirm the Black social justice tradition, strengthen family, community and struggle
12. Modes of resistance in African America protests, mass organization, creating programs
13. Harriet Tubman was the leader of helping free slaves through the underground railroad. Frederick Douglass was an african american reformer and abolitionist.
14. Malcolm X was a human rights activist. Fannie Lou Hamer was a voting rights activist and civil rights leader. Martin Luther King was a minister and activist, spokesperson and leader of civil rights movement.
15. Civil Rights (19541966) marches, demonstrations, legal battles, legislative, economic struggle. Black Power (19661969) internal organization, community development, revolts, confrontations, Black Studies, institutional build.
16. history, definition and fundamental aspects history is human, social processes, conflictual, and manageable. Definition: history is the struggle and record of humans in the process of shaping their world in their own image and interest
17. three aspects of racism racism: prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior.
white supremacy: the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race, and should therefore dominate society.
white nationalism: White nationalism is a type of nationalism or pannationalism which holds the belief that white people are a race and seeks to develop and maintain a white national identity. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majoritywhite countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost.
Chicano and Latino Studies (CHLS)
1. Difference between United Statesian and American American is a person belonging to all the Americas, United Statesian is a person belonging to the united states; broad vs. specific.
2. Meaning and evolution of Chicano: Tied to mexicanamerican history, connotation of lower status and no social meaning. Chicana/o: took away the patriarchy or masculine suffix present in the spanish language. Chican@: gender nuetrality to include people. Chicanx: inclusive of all genders. Both include those who have been pushed out or marginalized.
3. MexicoUS War The US wanted to expand to the west, via manifest destiny attitude. Mexico owned much of the west coast. They fought over two years until the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo was signed that gave the US former Mexico territory, now much of the west coast states.
4. Definition of and problems with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Land grants weren’t honored; Californios and other mexican landowners were overtaken by squatters rights, poor legal
reps, and long litigation, violence vigilante, intermarriage. The gold rush brought people to the west so there was an influx of people coming into the area. Voter eligibility: states not part of union.
5. Treaty’s impact on later generations of Mexican Americans Impact of loss on late generations of mexican americans
6. Why Mexicans became the main low wage workforce in the West moved toward being concentrated in low wage, service oriented work supported by stymied educational, housing, health and racial discriminations. Overall, widespread disempowerment and disenfranchisement
7. How Nativists and Agribusiness made immigration a criminal act (crimmigration) Nativists saw themselves as native inhabitants of the land. They lobbied to end immigration from all parts of the world except western europe; 1924 national origins act: Ban on contract laborers, epileptics, anarchists, polygamists, criminals and asian immigrants. Must pass a literacy test, health exam and pay $18 taxes and visa fees. Agribusiness set immigration limitations. The US Border patrol was established, creating immigration as a criminal act.
8. Aztlán Type of constitution the chicanos developed. Serves as the mythical homeland of the aztecs for spiritual and personal validation as well as sense of indigenous past. Brought along El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan: Est. in Santa Barbara then brought to Denver from conference. Its political purpose: we didn’t cross the border, the border crosses us.
9. Virgen de Guadalupe The story goes that the virgen appeared to an indeginous peasant named Juan Diego in 1531 in the hills of Tepeyac. She told him to go to the church in town and tell the church officials to create a shrine in her honor. He went to do what she said but the church didn’t believe him. He went back to the hills and when the Virgen appeared, he told her they didn’t believe him. So the Virgen gave him a cloak full of non native flowers and told him they wuld believe him this time. The boy went back to the church to show the flowers and inside his cloak was a photo imprinted in the fabric of the Virgen.
10. The Virgen de Guadalupe’s impact on Mexican & Chicanx women Creates a shame, Cognitive dissonance, Exploitation of body. Women are to live up to her. Be both a mother, by immaculate conception, and a virgin.
11. Religious conversion argument surrounding Virgen de Guadalupe Creates this strong religious sign, must remain pure.
12. Coatlicue A goddess, to be feared and loved. Her creation story goes: Coatlicue went into the shrine and collected the feathers and walked out and was pregnant. Coyolxauhqui, the daughter, plots to kill her mom. The son, Huitzilopochtli, was birthed and killed the daughter.
13. Coyolxauhqui the daughter of Coatlicue.
14. La Malinche & the various other names she was called Terrible traitor or rightful ancestor? Malinal or malinalli, Malintzin, Dona marina, malinche.
15. Why La Malinche’s role in the Aztec downfall is debatable she was a young girl gifted to the spanish conquistador along with 20 other women. Maybe she was used for her talents and was forced to translate and tell the secrets of the Aztec population.
16. Josefa Loaiza She was a mexican living in california during the gold rush. A white man, drunk, broke the door of her house, came into her house and, it is believed that he might have sexually assaulted her, then left. He returned the next day he passed by the house again and her husband insisted her pay for the door. The man began to say Josefa was a whore and she told him to repeat it in her house. He stepped inside and she stabbed him in the heart. She was sentenced to death by hanging. Her story shows the challenging of the gender roles and racism between a women of nonwhite race and a white man.
Asian American Studies (ASAM)
1. According to Margalit Fox, Tyrus Wong was “one of the most celebrated ChineseAmerican artists of the 20th century” who spent much of his life “generally unknown to the general public”? What are some of his influences, particularly in the film industry? He is the mastermind behind the visual art for bambi, first asian american to work for disney.
2. “Oriental” and “Asian American” Oriental meant “the east”. Problematic term that’s very vague. Definition depends what European country is the center.
Asian american coined by Yuji Ichioka, the asian american movement. Political, asian american group claimed their name as referring to origins. Responding to attitudes of asians being foreign, also based on ideas of culture.
