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UGA / OTHER / POLS 1101 / What are the federalism & levels of government in the u.s.?

What are the federalism & levels of government in the u.s.?

What are the federalism & levels of government in the u.s.?


School: University of Georgia
Department: OTHER
Course: American Government
Professor: Jason byers
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: American Government
Cost: 50
Name: American Government Midterm
Description: This is the study guide for the midterm of POLS 1101 on October 5th. The study guide is based on my notes framed to the guideline of topics she gave us to study.
Uploaded: 10/02/2017
13 Pages 7 Views 8 Unlocks

POLS Study Guide 

What are the federalism & levels of government in the u.s.?

1.Federalism & levels of government in the U.S.


Dual Federalism  

Cooperative Federalism

Regulated Federalism

New Federalism

Federalism- experimental laboratories of democracy

Try out policies on a state level, experiment before the federal gov’t  can implement  

1995- states can control speed limits

System of government in which power is divided between central gov’t and regional gov’t

Constitution establishes relationship between state and federal  gov’t  

1937- expanded power of federal gov’t

Federalism vs Unitary

Federalism Unitary

What is dual federalism?

Balance of powers Smaller less diverse  population

Central gov’t (51.9%) Dominated by central gov’t State/Local (48.1%) Lower levels of gov’t have little Diverse large population power

Diverse large population Only implement ideas  made by  

Diversity requires are representation Central gov’t  

 Of all diversities Allows for equality and  sameness

Dual Federalism (New Deal Style)

FDR- power of federal gov’t increased dramatically (1937) Gov’t influenced business—justified by the Great Depression and  political pressure placed on FDR to fix, state gov’ts and local  authorities couldn’t help, they were overwhelmed  Don't forget about the age old question of capatlism

New Deal Grants:

Grants in Aid- POTUS developed a program of lending money to state  and local governments

What is regulated federalism?

Grant in Aid- provided on condition that funds could only be  employed for purposes defined by federal gov’t (categorical  grants)  

Cooperative Federalism- a model in which various levels of gov’t work  together to solve problems

Ex: layered cake vs. marbled cake  

Regulated Federalism- Congress imposed legislation on states and  localities, inquiring to meet national standards

-increased funding, increased responsibility

-unfunded mandates- require more rules

Devolution- take power and transfer it back to states  

New Federalism- Nixon and Reagan to devolve many policies back to  the states

-Block grants- use federal gov’t money at your discretion

-General revenue sharing- gives part of tax revenue to the states from (national gov’t) to make states fiscally autonomous

After 2000 Federalism

Critics argue that states and localities shouldn’t be in charge of  redistributive programs  

2.Relationship between citizen and the government  We also discuss several other topics like charlie mitchell uf

Expectations of Government- law and order, equality, protection, food safety, education, international relations, etc.  

We want a significant balance between the government being too involved,  and not involved enough.  

Over the years, government trust has increasingly declined Increasing attachment to our own party and hostility towards others Trust is main motivator in political knowledge.

Political efficacy- belief that one has the ability to influence what government does

Grecian Democracy  

Citizenship-derived from Greek ideal of enlightened political engagement  Passion isn’t enough, need informational basis  

Enlightenment- not just information, form opinion on what is best for society  as a whole

Types of Government  

Autocracy- (North Korea, Cuba, Iran)

Oligarchy- (Russia, China)

Democracy- (USA, Germany, Australia)

Totalitarian (autocratic and communist ideas)- no challenges to power, no  power limits

Authoritarian (kind of like Oligarchy)- no recognized limits, but constrained  by counterparts such as church and business Don't forget about the age old question of What is modernism?


1. Substantive- government is constrained in what I can do 2. Procedural- Have to go through process to get thing done that they  want to do (implementation)

Politics- conflicts in/over leadership, ideologies on governmental operation,  structure, and policies

Conflict shaped by

Representative Republic- elect officials with same interests to vote on our  behalf

Direct- People directly vote on all legislation  

Immigration- small part of test if on it at all

Discrimination against nonwhites

-1870- only free whites could be citizens

-Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

1965- abolish immigration laws, lift restrictions

Liberty- freedom from government control includes personal and economic  freedom

-limited gov’t  

-Based on Patrick Henry- “Give me liberty or give me death” -personal freedom  

-occasionally need government to maintain our freedoms (law and  order, environment, national defense)

Equality- of opportunity… outcome… political matters

-American Dream- if you work hard, you can be successful, everyone is  equal

Liberty and Equality are constantly changing  Don't forget about the age old question of brown clps

Liberties- limitations on gov’t ability to intercede with the individual  Ex: freedom of speech, press, religion

Rights- rules governing who may participate in political process and  governmental treatment of citizens

USCCR- founders particularly interested in civil liberties, they were used to a  tyrant king, so they needed rights that couldn’t be revoked

Ensure the marketplace of ideas, allows for minority opinions, needs  competition of ideas in order to represent all people  

Local Government

Subject to control by states

States mostly give power to larger cities

“home rule”- noninterference in internal city affairs

Sanctuary city- don’t enforce immigration policies because it is responsibility  of the federal gov’t

Public Opinion- values and attitudes that people have about events  constitutes a mass of people with differing ideas  

-fluid, unstable, diverse

Gov’t should reflect the will of the people, even if it is continually  changing and evolving We also discuss several other topics like edouard mant

Ex: Gay rights are now legal, which reflects public opinion of the  now, but 20 years ago, public opinion was extremely against gay  rights.

