You will be writing your first quiz on October 5, in the final 30 minutes of class, i.e. from 11:00 to 11:30.
Chapters 2 and 3 of the course textbook will be covered on this quiz, along with related material presented in class since the beginning of the semester, and related material posted on the course Moodle site.
The quiz will present you with a list of 8 terms/names/artifacts/titles. You will choose FIVE(5) of these, and for each choice you will provide
∙ a concise, accurate, and essential identification;
∙ a comment on the significance of the artifact/place/person/title in the study of the history of the Ancient Near East.
Total marks possible: (5 x 4marks) 20 marks.
This quiz is weighted at 10 % of your final grade.
Euphrates and Tigris rivers: Two rivers and the near east that both start apart and join together to eventually lead to the Persian Gulf. The land between these 2 rivers served as fertile ground to become a “cradle” future civilizations to flourish. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the derivative of a square root?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in federalist 10?
Ubaid (6000-3700BC): One of the first civilization and longest lived in ancient Mesopotamia, they were a series of small independent communities, each independent yet very similar. They instituted the temple as a central institution to lead the community and serve as economic centers. We also discuss several other topics like What are the two main points that will effect sensation and perception?
Early Uruk Cities: A city is a settlement with a substantial amount of people and territory with each individual holding a variety of jobs; however, a city isn’t self-
substantial. cities emerged in the South due to drier climate in the North, leading people to form settlements around other settlements, thus forming cities.
Early Uruk Period (3700BC- 3500BC): A period which showed a lot of agricultural innovations such as an increase in the number of canals, sluices, plows, sleds, and the optimization of the wheel. This period marked the start of animal domestication as working animals, an increase in metal working like gold, silver, and tin, as well as the first standard for weights and measures. This in turn helped in the development of bigger administrations (invention of cylindrical seal) and architectural planning (mostly for temples) . Don't forget about the age old question of What are some scarcity examples?
Cylinder Seal: A cylindrical shaped seal which contained unique engravings on it to represent and individual or a family. These seals eventually evolve into stamp seals and were not only used by individuals but were used to represent whole cities and communities. Don't forget about the age old question of What organs are in the abdominal quadrants?
Beveled rim bowl: Simply a bowl with a beveled rim which was then used as a volumetric measuring unit. Several different settlements adopted this system for standard weights and measures.
Late Uruk (3500-3000 BC): By 3000 BC Uruk had expanded to a population of 15 000. It housed the Inanna Complex with the earliest texts written in proto cuneiform and underwent huge progress in terms of script and relations with other civilizations and communities around Uruk. This led to Uruk spreading its knowledge to other
places such as Egypt where evidence of cylindric seals came about.
Proto Cuneiform, Cuneiform: An early type of pictographic writing which consisted of engraving texts with a stylus into a clay tablet 5cm wide and 2.5cm thick. This served as a precursor to future writing styles and was used for both economic texts and scribble texts. By 2500 BC the use of cuneiform is widespread and evolved to express even abstract ideas. In its final stage, a symbol could stand for a world of its own or just as a syllable. Don't forget about the age old question of What sights do infants prefer?
Boula: A precursor to the piggy bank, the Boula is a clay container with tokens placed inside to represent different commodities one owned and its quantity. Fresh clay sealed the container and the owner’s seal would be impressed on it. This was an early idea on a way to keep tab on who had which possessions and how much of it.
Standard List of Professions: A text written around 3000 BC which was very popular as seen from its many copies. It presented a list of all jobs one could hold in Ancient Uruk and their position on the social ladder. This order of hierarchy remained served as a skeleton to be built on by future civilizations in the east: King, leaders (leader of plow, leader of lamb…), priests, common people (gardeners, cooks, jewelers…).
Early Dynastic Sumerians (3000 – 2350 BC): The Sumerians came from the North and East of the Mesopotamia during the Ubaid Period and settled there slowly. The Early Dynastic period was a period of growth such that by the end 80% of
Sumerians lived in cities. They were well known for their contribution to language, religion, governmental administration, and architecture.
En-Heduana: A famous Sumerian priestess who composed a text which provided information about the basic structure of the south which was made up of 42 sections and provided information about 35 temples. The text became so famous that lots of copies circulated.
Edin: A sort of uncultivated “no man’s land” between cities states in Sumer. This land was used as food for cattle and was constantly fought over.
