Southern Politics Study Guide/Practice Questions (Exam 1)
When I make study guides, I visualize how the exam will look and create practice questions to memorize and study. It is similar to a game of Jeopardy. If you successfully learn the material, you should be able to state the answer to the question and vice versa. I will also provide a page at the end with key words, dates, etc. to look over on your own and research further, if needed. Happy studying! –Raquel
∙ What are the 11 states that succeeded in the South?
o Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia
∙ What are the 5 Deep South states?
o Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina
∙ What are the 6 Peripheral South states?
o Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia
∙ What are Jim Crow laws, according to our book?
o Racially segregated laws and restrictions between blacks and whites
∙ What are 3 amendments that resulted at the end of the Civil Rights Movement? o 13th Amendment abolished slavery in 1865 We also discuss several other topics like which of the following is the correct statement about variable costs?
o 14th Amendment right of citizenship passed in 1868
o 15th Amendment right to vote despite race, gender, servitude passed in 1870
∙ What is important about the 1876 presidential election?
o Between Hayes (R) and Tilden (D)
o Was an extremely close election
o Hayes won the Electoral College but Tilden won the popular vote
o Often called a “compromised election”
o Hayes won
∙ Name 5 facts about George Wallace.
o Called a “racial demigog”
o Went from local judge to governor of Alabama
o Studied under Jim Fulson (womanizer)
o Started as a populist but asked forgiveness from African Americans after his very inappropriate quote when losing election against Patterson
o Became the “New South” Democrat
∙ What was a Populist back then? We also discuss several other topics like bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
o A radical elitist who sees things only from the top of the pyramid where privilege is highest for rich, white males; focused on the “haves” and never on the “have nots” and were extremely racist
∙ What was a Conservative back then?
o A part of the political system that focused on white supremacy but never attempted to demean or degrade African Americans; they relied on them for work o Ex. Those located in the Mississippi Delta
∙ What was a Liberal back then?
o Liberals were merely a thought of what society should be like. They believed in being color blind and that segregation should’ve never existed. Unfortunately, they were not a party, but mostly a dream of what should be.
∙ What is Progressivism and the 3 main reforms that came about due to it? o Makes states more democratic by passing reforms
o 1. Australian Ballot Reform that allowed privacy when voting due to government intervention
o 2. Citizenship Reform that allowed the option for selfvoter registration o 3. Direct Primary Reform that progressed in the South to allow primaries for candidate
∙ According to Woodward, what are the 3 components that changed the South? o 1. Northern Liberalism on the rise (imperialism)
o 2. Southern Conservative begin to cave in (radicalism cuts deal with them) o 3. Populism Don't forget about the age old question of unconscious patronization
∙ What is important about Plessy vs. Ferguson and what year did it happen? o 1896
o “Octorune”= man who is 1/8th black is still treated poorly
o About railroad carts being segregated
o Ruling: created the SEPARATE BUT EQUAL precedent
∙ What trial abolished the “separate but equal precedent”?
o Brown vs. Board of Education
∙ When was the peak of Populism? We also discuss several other topics like why are French wines able to command a price premium in export markets?
o 1896 in the McKinley vs. JenningsBryant trial
∙ Who is Tom Watson?
o A populist from Georgia who becomes a very powerful Democrat and eventually capitulates (more on him in our Jim Crow book)
∙ What is important about Smith vs. Allwright and what year did it take place? o 1944
o Trial took place in Texas
o U.S ABOLISHED WHITE PRIMARY
∙ After the white primary was abolished, which state was the first to apply a poll tax to limit potential voters?
∙ How did the South continue to deny African Americans the right to vote, even after the 15th Amendment and the abolition of the white primary?
o Literacy tests
o Poll taxes
o Grandfather Clauses
o Property ownership requirement
o Good Charter tests
∙ What is important about Brown vs. Board of Education and what year did it happen? o 1954 If you want to learn more check out crj 270 unlv
o Trail took place in Topeka, Kansas
o Linda Carter was the victim of an unequal education
o Chief Justice Earl Warren wanted unanimous vote
o Struck down the “separate but equal” clause
∙ What percentage of schools were actually desegregated 12 years after Brown vs. Board of Education?
o Less than 3%
∙ According to V.O Key, what year was the peak of participation? o 1896
∙ What is important about Wilmington vs. North Carolina and what year did it take place?
o Focused mostly on populism in North Carolina Don't forget about the age old question of geog 101 uiuc
o Governor was a Republican/populist who was voted for by African Americans o Important year because white intimidation meant that no African Americans showed up to vote
o Race riots and many deaths happened
o Led to the end of Republican/Populist black rule in North Carolina
∙ What was the Boswell Amendment?
o Tried to replace the white primary that Smith vs. Allwright abolished but did not last long
∙ What year was the Voting Rights Act passed?