Values (beliefs)- basic orientation to politics (liberty and equality) Attitude (or opinion)- specific view about a particular issue, expression  according to events  

Political Ideology- cohesive set of beliefs that form a general ideology  of how the gov’t should run Don't forget about the age old question of uop math

Liberalism and Conservatism

Ideology- associated, but not synonymous with partisanship Party members occasionally act against their party affiliation’s  values and beliefs

Liberalism Conservatism

-gov’t intervention in economy -support social and economic status  

-economic and political equality quo

-expansion of social services -suspicious of efforts to introduce -separation of church and state new political formulae and -oppose sending troops overseas economic arrangements -support national defense -light business & industry  regulation

-more environmental/consumer -stronger national  involvement


Ideology doesn’t = partisanship

Libertarianism- economic conservatism, family values, individual  freedoms, voluntary association with limited gov’t

Socialism- equality for all, active gov’t reducing economic and political  inequalities, society of =

Political Socialization- way by which you gain your political beliefs and  attitudes

“Agents of Socialization”- people who influence your formation of  political opinion

-Don’t create the echo chamber of like-minded people with no  differentiation

Measuring Public Opinion

Sample size- must be comprised of atleast 1000 people in order  to fully measure the opinion of the public

Issues in Polling

1. Selection bias- sample doesn’t reflect true population

2. Bandwagon effect- shift in electoral support of candidate  based on who they think has more public support

3. Push polling- question is worded to get a specific answer 3.The founding of the U.S.  

1787- Constitutional Convention

Create new gov’t to establish liberty and equality

British- had rights over colonies

Tax colonists- Sugar Act 1764, Stamp Act 1765

Both caused revolts

“No taxation without representation”

Colonies poor economic standing caused Boston Tea Party (1773) East India Trading Company- monopoly on tea awarded by British gov’t allowing monopoly of tea and cutting out American  


Samuel Adams- led revolution, dressed as Indians and dumped  tea into Boston Harbor

Boston Blockade- British gov’t denied imports to Boston to break  revolution, surrounding cities sent supplies to Boston to support them  (first sense of national unity)

1776- Declaration of Independence

2nd constitutional convention appointed committee to write the  declaration

No established gov’t yet, just a declaration of separation

“Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

More of an appealing document than a basis of a form of gov’t. Only included free white property owning males

List of Grievances: Obstruction of justice, Judgement based on  will, Domestic insurrections, Cut off trade with all the world,  Military more powerful than people, Caused Indian and American  tensions

Motivated by economic interests of upper elites

Articles of Confederation- 1777-1789

Ratified 1781 sovereignty of all states

Established- weak central government, had no taxing authority,  impractical gov’t, no army, no president, no navy, allowed Canada to  join

4. The Constitution (major clauses)

Articles of Confederation- 1777-1789

Ratified 1781 sovereignty of all states  

Established- weak central government, had no taxing authority,  impractical gov’t, no army, no president, no navy, allowed Canada to  join

Wanted a weaker government because of their hesitation of large  government (Britain)

Shay’s Rebellion established need to revise the Articles of  Confederation

The Greater Compromise  

Virginia Plan- states would delegate representation proportionate to  population of wealth

New Jersey Plan- each state has equal representation

Connecticut Compromise- representation equal in Senate, proportional  in HOR (only country where 2 chambers are equal)

7,762 words comprise the constitution

3/5 Compromise- 5 slaves count as 3 people in representation

Limiting Governmental Power

1. Separation of Powers- 3 separate equal branches, checks and  balances

2. Federalism- any power in federal gov’t is checked by state  gov’t (federal inevitably wins)

3. Divided constituencies

HOR- district within a state

Senate- covers entire state

4. Bill of Rights- protect individual citizens from gov’t

Primary goal- limiting gov’ts power

Substantive limit on gov’t so the gov’t has to respect your  rights

Procedural limit established own procedures for advising  

(Article V)

Amending the Constitution

Require super majorities- approval 2/3 vote in congress and adoption ¾  states

Dec 2014- more than 11,600 proposals to amend constitution have beein  introduced since 1789, 33 amendments approved and sent to states (6  failed)