3. The significance of the 1875 Page Law Barred chinese, japanese and mongolian prostitutes, felons and contract laborers. Law based on morality and targeted chinese women. Effective in reducing number of chinese women immigrants.
4. The significance of the 1875 Page Law, 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement, 1917 Barred Zone Act, 1924 National Origins Act, and 1934 TydingsMcDuffie Act as a group Excluded a lot of asian communities in the US. Moved from one asian population to including majority of them.
5. 1898 U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark Wong born in san fran and parents from china. Left to visit grandparents in China and U.S. wouldn't let him in. Argued he was a U.S. citizen, went to supreme court, ruled recognized as citizen. Court acknowledged that chinese were persons
6. 1922 Ozawa v. United States: Argued that he should be considered white because he was culturally american. Supreme court argues that white means caucasian.
1923 United States v. Thind: Argues that he is caucasian. Supreme court says caucasian but not white. White is how a common person defines whiteness
7. California antimiscegenation laws and Salvador Roldan Law prohibited interracial marriages. Salvador was engaged to a white british women. Law stated that there can’t be marriage between whites and blacks, mixed mexicans or mongolianstargeting chinese. Roldan, a filipino american, argued he was malay not mongolian. Court concluded he was right, but later the law was changed to include malay.
8. picture brides 190820 Japanese, korean, and okinawan women became picture brides in order to travel, seek education, help out their families financially, and flee social restrictions of home. Both japanese gov and US gov wanted to make sure the men could finally support wives.
They had to work a few years before they could be match made in order to make sure they could afford the married lifestyle
9. Executive Order 9066 Created military areas from which person could be excluded for reasons of national defense.
10. Broad trends of the first and second waves First wave: Part of an international labor migration and the expansion of the american empire. Distinctive national/ethnic migration, Views as cheap, expendable labor sources.
Second wave: wwII internment of japanese americans, Gradual easing of exclusionary laws. Quality of life and civil liberties depended upon whether country of origin was US ally or not. More women, children
11. Three broad events that directly influenced the third wave 1965 immigration reform act, Global economic reconstruction, and Vietnam war and us involvement in southeast asia.
12. How did the Civil Rights Movement influence the 1965 Immigration Act? They saw that other minority groups began to organize and demand civil rights so they fought to abolish nationalorigin quotas and emphasized family reunification and occupational preferences until 1976.
13. According to Fong, how did the second and third broad events create “extreme diversity among Asian Americans” after 1965? Arrivals include educate elites, urban and rural people, children of american military personnel, relocation survivors, and holocaust survivors. 19601970 asian americans are .5% of us pop, 35% foreign born, majority 2nd and 3rd gen americansBecause of picture brides and nuclear households. 95% chinese, japanese, and filipinos, Japanese americans are largest, 41%.
14. Who was Larry Itliong? Filipino who was the idea behind the grape strike. How was he involved in the Delano Grape Strike of 1965? He realized filipinos needed to fight for their rights in agriculture.
What two movements did he help bring together? He brought together the filipino Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee and the mexican National Farm Workers Association.
According to Dawn Mabalon, what is the significance of remembering Larry Itliong’s story? She says that forgetting this story helps further the invisibility of Filipinos in general, from the foreign policy in the Philippines to general labor history in K12 and college. She also says The farmworkers movement was a social justice movement and it’s important to remember the presence of Larry and the filipino population during this event.
15. Why does Vijay Prashad emphasize the “state selection” processes that created a particular representation of AIs in the U.S.? Prashad says that state selection creates the assumption that asians are technically advanced based on their common professions in the US, caused by the work visas by the US’s demand for foreign trade workers in medical fields and sciences.
How does it address stereotypical images of Asian Indians (desis)? They are seen as immigrant workers that are used for cheap labor.
16. Why does Prashad describe H1B visa holders as “technobracero” workers? What is his argument? He connects it with the H2 visa holders in agriculture and how they are exploited for their bodies and skills. H1 holders are the same, they are exploited for their technical skill and the country doesn’t care about them as a person or their culture.
POSSIBLE ESSAY QUESTIONS: You will write one essay out of two essays given. Your essay should be clear and coherent and use material from both lectures and readings. Below are two possible essays.
1. Using Dr. Maulana Karenga’s definition of racism (which includes imposition, ideology, and institutional arrangements), identify and explain the role racism played historically in the oppression of two of the following groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Chicano/Latino Americans, and Asian Americans.
Mexicanamericans are an oppressed group in the US. Mexicans in general are oppressed, starting from the mexicanamerican war where the US fought to take away mexican land. There was racial prejudice that showed an attitude that the US was more deserving over the mexicans of the land. Racism is also apparent. For example, in agribusiness mexican and latin american workers are allowed a temporary visa to work in harvest fields in the US for little wages and terrible working/living conditions. They are also so oppressed that they dare to speak out against these injustices in fears of being fired and deported. This is very similar to the Asian Americans. From the first asian immigrants, they have been excluded from US society. Today they are erased from society unless they are leaders in health sciences and science professions.
2. People of Color have resisted exploitation and domination in various forms, such as armed struggles, legal challenges, cultural resistance, the Civil Rights Movement, etc. Discuss such resistance for two of the following groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Chicano/Latino Americans, and Asian Americans.
African americans were the first to speak out for social justice during the Civil Right Movement and the black power movement. They both fought for justice and civil rights for blacks in the US through desegregation and black love. Legal battles led to the black identity being taken back and defined by the black community while also using it to create an awareness of the black struggle and achievements. The asian american movement for the delano grape strike banned together filipinos and mexicans in agriculture to speak out about low wages and working conditions in the fields. Together they created a loud voice about the injustices of their communities through exploitation of their bodies.