Temple organization: They were the special people who served the Gods through exorcism, offerings, and organization of temples. They controlled 1/3 or all agricultural land which was divided into wages for workers, a gift to high ranking priests, and land dedicated to the Gods. For a long time, the Temple had a huge say in what was to be done and not be done in ancient Mesopotamia.
Gurush and Geme: Male and female laborer’s respectively, they comprised of 40- 45% of the total population. They were the ones in charge of maintaining the land and building new buildings. Although not slaves, they were barely paid anything, and had almost no chance of getting out of that life.
The ME: A constitution of rules and regulations pertaining to everything and everyone in the universe. One could have a good afterlife if he/she followed the ME. This is what dictated how people should live in ancient Mesopotamia.
Akitu/Akiti: One of the many festivals in ED Sumer, which was a sort of new year’s festival in which a sacred marriage rite was conducted meant to emulate Inanna and Demuli’s (Inanna’s once mortal lover) marriage. In doing so, ED Sumer believed that they secured prosperity by pleasing the Gods and Goddesses.
Sumerian King List: Written in 2120 BC it was a report of, almost, all the kings in ancient Sumer, divided into two sections: before and after the Great Flood. This king List greatly helped defining the boundaries of Dynasties and which king rules where.
Palaces (E-Gal): Palaces were simply bigger huts which were better built and with better materials. They represented the seat of secular rule in city states that had such an establishment and tended to compete a bit with the Temple organization. Kings and rulers usually inhabited those palaces and contained.
Elam: The area currently known as the Iranian Plateau, it grew greatly during the ED but was never as urbanized as the west. In Elam, the city state of Susa specifically, was one of the only cities which refused to bend to Akkadian rule thus showing that the Akkadians didn’t always conquer but also signed treaties.
LugalKignedudu & Lugalzegesi: Both King of Kish, they were the first semi successful rulers who attempted in unifying the Mesopotamia. They conquered several city states such as Ur and Kish.
Sargon (2334-2279 BC): One-time King of Kish who brought all of Southern Mesopotamia under his control to make a Great Empire. He was the who set the precedent for future empires to come by ruling with an iron by through the
destruction of all rebellions. He instilled a new system of weights and measures as well as made the Akkadian language mandatory both for official business.
Rimish: Successor to Sargon, he had to deal with lots of rebellions and conquer everything again. He died after a 9-year rule due to a diplomatic assassination.
Manish Tush: Took over after Rimish and went across the Persian Gulf to secure trade routes. He gained control of land up to the silver mines.
Naram-Sin (2254-2193 BC): Second great Akkadian ruler, he named him a “God King” to secure a better relationship with the Temple and be more popular with the people. Naram fought many wars but never once did her have to fight against rebellions against North and South Meso. He was said to have been the reason for the end of the Akkadian empire due to his blasphemous idea of being a God.
Gutties: They were a nomadic tribe coming from North and East of the Mesopotamia and took over during Shar Kali Shari’s rule. They then became the dominant power in South Mesopotamia for a bit but there never was a strong unity.
Gudea: A ruler in Lagash who fared quite well during the 100-year drought period after the death of Shar Kali Shari.
Utu Heagal: Coming out of Uruk, he took an army and drove the Gutties out then proceeded to conquer some city states in the area. Having gained control of both, he called himself “King of Sumer and Akkad.” He thus started the 3rd Dynasty of Ur which lasted for 5, relatively, peaceful generations.
Ur Namu: Inherited Utu’s territory and set forth a restauration protocol to renovate cities such as Ur that were damaged by the Gutties. Within 4 years he also adopted the title of “King of Sumer and Akkad” and thus moved North, meeting little resistance, and conquered all those lands previously ravaged by the Gutties. Some places, like Mari, were annexed by alliance either through a contract or marriage. In his restoration process, he constructed several Ziggurats for the Gods.
Shulgi: Succeeded Ur Namu and ruled for a long 47 years. He tried to keep a low profile and concern himself with the internal affairs of Sumer and Akkad. He created a law code which is said to be the oldest surviving law code which has even influenced Hammurabi.
Shagin(a): A general who oversaw a certain region independent of each province’s borders.
Gun/Gunmada: Tax of the provinces in the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. Is was to be paid in livestock or grain.