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UTD / CLDP / CLD 103 / What sights do infants prefer?

What sights do infants prefer?

What sights do infants prefer?

Description

School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: CLDP
Course: Child Development
Professor: Emily touchstone
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Child, development, and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide comes from the materials we have gone over in class and is her study guide that she passes out. However, all of it has been filled out, so don't stress, just study!
Uploaded: 10/04/2017
14 Pages 84 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


3310 Spring 2017 Exam 2 Study Guide


What sights do infants prefer?



Chapter 5

When given an example be able to identify the various principles of  growth

∙ Cephalocaudal – earliest growth at the top of the head ∙ Hierarchical integration – simple skills develop into complex ones ∙ Independence of systems – different systems grow at different  rates

∙ Proximodistal – growth starts at the center and moves out Be able to recognize the benefits of breast-feeding for the child and the mother

∙ Breast fed infants:

o Less gastrointestinal infections

o Lower repiratory tract infections

o Prevents Asthma

o Less likely to have ear infections

o Less likely to be overweight


When and what can infant’s see?



Be familiar with infant visual development and the vision preferences  of infants.  

∙ When and what can infant’s see?

o Red and green

o Black and white

∙ What sights do infants prefer?

o Faces – mothers face

o Patterns  

Fantz’s study described on page 147 will be helpful.

∙ In his study infants preferred to look at patterns rather than color or brightness

Know at what age infants can see as well as adults.

∙ 6-12 months?

Know which sense is the most developed at birth

∙ Touch

Know the four lobes of the brain and how they relate to the senses.  Figure 5.5 on p.127


Which sense is the most developed at birth?



∙ Occipital Lobe

o Visual processing

∙ Parietal lobe If you want to learn more check out Using the rule of 72, what is the average annual growth rate of gdp needed for a country to double its size in just four years?

o Plays a role in integrating sensory information

∙ Temporal lobe

o Auditory perception

o Language/memory

∙ Frontal lobe

o Decision making  

o Long-term memory

Be able to define and recognize and description of neuron, synapse,  and myelin

∙ Neuron – is a nerve cell that handles information processing  ∙ Synapse – tiny gaps between neuron fibers

∙ Myelin Sheath – layer of fat cells, encases many axons Be able to define and distinguish between brain plasticity and pruning ∙ Pruning – the action of losing items that are no longer in use ∙ Plasticity – the quality of easily being shaped and molded Be familiar with the actions that can be taken to reduce the risk of SIDS ∙ Lay baby on backs instead of bellies Don't forget about the age old question of It is a mature bone cell made from osteoblasts. what is it?

∙ Leave a fan on

Be familiar with infant reflexes and when given an example be able to  identify the reflex. The chart on page 140 will be helpful. ∙

Be familiar with the difference between the palmer and pincer grasp ∙ Palmer – infants grip with the whole hand

∙ Pincer – use their thumb and forefinger

Be familiar with the impacts of infants not getting enough sleep at  night - see textbook for discussion

∙ Impacts cognitive development  

Be familiar with the sense of pain in infants Don't forget about the age old question of What is gibb’s free energy?
We also discuss several other topics like What is pascal's principle?

o Pain exposure – infants do feel pain at birth

 Questions of anesthesia use for infant  

surgery/circumcision

Be familiar with nutrition and obesity in infants and the role caregiver’s play in a child’s eating patterns

∙ By age 4 months, the average infants birth weight has doubled ∙ By age 1 the infants birth weight has tripled

∙ By the end of its second year, the average child weighs four  times its birth weight

∙ Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year ∙ By age 1, the average baby is 1.5 times their birth length ∙ Growth slows considerably in year 2

Chapter 6

Be familiar with how Piaget describes how children learn.  ∙ Piaget’s Theory

o Learn by doing – construct knowledge of the world

o Sensorimotor period

 Substages

o Key terms

 Schemes (schema) – actions or mental  

representations that organize knowledge

 Assimilation – incorporate new information into  

existing schemes

 Accommodation – adjust schema to fit new  

information and experiences  

Be familiar with the myth of the first 3 years and how it relates to brain development

∙ Myth of the 1st 3 years – things can change overtime Be familiar with Piaget’s substages of the sensorimotor stage, and be  able to identify the substage when given an example. ∙ Sensorimotor Sub Stages If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of organelles?

o Simple reflexes (0-1m)

o Primary circular reactions (1-4m)

o Secondary circular reactions (4-8m)

∙ Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12m) o Goal directed behavior

∙ Tertiary circular reactions (12-18m)

∙ Internalization of Schemes (18-24m)

o Mental representations

o Deferred Imitation

∙ Object Permanence – the understanding that objects continue to  exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, etc.

∙ Look at the books table over Sensorimotor sub-stages Equilibration

∙ How children shift from one stage of thought to the next Memory

∙ A central feature of cognitive development, involving the  retention over time  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of autotroph?

∙ Implicit memory – memory without consciousness recollection. ∙ Explicit memory – conscious memory of facts and experiences  Know the order of development of comprehension and production of  language-which comes first

∙ 10 months comprehension from 10-152 words production  generally at 0 words

∙ 16 months comprehension from 92-321 (production under 50  words)

Be able to identify an example of the components of the  developmental progression of language including gestures, first words  (holophrases), and first sentences (telegraphic speech) ∙ Babbling – starts around 2-4 months

∙ Stages of babbling

o Cooing – 2-3 months

o Reduplicative babbling 7-9 months

o Non reduplicative – 10 months to a year

∙ Universal to language specific babbling

o Biology to environment

∙ Infants start using gestures between 8-12 months

∙ Symbolic gesture – asking for more with hands; pick up with  arms up

∙ Pointing  

∙ Pre-linguistic communication

o Crying at birth, cooing 1-2 mos.

o Babbling (2-3mo to 1 yr.)

