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UB / Biology / BIO 200 / bio 200 exam 1

bio 200 exam 1

bio 200 exam 1

Description

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Biology
Course: Evolutionary Biology
Professor: J poulin
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Evolutionary Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Bio 200: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what is going to be on our next exam.
Uploaded: 10/03/2017
6 Pages 16 Views 10 Unlocks
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Bio 200 Study Guide


what are the scientific method used in making research?



By Abbas Abajobir

Lecture 1:  

2 major types of questions in science:

- How do things work?

- How do things come to be?

Evolution: change of something over time (biology mainly deals with organisms)

- Darwin believed in descent with modification over time, organisms became  specialized

- Evolution is important for pretty much everything

“Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution.”

Lecture 2:

Science is an attempt to explain the natural world.

Scientific Method:

1.) Ask a question

2.) Form a hypothesis

3.) Make predictions

4.) Test predictions (experiment)

5.) Draw a conclusion

Characteristics of Science:

- Claims can be tested (repeatable)  

- Law of Parsimony “OCCAM’s RAZOR”

- Measurements are used


what are the Characteristics of Science?



- Consilience is applied

Types of Reasoning

Deductive: General  Specific

Inductive: Specific General

Nothing is proven in science, only supported.

Lecture 3:

Origin, Diversity, Adaptations, and Scala Naturae are all basic questions in biology 2 Hypotheses:

Divine Creation:

- God created organisms exactly as you see them today (species are fixed) - 6,000 year origin

- Depends on supernatural explanation; cannot be adequately tested Evolution:

Bio 200 Study Guide

By Abbas Abajobir

- Organisms change over time

- God may or may not be involved

- No one could see this change in real time

Darwin’s 3 Clues were:

- Close populations are similar, further populations are different - Fossil of the “giant armadillo” found so close to the living armadillo - Galapagos has 14 different islands with species that are related but different


what are the two types of scientific reasoning?



Lecture 4:

Darwin’s Hypothesis of Evolution:

- Individuals vary

- Populations tend to overbreed We also discuss several other topics like pubh1101

- There is a struggle for existence

- “Survival of the fittest”

- Variations are inherited

- New species develop

Deduction 1: If evolution is true, variation should occur

Deduction 2: More offspring are born than will survive to reproduce Deduction 3: Differences between offspring that survive and those that don’t  Deduction 4: Variations important to survival must be inherited Deduction 5: Earth must be really old for all of this to occur

Lecture 5:

Deduction 6: Fossils should show change over time

Types of data:

- Original material (mammoth in ice)

- Carbonized film (silhouette of blackened carbon residue)

- Mold/impressions

- Cast (mold filled with mud)

- Chemical fossil (molecules)

- Trace fossil

There should then be fossils of extinct animals

Deduction 7: Older strata should have fewer modern species

Deduction 8: opposite of deduction 7

Deduction 9: fossils must link

Lecture 6:  

- Isotopes (radioactive chemicals) are used to help us date fossils - The concept of the “half life” is the basis of radioactive datingIf you want to learn more check out diablo valley college jobs

Bio 200 Study Guide

By Abbas Abajobir

Since it can be tested and can be cross-referenced with historical dating, it is a  reliable way to determine the age of old artifacts or fossils. Conclusion: Origin of  the Earth dates back to more than 6,000 years therefore, there is plenty of time  for evolution.  We also discuss several other topics like soc 203 ncsu

Why aren’t there more transitional species?

- Most organisms don’t fossilize well

- Hard to find, erosion and disturbances

- Inaccessible  

Conclusion:

- They will eventually be found

- Punctuated equilibrium

Lecture 7:

Biogeography (Wallace)  

How do organisms get to where they’re found?

- Created (evolved) there

- Active immigration (walking, swimming, flying)

- Passive immigration (water, air, land movement) Don't forget about the age old question of penis and vagin

No species are alike in Africa and South America even though their climates are  alike because they are in distinct biogeographic zones.

Deduction: No single center for creation

Types of Distribution:

Cosmopolitan: everywhere

Continuous: Large range

Continuous Zonal: Certain climactic zones

Endemic: Highly restricted to one area

Discontinuous: Bound to a few separate areas

Scattered: Small local populations

CONTINENTAL DRIFT: PANGEA

Conclusion: Biogeography supports evolution

Factors that determine distribution:  

- Physical, chemical, biological, geographical

How do organisms distribute?

- Land bridges, filter bridges, corridors

Bio 200 Study Guide

By Abbas Abajobir

Lecture 8:

(review)

Lecture 9:

Anatomy and Embryology

- Animals with fur suckle their young

- Animals with red blood have back bones and similar skeletons All organisms share a common ancestor. Don't forget about the age old question of fgcu withdrawal form

Homology: similar structure from a common ancestor

How can you tell if two structures are homologous?

- Are the structures fundamentally similar in their basic structure? - Does the common ancestor have a similar structure

Analogous: Perform similar functions but evolved independently Vestigial: Structures without function

Lecture 10:  

Evidence from the Cell

Cell Theory:  

- Plants are made of cells

- Animals are made of cells

- Cells come from cells

2 Types: Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic: bacteria and algae: simplest, smallest, oldest

Eukaryotic: animals, plants, fungi: larger, complex, recent

Lecture 11:

Genetics

Mendel: Garden pea experiment

1.) Law of Segregation: factors that control a trait maintain a discrete identity 2.) Particle Theory of Inheritance: hereditary traits act like particles, units, or  factors

3.) Law of Independent Assortment: character traits are not connected but  inherited independently  

Lecture 12:

Concept of Polygene Inheritance: most traits are determined by several genes at  different places on the chromosome

Bio 200 Study Guide

By Abbas Abajobir

Concept of Multiple Alleles: for example: blood types

Concept of Pleiotropy: When a gene affects more than one trait

- Genes exist on chromosomes  

- Humans have 46 (diploid number is 46, haploid number is 23) - Cell Division: Mitosis and Meoisis

Lecture 13:

DNA If you want to learn more check out com 515 textbook notes

- Double helix structure

- Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine

- Replication: sequence unzips then replicates

- Incomplete dominance: 1 allele is expressed but incomplete compensation - Co-dominance: both alleles expressed

Code:

- Triplets will determine which amino acid will be put in protein Lecture 14:

Mutations

- Abrupt changes in genetic material typically during cell division Types:  

a) Loss or duplication of whole chunks of DNA

b) Changes in gene arrangement:

- Translocation

- Transposon  

- Inversions

Numerical Changes in Chromosomes:  

a) Aneuploidy: addition of one or more chromosomes

b) Polyploidy: multiple copies of entire genome

Gene Point Mutations:  

- Substitutions, additions, deletions

Heterochronic mutations: alter the rates of growth of some organs relative to others Homeotic: regulate clusters of genes controlling development :

 Effects of Mutations

Beneficial, Harmful, or No Effect

Most mutations are random, negative, and determine survival and reproduction Lecture 15:

Darwin: Natural selection along with survival of the fittest

Bio 200 Study Guide

By Abbas Abajobir

Lamarck: Acquired characteristics

What is the mechanism for evolutionary traits???

- epigenetics

- DNA can be affected by a number of environmental traits such as cigarette  smoke, exercise, stress social factors

- These can be passed on!

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