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UB / Sociology / SOC 101 / sociology 101 exam 1

sociology 101 exam 1

sociology 101 exam 1

Description

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Christopher mele
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: sociology and Introduction to Sociology
Cost: 50
Name: Sociology 101 - EXAM 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapters 1, 5, 2 from Professor Hatton's lecture material and some film material. Chapter 4, textbook material and all of the film material will be uploaded by 10/4/2017.
Uploaded: 10/04/2017
11 Pages 17 Views 9 Unlocks
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Soc 101 


Sociological Imagination



Exam 1 ­­ Study guide 

Ch. 1: 

∙         What is sociology?

The study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences  of human behavior. The systematic study of society and human behavior. ∙         sociological imagination

This is the ability to see the social patterns that influence the behavior of  individuals, families, groups and organizations. It is the ability to understand individual decisions and problems in the context of society. 

∙         C. Wright Mills

C. Wright Mills was an American sociologist and author of The Sociological  Imagination (1959).

∙         Emile Durkheim/ Suicide/ types of solidarity

Suicide (1897) was a published work where author Emile Durkheim researched  different suicide rates across different groups of people. He began to identify patterns of these  differing suicide rates, and found that the patterns of suicides are directly related to differing  levels of social integration. 


Origins of Sociology as a discipline



∙         social integration

The degree to which people feel a part of social groups. 

∙         social facts

Social values, norms and social structures that are external factors to the  individual that influence the individual profoundly by shaping their behavior. ∙         origins of sociology as a discipline

1) Industrial Revolution

2) Political revolution 

3) Imperialism 

4) The scientific method 

∙         social Darwinism/Herbert Spencer

As people from Europe travelled the world, the question of why and how cultures are different was sparked [stemming from Imperialism]. The colonists also wanted to explain We also discuss several other topics like what are the List the diatomic elements?

how they were better than the people of the colony (this derived thoughts like “we must be  better than them, we have to lead them to civilization”). 

Herbert Spencer believed that going and trying to solve social problems would  mess up the “natural evolution of the social world.” The idea of “survival of the fittest” can also  be applied here as Spencer, among others, believed that the barbaric people would eventually  die out and the world would be left with civilized people. Spencer’s idea had spread and was a  very powerful force that justified imperialism. 


Comte’s theory of social change



∙         Auguste Comte /positivism

Comte was the founder of sociology, as he coined the term “sociology”; tried to  use the scientific method to explain human law (positivism: apply scientific method to social  world)

Comte’s theory of social change: believed that social and intellectual 

“progress” occurred in three stages

1) Theological stage [God]

2) Metaphysical stage [nature] 

3) Scientific/Positive stage [science]  

∙         Karl Marx / types of alienation

Karl Marx was a communist who was a critic of industrial capitalist system and creator of conflict theory. 

4 types of alienation 

1. Product alienation: workers alienated from the product of their labor  We also discuss several other topics like ana 113

2. Activity alienation: alienated from their daily activities  

3. Species alienation: alienated from their own essential nature (cannot do what you want) 4. Social alienation: alienated from each other  If you want to learn more check out What would happen if the temperature of a gas were decreased?

∙         Max Weber / protestant ethic & capitalism/  verstehen

Max Weber ­ religion and capitalism 

○ Capitalists were Protestant (strain of Calvinist) 

○ Providence had to earn their salvation  

○ Protestant ethic: hard work leads to salvation  

■ This idea also promotes capitalism 

○ Verstenen: need to understand personal meaning of social phenomena  ■ Example: marriage can legally bind; financially bind 

● Need to talk to married people to understand the importance 

∙         symbolic interactionism / dramaturgy/ Goffman 

Symbolic interactionism ­ how people interact, how symbols can change 

○ Example: giving money as a gift? Appropriate or not appropriate?

○ Dramaturgy / Erring Goffman ­ focus on how people act differently based on who you are with 

● Can NOT test this theory  

● Micro level of interactions 

∙         functionalism (aka structural functionalism or functional analysis) Functionalism 

○ Look how different parts of a society work together for social stability 

o   manifest & latent functions; dysfunctions

Manifest functions ­ the attended consequence 

● Raindance → produce rain

■ Latent functions ­ unattended consequences  

● Bonding during rain dance 

■ Social dysfunctions ­ unattended and unwanted  

● Inequality during raindance  

∙         conflict theory

Conflict Theory 

○ Essential struggle (can produce change/make it better) 

○ Conflict = central aspect  Don't forget about the age old question of cri du chat syndrome punnett square

○ Inequality → competition for resources  

■ Example: notion of American Dream (rags to riches) 

∙         W.E.B. DuBois 

∙         Jane Addams

∙         applied sociology

Ch. 5:

∙         steps of conducting research

1. Select a topic  

2. Define a population 

3. Review the literature

4. Formulate a hypothesis - conjecture based on literature of an  

educated guess.

