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UNT / Political Science / PSCI 2305 / What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in feder

What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in feder

What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in feder

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: Political Science
Course: US Political Behavior
Professor: Glen biglaiser
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: politicalparties, factions, Federalist10, democracy, campaigns, Electorate, Organizations, Coalitions, PartyEras, DownsModel, and Duverger's
Cost: 25
Name: Week 6 Notes
Description: These notes cover the material covered 10/2, 10/4, and 10/6. These notes cover Political parties and factions and how each function. These notes also talk about the history of Political parties.
Uploaded: 10/04/2017
5 Pages 56 Views 2 Unlocks
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10 October 2017 – Parties and the Founders


What are the two ways to remove factions according to madison in federalist 10?



 No mention of parties in the Constitution

 The founders were weary of parties

 Federalist 10, Madison talked about the “mischiefs of factions”  Washington warned of the “baneful acts of party”

 Even though the founders were opposed to parties, they quickly rose  Republicans and Democrats

 E.E. Schatschneider (1942) wrote, “Democracy is unthinkable without  parties”

 Organizations seeking to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices

 Seek control, not just influence

 Elections, not revolutions

 Broad-based parties in U.S.

 Representing basic political ideas to which highly diverse elements of society  may be attracted.


Why is collective action important?



 Why Parties?

 Facilitate collective action

 In the electoral and policy-making process

 Rational for people to “free ride”: abstain from voting

 Parties help candidates mobilize their voters

 More difficult to “renege” on agreements

 Deal with the problem of ambition Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two main points that will effect sensation and perception?

 Individual ambition could undermine the bases for cooperation between  politicians

 Parties channel those ambitions such that they are not weakened by  ambitious politicians

 Tasks of Parties

 Pick candidates

 Recruit people to run for office

∙ “Eligibility Pool”

 Formally nominate candidates to the ballot


How do we nominate candidates?



∙ The Process of how parties select their candidates

♦ Process to how much support can be given

 Conduct election campaigns

 Provide information to voters about candidates and policy

 Run Campaigns

 Give Cues to Voters (Parties are a Heuristic)

 Articulate Policies

 Link government to public

 Give voters a coherent public expression on public policy issues  Define the public issues, creating a “public agenda” We also discuss several other topics like What is the reason for increase in supply while other things are being equal?

 Govern

 Components of Parties

 Three parts:

 Party in the electorateDon't forget about the age old question of How do the skeletal muscular cardiovascular and respiratory system cooperate?
We also discuss several other topics like What sights do infants prefer?

∙ These are the voters in an election; those who identify with a political  party

∙ Party identification: a citizen’s self-proclaimed preference for one party  or the other Don't forget about the age old question of Using the rule of 72, what is the average annual growth rate of gdp needed for a country to double its size in just four years?

♦ Republican, Democrat, or Independent

∙ Ticket-splitting

♦ Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices Don't forget about the age old question of It is a mature bone cell made from osteoblasts. what is it?

♦ Independents most likely to split tickets

 Party as an organization

∙ National Convention: The meeting of party delegates to choose a  presidential ticket

♦ Formal send-of

♦ Approve the party platform

∙ National Committee: Keeps the party operating between Conventions ♦ They support the organization

 Fund Raising

 Party in government

∙ Party members elected to government

♦ Goal to change policy

∙ Candidates are less dependent on parties to get elected

♦ They still need help

 Help can be given through money

 Still does not win the election

 Also information can be helpful

 Recognition

 Credibility

♦ Once elected the party becomes very important to the candidate ∙ Coalition

♦ Group of individuals with a common goal which every political party depends on

♦ There’s diferent types of coalition depending on the reasons for  getting together

∙ Parties = platforms & politicians = promises

♦ Politicians need to keep promises for a higher chance of reelection ♦ Generally the promises are kept in office

 Framers are skeptical about factions because they thought they would use  violence to achieve their goals.

 Interest groups are factions

 Political parties are factions

 Parties in American History

 Party Eras

 Historical periods where majority votes stay with the party in power ∙ Ex. Voters side with Democrats for a number of elections then shift to  other parties later elections

 Critical Election

 Massive change in electoral politics

∙ New issues + coalitions = emerge in 1 election

♦ When a candidate running for office talks about bringing God back  into politics

∙ Often occur at national crisis

 Party Realignment

 Periods, elections, parties and policy making dramatically shift  1932 FDR

 Big city machines, the White South, intellectuals, labor unions, Catholics,  Jewish-Americans, and Westerners

 1936

 African-Americans were added to the coalition

 1964/68

 Party and Policy Realignment

 Dixiecrats and States’ Rights

 Filibustered a civil rights act

 1994

 HOR and Senate Elections

 Republican “Revolution”

 1796-1824: The First Party System

 First party: Federalist

 1828-1856: Jacksonian Democrats v. Whigs

 Modern party founded by Jackson

 Whigs formed to oppose Democrats

 1860-1928: The Two Republican Eras

 Used to identify Republicans as Liberals

 Republicans rose as the antislavery party

 1894 Depression kept Republicans in power

 1932-1964: The New Deal Coalition

 Forged by the Democrats- relied upon urban working class, ethnic groups,  Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners

 The Progressive Era (1896-1916)

 Wanted to undermine party machines by legislating away patronage and  voting corruption

 Advocated for:

 Direct primary

 Secret ballot

 Civil Servant Tests

 Direct election of Senators

 Recalls, initiatives, and references

 Progressives thought the party machines were undermining democracy  The Era of Divided Government

 1968-Present

 Party dealignment and neutrality: people are indiferent from the two  parties

∙ Movement towards more conservative practices

♦ Particularly with economic policy

 Since 1968, only 12 years of unified government

 Parties are still important

 Not as important as they used to be

 Party is not the chief source of info………..but

 PID is the best predictor of vote choice

 Majority of people still ID with a party

 Partisanship is increasing

∙ With both public and legislators

 State and national party organizations are getting stronger

 Parties are still integral to organization and operation of government  How parties influence opinions

 Parties act a policy heuristic for public

 Public = limited political knowledge

 Partisans take cues from party about policy positions

 Efective mental short-cut, but may contribute to underdeveloped policy  views

 The Downs Model

 Rational-Choice Theory

 Assumes individuals act in their own best interest

∙ Weighs costs and benefits of alternatives

∙ Assumes the individual has perfect info

 Downs Model

 Voters maximize chances that policies they favor are adopted by  government

∙ If you’re rational and goal is to maximize chances, a rational voter  would vote for the party with the same policies.

∙ Parties want to maximize the number of voters to vote

 Median Voter Theory

 Majority rule voting system that will select the outcome most preferred by  the median voter 

∙ Parties have an incentive to ofer moderate ideological views ♦ To attract the highest number of voters 

 Why a two-party system? 

 4 usual PS explanations: 

∙ Dualist theories: continual duality of interests in the US leads to two  parties 

♦ Party in v. party out of power 

∙ Cultural theories: compromise encourages two parties 

∙ Social consensus: general agreement on fundamental values ♦ Disagreements come second 

 Institutional Theory 

 Duverger’s law: 

 Single-member, plurality electoral systems (e.g. presidential systems)  produce two-party systems 

∙ Races where there is only 1 winner

 Multi-member districts with proportional representation leads to  multiparty systems 

∙ Incentive to finish second, third, fourth 

♦ These still ofer some representation in parliament if first is not won

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