∙ Where did Jim Crow laws begin?
o In the North
∙ What state has an open primary, often called a “jungle primary”? o California
∙ True or false: restrictive voting solidified the Southern segregation. o TRUE
∙ Which 2 states had literacy tests enforced?
o Louisiana and Mississippi
∙ Which 4 states of the South DID NOT have poll taxes?
o Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Georgia
∙ What is the ONLY state that does NOT require voter registration? o North Dakota
∙ What is important about the poll tax?
o Politician used it to accomplish the quid pro quo and mobilize coalitions o Was not so much a restriction but an incentive for politicians to gain further votes by paying the poll tax in exchange for votes
∙ What year was the Civil Rights Act passed?
∙ How many counties does Texas have?
∙ How many counties does Georgia have?
o 159 (second most)
∙ How did South Carolina try to avoid the white primary abolition?
o By privatizing everything
∙ What is important about the Selma Campaign and what year did it begin? o 1965
o Was the last big push in the Civil Rights Movement
∙ When was the peak of the KKK cult?
o Mid 1920’s
∙ What year was the Great Depression and what was the result?
o Democrats moved up North and formed nationwide groups
o African Americans also move up North in major cities to seek jobs
∙ What was the Great Migration?
o When African Americans moved up North to major cities to vote and seek jobs after serving in WWII
o They were still treated poorly
∙ What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott and what year did it take place? o 1955
o Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus for a white man
o Located in the capitol of Alabama
o All African Americans boycott the bus and begin car pooling
o The following year in 1956, all buses were desegregated in Alabama
∙ What was the White Citizens Council?
o A group of business class men who used white supremacy to stop the movement toward racial equality
∙ What was the Southern Manifesto?
o A document signed by members of Congress who shunned the Brown vs. Board of Education ruling
∙ Who won the 1956 presidential race?
∙ Who ran against each other in the 1960 Presidential election?
o JFK and Nixon
∙ What was important about the 1960 sitins and where did they begin? o Began in Greensborough, South Carolina
o Mostly college students who sat in public accommodations
o Used nonviolent disobedience
o SNCC formed
∙ Who was the leader of SNCC what does it represent?
o John Lewis
o Southern Christian Leadership Conference
∙ What is important about Morgan vs. Virgina and what year did it take place? o 1961
o Focused on freedom rides and ends segregation on public transportation o Coke was the man who rode the bud to the Deep South and was imprisoned
∙ What is important about the year 1963?
o Attack happened at Birmingham, Alabama and televised
o Eugene “Bull” Connor was the police chief at the time and ordered the attack o Later that year, an African American church is targeted and bombed, killing 3 young girls
o JFK is assassinated and LBJ is takes his place
∙ What is the exact date that the Civil Rights Movement passed? o July 2nd, 1964
∙ What is the exact date that the Voting Rights Act passed?
o August 6th, 1965
∙ What is important about the Watts Riot?
o It happened 5 days after the VRA was passed
o Happened in South Central L.A
∙ What is important about Shelby County vs. Holder and what year did it take place? o Supreme Court ruled that VRA info in the section was NULL AND VOID o Section 5 of VRA= PRE CLEARANCE is unfair and districts redrawn must be approved by the Department of Justice
∙ What 2 states had NO PreClearance?
o Arkansas and Tennessee
∙ According to the book, what are the 3 stages of Confronting the Intermediate Color Line and what years did they each take place?
o 1st stage: massive resistance 19551964
o 2nd stage: administrative intervention “sticks and carrots” 19651968 o 3rd stage: rigorous judicial intervention 19681969
∙ What was the Civil Rights Movement also known as?
o The 2nd Reconstruction
∙ What is the ONLY Southern state that holds its gubernatorial and presidential election at the same time?
o North Carolina
Dred Scott v. Johnson
Plessy v. Ferguson
Williams v. Mississippi Smith v. Allwright
Brown v. Board of Education Willmington v. North Carolina U.S v. Classic
Morgan v. Virginia
Goldwater v. Johnson
Shelby County v. Holder
Lyndon B. Johnson
John F. Kennedy
Eugene “Bull” Connor