“Living” document- continually developing and changing

26th amendment- lowers voting age from 21 to 18

27th amendment- congress regulate own salary  

Constitution grants 2 powers to Congress

Expressed- section 8 list of all powers (17) used in constitution Implied- aren’t specifically stated in Constitution necessary and power  clause whatever the need to use expressed powers

Article VI- specifies that laws of Congress shall be “supreme law of the land”  supremacy  

10th Amendment- Reserved powers- isn’t specifically delegated in federal  gov’t belongs to state

Police powers

Concurrent powers- state and federal both have power

Inequalities within the states

Full faith credit clause- Article IV Section I

States give full faith and credit to each states’ public acts,  records, and judicial proceedings

Exemption- don’t have to accept it if goes against strong public policy Ex: same-sex marriage

Article I Section 8- Commerce Clause-enumerates power of Congress,  delegates the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations

Bill of Rights- restrict federal gov’t only originally

14th amendment 1868- applies bills of rights to states  

1st amendment- Freedom of Religion

Establishment Clause- freedom from state imposing religion on its  citizens  

Free Exercise Clause- if you are religious, you have free choice of  religion, and no religion

Lemon Test

1. secular purpose

2. effect neither enhances nor inhibits religion

3. maintains separate of church/state

Strict scrutiny- highly enforced political speech, can’t limit donations to political campaign (expressing political preference)  

Clear and present danger test- if there is a clear and present danger,  political free speech is limited  

Freedom of Press

Libel and slander

Libel- written

Slander- spoken

statements made in reckless disregard of the truth

- hard to prove intention of lying  

2nd Amendment- right to bear arms  

States can regulate firearms, but can’t ban them  

Right of privacy

Not explicitly listed in Constitution

Combine 4th and 9th 

4th- unreasonable search and seizures  

9th- unlisted rights exist

13th amendment- abolished slavery  

14th amendment- equal protection under law

15th amendment- voting rights for African American men

24th amendment- no more poll tax

5. Major SCOTUS cases and legislations  

regarding civil rights and liberties (you do not need to remember the year) 1. McCulloch vs Maryland- 1819 implied powers expansion  

2. Gibbons vs Ogden- 1824 Congress has supremacy over interstate  commerce  

3. Dred Scott vs Sandford- 1857 “Slaves aren’t in the Constitution” 4. Gitlow vs New York- 1925 constitution is living/breathing 5. Barron vs Baltimore- 1833 states can’t enforce religion

6. 1898- Virginia school prayed over the intercom

7. West Virginia State Board of Education vs Barnette- 1943 can’t be  forced to say the pledge of allegiance if it conflicts with religion

8. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission vs. Abercrombie and Fitch 2015 right to wear hijab or religious clothing and can’t be forced to  remove it  

9. Schneck vs United States- 1919 “can’t yell fire in a public place”  

10. Snyder vs Phelps- 2011 offensive free speech has to be allowed,  Westboro Baptist Church protests at a funeral for deceased marine

11. District of Columbia vs Heller- 2008 can’t ban possession of firearms in someone’s home

12. McDonald vs Chicago- 2012 applying 2nd amendments to states and  localities

13. Griswold vs Connecticut- 1965 can’t prohibit married couples from  using contraceptives  

14. Eidenstadt vs Baird- 1972 married couples can use contraceptives  

15. Roe vs Wade- 1973 can’t choose if a woman gets an abortion, it’s her  choice

16. Lawrence vs Texas- 2003 legalized homosexual activity

17. Matthew Shepherd and James Byrd Jr. Hale Crimes Prevention- 2009  established category of hate crimes  

18. Plessy vs Ferguson- 1896 “separate but equal”

19. Brown vs Board of Education- 1954 “separate but equal” overturned

6. Civil rights movements

U.S. has history of racism and discrimination

Discrimination: ideologically goes against our tradition of liberty:  exclusion for unjust reasons

Violates someone’s life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness; and the American ideals

13th, 14th, and 15th- African Americans

Civil Rights Act- 1875

Against discrimination in public places

NAACP established 1909- win political rights for African American  people, through protesting and political pressure

Racial discrimination is a hit on the fight against communism in the  cold war. Racial inequality makes us look weak and divided. “They  discriminate their own people.”