5. Choose a research method*** (see notes on 6 types of  

research methods) 

6. Collect the data: **Make sure data is valid, reliable, and  

replicable

a. Validity: the measurements of the variable actually intend

to measure what you are measuring

b. Reliability: no matter when the study is done, results  

continuously remain consistent

c. Replicability: the study can be replicated by other  Don't forget about the age old question of uh petroleum engineering

researchers and still find the same results  We also discuss several other topics like brandi levingston unt

7. Analyze the results 

i. *do not confuse correlation with causality; it’s ok to

say “variable A and variable B have a correlated

with relationship”

ii. *watch out for spurious variables (unidentified  

factors that cause a correlation, which are not  

necessarily always measured)

8. Share the results: Publishing the research 

∙         operational definitions of variables

∙         variables

∙         hypothesis

conjecture based on literature of an educated guess.

∙         validity

the measurements of the variable actually intend to measure what you are  measuring

∙         reliability

no matter when the study is done, results continuously remain  consistent

∙         correlation vs. causation; spurious (cause, effect, and spurious correlations ­­text)

Correlation vs. causation: 

Spurious variables ­ unidentified factors that cause a correlation, which are not  necessarily always measured

∙         how to read a table (text)

∙         how not to do research (text)

∙         different research methods

1) Surveys

2) Participant observation/ethnography 

3) Secondary analysis 

4) Document analysis 

5) Experiments 

6) Unobstructive observation 

∙         population vs. sample

Population is the overall general body of people you are interested in studying.  Sample is a smaller body of people that is suppose represent the population you are interested  in studying.

∙         representative sample

A sample that largely and accurately represents the population you are 

interested in studying.

∙         random sample, stratified random sample, snowball sample

Random sample (a purely random sample) MUST have equal  

chance of being selected  

Stratified random sample: separating two samples based on  

interest in the research question; i.e. 1st generation Hmong versus 2nd generation  Hmong

Snowball sample: sample obtained through word of mouth of  

people you know, they know, so and and so forth; not representative, not everyone  has an equal chance, therefore not generalizable

∙         importance of wording & ordering of survey questions 

Wording of a question is very important in producing survey questions  in surveys  

- This is to avoid response bias (patterns in which how  

respondents answer questions)  

- Wording should be neutral, not derogatory  

- I.e. “should be allowed” is not neutral phrasing  

∙         response bias

response bias - patterns in which how respondents answer  

questions

∙         Pager’s experiment (“Mark of a Criminal Record”) (class lecture & text)

∙         ethical issues in sociological research

­ Informed consent: make sure participant is fully aware of the experiment  and their part. Researcher also must tell participant that they have the 

right to not give consent or withdraw their consent at any time.

­ Anonymity: Participants in the study should have their names and 

personal identifying information withheld from published research.

­ Confidentiality: All of the participant’s information should remain 

confidential.

o   what is unethical in sociological research?

­ if a researcher did not receive informed consent, did not explain the experiment to the participant and/or published results after consent has been withdrawn. ­ if a participant was identifiable in some way such as a photograph or their name ­ if participant's information was not kept confidential.

∙         Brajuha research (text)

∙         Tuskegee Syphilis Study

­ Research study conducted by U.S. government and U.S. Public Health  Service

­ Goal was to study course of syphilis and its progression as a disease;  participants were a group of African American men from Macon County,  Alabama; the participant pool consisted of mostly poor African American 

men, who for the most part didn’t even know they had syphilis 

­ Study was conducted over the span of 40 years (1932­1972); no 

informed consent, invasive medical procedures/tests were done on 

participants, deception was heavily used; prevented participants from 

receiving any treatment 

­ End of study resulted in at least 28 deaths, hundreds of cases of disability and 19 cases of congenital syphilis 

∙         Milgram’s obedience to authority study

∙         Zimbardo’s simulated prison study

∙         Laud Humphrey’s study of gay sex in public bathrooms

Laud Humphreys’ “Tearoom Trade” 

Humphreys’ study was very controversial because it violated 

multiple ethical codes in research studies, including: 

­ No informed consent, which is a MUST in sociological research studies; Humphreys did not  get informed consent from participants 

­ Humphreys also went to the homes of participants and asked questions in disguise, which was another deceptive method of obtaining observations from participants

­ Humphrey’s published work was not confidential as he kept many of the personal details of  participants the same 

Ch. 2:

∙         what is culture?

