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CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY / History / HIST 219 / What are euphrates and tigris rivers?

What are euphrates and tigris rivers?

What are euphrates and tigris rivers?


School: Concordia University
Department: History
Course: Ancient Near East
Professor: Kathleen macdonald
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: history, Classics, and Studyguide
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 219 CLAS 230 Quiz 1 Study guide
Description: This is a study guide containing several terms and their definition that could land on the exam.
Uploaded: 10/01/2017
4 Pages 154 Views 3 Unlocks

HIST 219 

What are euphrates and tigris rivers?

Exam #1 

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You will be writing your first quiz on October 5, in the final 30 minutes of class, i.e.  from 11:00 to 11:30.

Chapters 2 and 3 of the course textbook will be covered on this quiz, along with  related material presented in class since the beginning of the semester, and related  material posted on the course Moodle site.

The quiz will present you with a list of 8 terms/names/artifacts/titles. You will choose FIVE(5) of these, and for each choice you will provide

∙ a concise, accurate, and essential identification;

∙ a comment on the significance of the artifact/place/person/title in the study  of the history of the Ancient Near East.  

What is ubaid (6000-3700bc)?

Total marks possible: (5 x 4marks) 20 marks.

This quiz is weighted at 10 % of your final grade.


Euphrates and Tigris rivers: Two rivers and the near east that both start apart  and join together to eventually lead to the Persian Gulf. The land between these 2  rivers served as fertile ground to become a “cradle” future civilizations to flourish.

Ubaid (6000-3700BC): One of the first civilization and longest lived in ancient  Mesopotamia, they were a series of small independent communities, each  independent yet very similar. They instituted the temple as a central institution to  lead the community and serve as economic centers.

Early Uruk Cities: A city is a settlement with a substantial amount of people and  territory with each individual holding a variety of jobs; however, a city isn’t self-

What are early uruk cities?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the derivative of ln of a constant?

substantial. cities emerged in the South due to drier climate in the North, leading  people to form settlements around other settlements, thus forming cities. If you want to learn more check out What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in federalist 10?

Early Uruk Period (3700BC- 3500BC): A period which showed a lot of  agricultural innovations such as an increase in the number of canals, sluices, plows,  sleds, and the optimization of the wheel. This period marked the start of animal  domestication as working animals, an increase in metal working like gold, silver,  and tin, as well as the first standard for weights and measures. This in turn helped  in the development of bigger administrations (invention of cylindrical seal) and  architectural planning (mostly for temples) . Don't forget about the age old question of How a stimulus becomes a sensation?

Cylinder Seal: A cylindrical shaped seal which contained unique engravings on it  to represent and individual or a family. These seals eventually evolve into stamp  seals and were not only used by individuals but were used to represent whole cities  and communities.

Beveled rim bowl: Simply a bowl with a beveled rim which was then used as a  volumetric measuring unit. Several different settlements adopted this system for  standard weights and measures.

Late Uruk (3500-3000 BC): By 3000 BC Uruk had expanded to a population of 15  000. It housed the Inanna Complex with the earliest texts written in proto cuneiform and underwent huge progress in terms of script and relations with other civilizations and communities around Uruk. This led to Uruk spreading its knowledge to other  

places such as Egypt where evidence of cylindric seals came about.

Proto Cuneiform, Cuneiform: An early type of pictographic writing which  consisted of engraving texts with a stylus into a clay tablet 5cm wide and 2.5cm  thick. This served as a precursor to future writing styles and was used for both  economic texts and scribble texts. By 2500 BC the use of cuneiform is widespread  and evolved to express even abstract ideas. In its final stage, a symbol could stand  for a world of its own or just as a syllable. Don't forget about the age old question of What refer to what you give up in terms of your opportunity cost-­value of the next best alternative?

Boula: A precursor to the piggy bank, the Boula is a clay container with tokens  placed inside to represent different commodities one owned and its quantity. Fresh  clay sealed the container and the owner’s seal would be impressed on it. This was  an early idea on a way to keep tab on who had which possessions and how much of  it.

Standard List of Professions: A text written around 3000 BC which was very  popular as seen from its many copies. It presented a list of all jobs one could hold in Ancient Uruk and their position on the social ladder. This order of hierarchy  remained served as a skeleton to be built on by future civilizations in the east: King,  leaders (leader of plow, leader of lamb…), priests, common people (gardeners,  cooks, jewelers…). Don't forget about the age old question of What organs are in the abdominal quadrants?
We also discuss several other topics like When and what can infant’s see?

Early Dynastic Sumerians (3000 – 2350 BC): The Sumerians came from the  North and East of the Mesopotamia during the Ubaid Period and settled there slowly. The Early Dynastic period was a period of growth such that by the end 80% of

Sumerians lived in cities. They were well known for their contribution to language,  religion, governmental administration, and architecture.