Even after “de jure” (by law) segregation ended, “de facto” (by fact)  segregation remained  

Strengthening Voting Rights  

Voting Rights Act- 1965

No interference with right to vote

No literacy test

24th amendment- don’t have to pay to vote

Black Lives Matter

2015- police conduct protests began  

focuses attention on police misconduct directed at African  Americans, claiming the rules that they should be  

protected by

Expressed solidarity with everyone who has been discriminated  against  

Public rights is not static, continually changing, all  

movements were originally unimaginable concepts

Change in state policy can influence public policy and vice  versa

Long track of successful civil rights movements

7. Media effects

Essential component of democracy

Media- print and digital communication that broadcasts information to large  amount of people


1. supply info to the citizenry  

2. nongovernment sources of info

3. give the public the opportunity to evaluate issues to form reasoned  opinions and actions  

Choose what is important  

Includes- print (books, newspapers), broadcast (radio, TV), digital (internet) Print and Broadcast- Traditional  

Print-less popular, shrinking field

Broadcast- still reach large numbers of Americans, but operate  according to ratings

Traditional to New Media

-rise of the internet, older medias had to adapt to new medias, ex: online  newspapers

-New media offers choice of what to… read, presentation to read/participate  in, ideology and partisan side to read

Avoid echo chamber of like-minded people with all the same values and  attitudes

Digital Citizenship- participate in society and group politics online  Digital divide- gaps in access among demographics  

Social Media- single most important trend in news and political  communication

Benefits of Online Media

Convenience- easier access

Speed- almost on live basis

Depth- more insightful and abundant info

Diversity- multiple viewpoints (although most disregard)


Less investigation

Quality- fake vs real news

Narrow lens- echo chamber

Influence of the Media  

Mass Media- any media used to disseminate info to a large section of  population.

Influences public opinion by directing our attention to certain subjects  over others.

Framing- way to influence how events are interpreted  

“Central organizing idea or story line that provides  

meaning to an unfolding strip of events, weaving a  

connection among them.”

Arises wherever there is more than one way to think about  an issue

Example: Abortion- taking away right to choose or  

right to live of the unborn

Immigration- illegally crossing borders vs seeking  

refuge, helping economy vs stealing jobs

Episodic vs Thematic Frames

Episodic- highlights how to fix a person experiencing  

a problem

Thematic- focuses on conditions leading to the  


Agenda-setting- way to draw public attention to what media  thinks is important

Don’t tell people what to think, but want to think about.  

Determining what is important.

Some issues are too complex to quickly draw attention, so  they are ignored and not covered in media

Selection Bias- media’s tendency to cover/focus on certain  issues or certain points of issues

Businesses seeking to attract largest audience  


Priming- shaping how audience evaluates leaders/events by  telling them what to take into account  

Exposure or attention to a subject which then is salient in  

your mind when evaluating candidates or issues

Facilitates reliance on an issue during the formation  

of candidate evaluation

Altering the categories on the public’s scorecard

Persuasion-used less frequently, but still present

Lazarfeld et al.- 1948 campaigns reinforce rather than  


Explanations of failure of persuasion

Neutralization, resistance, indifference

Zaller- 1996

Massive persuasion all of the time

But persuasion might not be binary

8. Partisanship and polarization

There will always be divisions when parties exist.

Internal Mobilization- forms from within the government (inside groups  of influence)

External Mobilization- politicians outside of gov’t organize popular  support to gain gov’t power  

Parties only form when they know they’ll have popular support Recruiting candidates- quality candidates based on things such as  name recognition, leadership, consistence with agenda, public  speaking, etc.

Nominating candidates- primary election

Open- don’t have to be a member of the party to vote

Closed- must be a member to vote

Party leaders and donors have the most power and influence in  nomination because they provide the funds.  

Mobilizing voters- motivate voters to go to the polls and actually vote Facilitating voter choice- Americans vote in innumerable elections,  causing need for personal research of candidates and parties President is “de facto” leader of their political party.

Parties were originally seen as a threat to social order (factions)

Third parties still have purpose- cause the larger parties to adopt the  issue mentioned in 3rd parties in order to maintain their voters reliance

Party Identification- individual voter’s psychological tie to one party or  another

Most people are raised in partisanship and adjust their viws  accordingly

Women- more democratic

Men- more independent

Young- more moderate

Old- more republican

Minority- more democratic

Low income- more democratic

Polarization- sharp difference between parties, used to just be about  ideology, now causing erosion in professionalism

Now- moving more and more towards political extremes Parties don’t represent all Americans

They represent middle class/ upper middle class/ upper class  individuals

Political Participation- various activities designed to influence gov’t Traditional- voting, campaign volunteering, donating money to  campaigns

Digital political participation- online petitions

People who participate online are more likely to get involved in  gov’t and vote

The Vote

U.S. voter turnout is relatively low (number of registered voters vs who  actually votes)

How to determine “high” or “low”?

Compare to older election, compare to other countries Less midterm turnout- media doesn’t broadcast it because its not as entertaining

Why do people vote?

1. Socioeconomic status- education income age

High Ed and Income- more likely to vote

Older people vote more

2. Political Environment

Mobilization and electoral competition

Battleground States- parties are competing to convince people to vote

3. State Electoral Laws

Turnout rates differ extremely between states

Controversal voter ID laws- must show ID to vote, in order to  prevent voter fraud, discrimination, and invasion of privacy

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