­ Language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects

­ Culture is a social construction, therefore, from a sociological 

perspective, there is nothing “normal” or “inevitable” about a culture

­ Cultures are also not static; changed by people 

∙         material vs. nonmaterial/symbolic culture 

Material culture ­ cultural objects that any given culture uses 

Nonmaterial culture (“symbolic culture”) ­ intangible aspects of a given 

culture i.e. language, beliefs, values and norms 

∙         ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s culture is better than another’s; extreme  version of this is if you believed that your own culture is preferable over another’s ∙         cultural relativism

Cultural relativism is when you try to see or experiences another’s culture by not  comparing to one’s own

∙         e.g. female genital cutting

For cultures that practice this, this is seen as a rite of passage; however, the  Western world (U.S. and some parts of Europe) sees this as a mode of exploitation of women

∙         different facets of symbolic culture (gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions) These are the intangible cultural practices 

­ Gestures: have cultural variation; in one culture a gesture may be 

friendly but another culture same gesture could be seen as 

obscene or offensive

­ Language: basis for culture as it is the primary way culture gets 

transmitted intergenerationally; essential to cultural development 

∙         e.g., Ebonics or African American Vernacular English

American black English that is regarded as its own language (Oakland 

county was referenced in Lecture) instead of a dialect

∙         Sapir­Whorf hypothesis

­ A hypothesis that language itself can shape how we view the world 

∙         prescriptive vs. proscriptive sanctions

­ Prescriptive sanctions: positive reinforcement (usually for 

following a norm)

­ Proscriptive sanctions: various levels of punishment for deviating 

norms i.e. dirty looks in the library for talking too loudly 

∙         norms: folkways vs. mores vs. taboos 

­ Folkways: “rules of the road”; norms that are less strict and won’t 

be punished for

­ Mores: stronger norms, more strongly enforced (usually backed 

by laws), essential to a group’s core values

­ Taboos: strongest, strictest, most severely enforced norms, yields 

revulsion when thinking about violating these norms i.e. 

cannibalism or incest

∙         subcultures

Subcultures are when groups of people whose values are in some way distinct  from dominant culture i.e. occupations, academics, Greek life, etc

∙         countercultures

Countercultures are groups of people whose values are not only distinct from the dominant culture but also define themselves in opposition to dominant culture i.e. the Amish  ∙         Chicago school vs. Birmingham school approach to studying subcultures

­ Chicago school: early 20th century in Chicago; subculture always linked  to deviance, mainly problematic deviance; argued that subcultures would 

lead to delinquency and crime

­ Birmingham school: emerged from Birmingham, UK during the 1960’s;  they don’t view subcultures as problematic but engaging in /trying to 

change dominant culture; they also focused on hippies/punks of 1960’s in England and this school of thought is what most modern day sociologists  today focus on

∙         cultural diffusion / cultural lag / cultural leveling (text)

∙         values (clusters, contradictions, clash) (text)

Chapter 4

∙         Social structures and social institutions [definitions] [what are the institutions?] ∙         Social facts

∙         Social location

∙         Macrosociology [functionalism, conflict theory] vs. Microsociology [Symbolic  Interactionism]

∙         Examples of social structures shaping individual behavior:

o   Zimbardo, “Quiet Rage”

o   Edin & Kefalas, Promises I Can Keep

o   Chambliss, Saints & Roughnecks

∙         Components of social structure: culture, social class, social status, roles, groups,  social institutions (know each)

∙         Status (occupy a status)

o   Status set

o   Master status

o   Achieved status

o   Ascribed status

o   Status Inconsistency

∙         Roles (play a role)

o   Role conflict

o   Role strain

o   Role exit

∙         Gemeinschaft and gesellschaft (text)

∙         Stereotypes (text)

∙         Goffman, dramaturgy (text)

∙         Ethnomethodology (text)

∙         Social construction of reality (text)

∙         Total institutions (text)

∙         Functionalism and social institutions; functional requisites:

o   Replace members

o   Socialize new members

o   Produce and distribute goods/services

o   Preserve order

o   Provide a sense of purpose

∙         Conflict theorists and social institutions: 

o   institutions preserve privilege

Films:

∙         Split Horn

Related to mechanical solidarity

∙         Quiet Rage

Related to unethical studies conducted in the past

∙         Devil’s Playground

Related to counterculture ­ Amish are an example of a less negatively viewed  counterculture

∙         Selling Sickness

Related to conflict theory perspective of social institutions

The above list should give you a general outline of course content. However, please note that  you are responsible for all class materials: all lectures, book chapters, films, short videos, &  examples cited in class lectures—it’s all fair game.

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