REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2
1. Know the details of pH scale…What is an acidic solution?
Acidic solution An acidic solution is any aqueous solution which has a pH < 7.0 ([H+] EX. Lemon juice, Vinegar
2.What is a basic (alkaline) solution . Understand how the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions change with acidic solution and basic solution
Basic solution Fluids that have a greater proportion OH ions to H+ ions. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a basic solution would be ___Lower_ (higher or lower) than in pure water. We also discuss several other topics like What are early uruk cities?
3. A pH 4 solution has _______________ hydrogen ions than a pH 8 solution does. (Remember that the pH scale is a log10 scale)
A. 4 times more
B. 4 times less
C. 40000 times less
D. 10000 times less
E. 10000 times more
1. What are macro molecules? What are the four major categories of macro molecules? What are the elements common to all macromolecules. In addition to those elements DNA contains Nucleotides___ and _Amino acids__
Macromolecules A sequence of simple molecules
4 Types Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and nucleic acid
ALL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS COMPOSED OF CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN
3. What simple molecules (monomers) are the building blocks of complex carbohydrates? Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
4. What are 3 examples of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)? What “roles” do complex carbohydrates play within living things?
Starch, Cellulose, Chitin. Carbohydrates are fuel for living things. We also discuss several other topics like What is the derivative of ln of a constant?
5. What are the examples of lipids found in living cells? Differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. What “roles” do lipids play within living things? Fats, Sterols, Phospholipids. Saturated fats can be packed together tightly, and solid at room temp. Unsaturated fats cannot be packed together tightly, and are liquid at room temp.
6. What simple molecules are the building blocks of proteins? What are the different functions of proteins?
Amino Acids. Different function:
Structural Hair, fingernails, feathers, horns, cartilage, tendons
Protective Help fight microorganism
Regulatory Control cell activity
Contractile Allow muscles to contract, heart to pump, sperm to swim Transport Carry Oxygen Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in federalist 10?
7. What element besides C, H and O is present in amino acids? What is the name for the covalent bond that forms between amino acids? (ans: peptide bonds) Nitrogen atom bonded to hydrogen atom. Carboxyl group, and amino group.
8. Proteins have different levels of structure. Know the four different levels. At which level is it functional?
Primary Structure The sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure The twists or pleated folds formed by hydrogen bonds between amino acids
Tertiary structure The 3D shape formed by multiple twists and bends in polypeptide chain
Quaternary Structure Two or more polypeptide chains bonded together
9. What happens to a protein when it gets denatured? What causes denaturation? Proteins lose their shape and can’t function properly. Denaturation is from extreme environment disruption (heat, pH). If you want to learn more check out What refers to the event when physical properties of a stimulus are translated into neural impulses?
10. What simple molecules are the building blocks of nucleic acids? Phosphate, Sugar, Nitrogenous
11. Name two important nucleic acids found in all cells. What is their role? Know the differences between RNA and DNA
DNA Double helix, connected with hydrogen bonds, Adenine ALWAYS pairs with Thymine, and Guanine ALWAYS pairs with Cytosine.
RNA Only has one sugar phosphate backbone, and instead of thymine RNA has uracil.
12. Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide. Know the different types of bonds that are present in the nucleotide structure
Nucleotides contain phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogenous base. Chapter 3: Cells
1. What is a cell ? Cells are the smallest independently functioning living units. Each cell can perform all basic functions of life including _Reproducing____
2. Know the two general types of cells. Compare and contrast the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure. (Refer to your notes and textbook)
Prokaryotic cells No nucleus, its DNA is in the cytoplasm, and it is ancient. Eukaryotic cells Nucleus, much bigger than pro., cytoplasm contains organelles
3. List the two major groups of prokaryotes. Which one is generally found in extreme habitats? Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea is found in extreme habitats. Don't forget about the age old question of What are some scarcity examples?
4. What are features common to all cells? We also discuss several other topics like What organs are in the abdominal quadrants?
Every cell is bordered with a plasma membrane
5. Describe endosymbiosis theory. Know evidence for this theory.
Provides the best explanation for the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes: chloroplast in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals. Chloroplasts enable plants and algae to convert sunlight into more usable form of energy. Mitochondria helps plants and animals harness the energy stored in molecules.