En-Heduana: A famous Sumerian priestess who composed a text which provided  information about the basic structure of the south which was made up of 42  sections and provided information about 35 temples. The text became so famous  that lots of copies circulated.

Edin: A sort of uncultivated “no man’s land” between cities states in Sumer. This  land was used as food for cattle and was constantly fought over.

Temple organization: They were the special people who served the Gods through  exorcism, offerings, and organization of temples. They controlled 1/3 or all  agricultural land which was divided into wages for workers, a gift to high ranking  priests, and land dedicated to the Gods. For a long time, the Temple had a huge say  in what was to be done and not be done in ancient Mesopotamia.

Gurush and Geme: Male and female laborer’s respectively, they comprised of 40- 45% of the total population. They were the ones in charge of maintaining the land  and building new buildings. Although not slaves, they were barely paid anything,  and had almost no chance of getting out of that life.

The ME: A constitution of rules and regulations pertaining to everything and  everyone in the universe. One could have a good afterlife if he/she followed the ME.  This is what dictated how people should live in ancient Mesopotamia.

Akitu/Akiti: One of the many festivals in ED Sumer, which was a sort of new year’s  festival in which a sacred marriage rite was conducted meant to emulate Inanna  and Demuli’s (Inanna’s once mortal lover) marriage. In doing so, ED Sumer believed that they secured prosperity by pleasing the Gods and Goddesses.  

Sumerian King List: Written in 2120 BC it was a report of, almost, all the kings in  ancient Sumer, divided into two sections: before and after the Great Flood. This king List greatly helped defining the boundaries of Dynasties and which king rules where.

Palaces (E-Gal): Palaces were simply bigger huts which were better built and with  better materials. They represented the seat of secular rule in city states that had  such an establishment and tended to compete a bit with the Temple organization.  Kings and rulers usually inhabited those palaces and contained.

Elam: The area currently known as the Iranian Plateau, it grew greatly during the  ED but was never as urbanized as the west. In Elam, the city state of Susa  specifically, was one of the only cities which refused to bend to Akkadian rule thus  showing that the Akkadians didn’t always conquer but also signed treaties.

LugalKignedudu & Lugalzegesi: Both King of Kish, they were the first semi successful rulers who attempted in unifying the Mesopotamia. They conquered  several city states such as Ur and Kish.

Sargon (2334-2279 BC): One-time King of Kish who brought all of Southern  Mesopotamia under his control to make a Great Empire. He was the who set the  precedent for future empires to come by ruling with an iron by through the

destruction of all rebellions. He instilled a new system of weights and measures as  well as made the Akkadian language mandatory both for official business.

Rimish: Successor to Sargon, he had to deal with lots of rebellions and conquer  everything again. He died after a 9-year rule due to a diplomatic assassination.

Manish Tush: Took over after Rimish and went across the Persian Gulf to secure  trade routes. He gained control of land up to the silver mines.  

Naram-Sin (2254-2193 BC): Second great Akkadian ruler, he named him a “God  King” to secure a better relationship with the Temple and be more popular with the  people. Naram fought many wars but never once did her have to fight against  rebellions against North and South Meso. He was said to have been the reason for  the end of the Akkadian empire due to his blasphemous idea of being a God.

Gutties: They were a nomadic tribe coming from North and East of the  Mesopotamia and took over during Shar Kali Shari’s rule. They then became the  dominant power in South Mesopotamia for a bit but there never was a strong unity.  

Gudea: A ruler in Lagash who fared quite well during the 100-year drought period  after the death of Shar Kali Shari.

Utu Heagal: Coming out of Uruk, he took an army and drove the Gutties out then  proceeded to conquer some city states in the area. Having gained control of both,  he called himself “King of Sumer and Akkad.” He thus started the 3rd Dynasty of Ur  which lasted for 5, relatively, peaceful generations.

Ur Namu: Inherited Utu’s territory and set forth a restauration protocol to renovate cities such as Ur that were damaged by the Gutties. Within 4 years he also adopted  the title of “King of Sumer and Akkad” and thus moved North, meeting little  resistance, and conquered all those lands previously ravaged by the Gutties. Some  places, like Mari, were annexed by alliance either through a contract or marriage. In  his restoration process, he constructed several Ziggurats for the Gods.

Shulgi: Succeeded Ur Namu and ruled for a long 47 years. He tried to keep a low  profile and concern himself with the internal affairs of Sumer and Akkad. He created a law code which is said to be the oldest surviving law code which has even  influenced Hammurabi.

Shagin(a): A general who oversaw a certain region independent of each province’s  borders.

Gun/Gunmada: Tax of the provinces in the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. Is was to be paid in  livestock or grain.

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