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UCR - ANTH 002 - Week 1 Class Notes Biological Anthropology (ANTH002)

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UCR - ANTH 002 - Week 1 Class Notes Biological Anthropology (ANTH002)

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Lee
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Anthro 2, Anthro, and biological anthropology
Name: Week 1 Class Notes Biological Anthropology (ANTH002)
Description: These are class notes taken during week 1.
Uploaded: 10/02/2017
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background image Week 1: Class Notes for ANTH002 What is Anthropology? The study of human beings from a cross­cultural perspective. What are the four main fields of Anthropology? 1. Cultural Anthropology: study of societies and their culture 2. Linguistic Anthropology: study of a range of languages, their origins, and use over time,  in different regions and societies 3. Archaeology: uses material culture (artifacts) to study people from the past
4. Biological Anthropology: study of humans as biological organisms and their evolutionary
journey (also called Physical Anthropology) Areas of Biological Anthropology Primatology: study of living and non­living primates  Human biology: study of human adaptation in different environmental regions all over 
the world; the human body can adapt easily. Example: some live in the desert, while 
others live in polar regions
Paleoanthropology: study of changes in bone structure and body shape Skeletal biology: study of the condition in which bones are found Paleopathology: study of disease in humans and ancestral human populations Forensic Anthropology: the study of human remains in a legal perspective  How will we study Biological Anthropology? Understanding human adaptations, variation, and changes based in science Using observation and experimentation to learn about the physical and material world Rejecting your hypothesis Understanding phenomena through:  1. Observation: looking for patterns and recording information regarding nature and  behavior 2. Generalization: formulating general concepts by abstracting common qualities 3. Verification: testing an explanation  Example: Your phone is not charging 1. Observation: (pattern searching): it is only this phone that won’t charge 2. Generalization (possible explanation): does this charger not work?
3. Verification (testing): try another charger­ did that fix it?
Test the hypothesis:  The goal is to reject the hypothesis If it cannot be falsified, it eventually becomes a theory Theories are not absolute truths­ they can change or be updated based on new discoveries
background image Hypothesis vs. Theory Theory: a well substantiated explanation of some natural world phenomenon  Theories have predictive power and help come up with explanations of the future based 
on the past
A theory is based on many hypothesis tests and is always subject to revision (continuing the example) 1. Observation: the phone still won’t charge after using a different charger
2. What is another hypothesis?
3. If the outlet is not working, then it is the reason the phone will not charge. The Scientific Method and Behavior Great Egret (Great White Heron) Large wading bird Multi­chick nests Observation: siblings harass and kill each other Great Blue Heron Large wading bird Multi­chick nests Observation: siblings  do not harass and kill each other  Competing Hypothesis:  Hypothesis 1: Great Egret chicks are naturally aggressive (the behavior is genetic) Hypothesis 2: sibling aggression in Great Egret chicks results from food competition Which hypothesis to test? Principle of Parsimony (Occam’s Razor): the simplest explanation is usually the correct 
one
Hypothesis 2 will be tested first because a major difference in method of feeding young is 
evident. 
Dr. Semmelweis and Childbed Fever: An example using people Dr. Semmelweis is from Vienna, Austria  1840’s First known to use the modern scientific method

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School: University of California Riverside
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Lee
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Anthro 2, Anthro, and biological anthropology
Name: Week 1 Class Notes Biological Anthropology (ANTH002)
Description: These are class notes taken during week 1.
Uploaded: 10/02/2017
5 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
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