6. What benefits do organelles give eukaryotic cells?
Physical separation of compartments within a eukaryotic cell means that the cell has distinct areas in which different chemical reactions can occur simultaneously.
7. DNA is located within the nucleus in the eukaryotic cells. It associates with a variety of proteins to keep it organized. In this form, the DNA is referred to as _Organelles_
8. Describe the organelles in eukaryotic cells. Know their functions well
Nucleus, Pores, RE reticulum, Plasma membrane, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, smooth reticulum, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus, lysosome
9. Differences between plant and animal cells
Plant cells Has a chloroplast, cell wall, and vacuole
Animal cellsHas a centriole
10. Cilia and flagella are part of the _Cellular movement____.
11. The rough ER appears rough due to the presence of _Ribosomes___. Compare and contrast rough ER and smooth ER
Rough Modifies proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism
Smooth Synthesizes lipids such as fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids. Detoxifies molecules, such as alcohol, drugs, and metabolic waste products.
12. What are the different molecules that make up a cell membrane. Know how each molecule helps in the function of cell membrane
Phospholipids, Receptor proteins, Glycoprotein, carbohydrate chains, cholesterol, recognition proteins, transport proteins, membrane enzymes
13. What is the function of cell membrane? What happens if you have a faulty cell membrane? Keeps the cell content in place and regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Faulty cell means sickness.
14. Know the differences between diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport
Diffusion a passive transport in which a particle, called solute, is dissolved in a gas or liquid and moves from a high area solute concentration to an area of lower concentration
Facilitated diffusion Spontaneous diffusion across the plasma membrane requires transport protein
Active TransportOccurs when molecules move across a membrane w/ energy input
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2
Chap 5: DNA and gene expression
Watson and Crick (1953) –were the first to describe the structure of DNA.Who got the Nobel Prize for discovering the DNA structure? Linus Pauling DNA Structure:
Know the structure of a DNA nucleotide. It has a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Which 4 bases are found in DNA nucleotides? Adenine, thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
What are the base pairing rules in DNA?
G always pairs with C
A always pairs with T
What type of bond is found between nitrogenous bases?
(This is the bond that holds the opposite strands together.)
What type of bond is between nucleotides of the same strand? phosphodiester bond or a covalent bond
What type of backbone does a strand of DNA have?
Sugar Phosphate strand
DNA to Proteins =Gene expression
Transcription (Know where it occurs – know what is formed – know what enzyme is involved)
Transcription is the first in the twostep process by which DNA regulates a cell’s activity and its synthesis of proteins. Transcription enzyme helps make mRNA.
If you had a gene that read ATTCGCAT, what base order would the TRANSCRIPT (mRNA sequence) have? UAAGCGUA
Which nitrogenous bases are found in the nucleotides found in RNA? Is RNA a single stranded nucleic acid or a double stranded nucleic acid? Know the differences between RNA and DNA
RNA bases are Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Uracil (U), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) SINGLE STRANDED NUCLEIC ACID
How many types of RNA are there? What are their names? What are their functions?
mRNA messenger RNA carries the genetic code
tRNA transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes
rRNA ribosomal RNA along with ribosomes helps make proteins Can RNA leave the nucleus? Does DNA leave the nucleus during gene expression?. RNA can leave the nucleus but DNA cannot.
(Know where it occurs – know what is formed – know what types of molecules are involved )
Translation occurs once the mRNA molecule has moved into the cytoplasm. In translation, the information is read and ingredients present in the cytoplasm are used to produce a protein.
Codons (What are they? On what molecule are they found?)
3 bases that represent amino acids, ALWAYS ON MRNA.
Anticodons (What are they? On what molecule are they found?)
A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
Genetic code (Explain what the genetic code is.
The nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
Do all organisms have the same code Is it universal?) What is one application of the universal genetic code? Answer: to make genetically modified organisms. Yes the code is universal.
During Translation, which molecule acts as the translator?
The tRNA acts as the translation between mRNA and protein by bringing the specific amino acid coded for the mRNA codon.
What types of bonds are formed during translation? (Hint: Think about what molecules are being formed during translation)
Do all cells have ribosomes? What is a gene?
Yes all cells have ribosomes to manufacture proteins.
A gene is a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.