∙ First words (Holophrases)

o 18 months can say 50 words

∙ First sentences (telegraphic speech)

o Two word utterances 18-24 months

∙ Mastery of language

Know the following terms from the rules of language and be able to  identify the term when a description is given- morphology, syntax,  semantics, and pragmatics

∙ Phonology – sound system of a language

∙ Morphemes – minimal unit of meaning  

o Help, helper

∙ Semantics – meaning of words and sentences

∙ Pragmatics – social language

∙ Syntax production

Be able to identify an example of deferred imitation

Be familiar with strategies caregivers use to help develop infant’s  language including recasting, expanding, and labeling ∙

Be familiar with the class discussion of teaching baby signs to infants

∙ Baby’s can learn sign before language, it does not hinder their  language development, research shows that sign can actually  improve language development

Be familiar with Caroline Rovee-Collier’s research in which she tied a  mobile to infants’ feet and what she believed it showed about infant  memory

Chapter 7

Be able to recognize descriptions of the different types of infant cries. o Basic – rhythmic pattern, usually indicates hunger

o Anger – loud, harsh sound, like shouting

o Pain cry – sudden long initial loud cry followed by breath  holding

Know the qualities of temperament, and be able to distinguish between the types of temperament discussed in the text and in class ∙ Easy, difficult, slow to warm

Know Tronic ‘s Mutual Regulation Model and be able to distinguish  between synchrony, gaze aversion, and Dysregulation when given a  description

∙ Mutual regulation Model – Ed Tronick

o Synchrony – infants change their emotional expressions in  response to parents emotion, and vice versa

o Gaze aversion – looks away from parent to avoid  

discomfort

o Dysregulation – poorly modulated emotional response  Out of the norm of accepted responses

o Sill face procedure

 Depressed caregivers – imagine the infants  

experience

Be familiar with Erickson’s stage of development for infants known as  trust vs. mistrust

o Erikson – trust vs. mistrust

o Care needs to be consistent

∙ Social orientation – infants captivated by the social world o Preferences – faces, caregivers voice

o Locomotion – explores the environment

o Joint attention – focus on same object or event

o Social Referencing – reading other people

∙ Attachment – close emotional bond between two people Be familiar with Harry Harlow’s monkey study and his ethological  theory

o Harry Harlow’s rhesus monkeys

 Comfort or food?

Be able to describe the attachment styles of Bowlby and the parenting  styles/interactions associated with each

∙ Phase 1 – direct their attachment to any human

∙ Phase 2 – attachment focused on one figure, usually primary  caregiver

∙ Phase 3 – attachment develops to regular caregivers ∙ Phase 4 – awareness of others feelings

Be familiar with child care in infancy – most common settings, who  primarily provides childcare for infants

∙ Children with 30+ hours of child care a week were more at risk  for impulsivity and other issues

Be familiar with Bowlby’s work on attachment, and know the 4 types of attachment

∙ Securely attached: babies that use the caregiver as a secure  base from which to explore their environment

∙ Insecure avoidant babies: babies that show insecurity by  avoiding the caregiver

∙ Insecure resistant babies: often cling to the caregiver, then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or  pushing away

∙ Insecure disorganized babies: show insecurity by being  disorganized and disoriented

Be familiar with the strange situation experiment

∙ Requires infants to move through a series of introductions,  separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult  stranger in a prescribed order

Be familiar with the characteristics of temperament and Chess and  Thomas’ three classifications

∙ Easy – generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular  routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences ∙ Difficult – reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in  irregular daily routines and is slow to accept change

∙ Slow to warm up – has a low activity level, is somewhat negative  and displays a low intensity of mood.

Be familiar with the term separation protest and when it begins to  occur

Be familiar with the term goodness of fit in relationship to an infant’s  temperament

∙ Goodness of fit – match between temperament and  environmental demands

o Lack of fit can produce adjustment problems

o Some temperaments pose parenting challenges

∙ Parental impact

o Respect infants individuality

o Extra support for distress prone infants

o Structure the child’s environment

Be familiar with the terms social referencing, and self-soothing ∙ Social referencing – look to caregiver for reassurance ∙ Self soothing -

Be familiar with Lewis’s rouge study and what it reveals about an  infant’s recognition of self

∙ Putting a dot of rouge on the babies nose or forehead and then  observing to see if the baby touches themselves where the mark  is or touching the mirror.  

∙ If the child touches itself to touch the dot of rouge they are  thought to recognize themselves in the mirror.

∙ If the child touches the mirror they have not yet reached this  milestone and do not recognize themselves just yet.

3310 Spring 2017 Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 5

When given an example be able to identify the various principles of  growth

∙ Cephalocaudal – earliest growth at the top of the head ∙ Hierarchical integration – simple skills develop into complex ones ∙ Independence of systems – different systems grow at different  rates

∙ Proximodistal – growth starts at the center and moves out Be able to recognize the benefits of breast-feeding for the child and the mother

∙ Breast fed infants:

o Less gastrointestinal infections

o Lower repiratory tract infections

o Prevents Asthma

o Less likely to have ear infections

o Less likely to be overweight

Be familiar with infant visual development and the vision preferences  of infants.  

∙ When and what can infant’s see?

o Red and green

o Black and white

∙ What sights do infants prefer?

o Faces – mothers face

o Patterns  

Fantz’s study described on page 147 will be helpful.

∙ In his study infants preferred to look at patterns rather than color or brightness

Know at what age infants can see as well as adults.

∙ 6-12 months?

Know which sense is the most developed at birth

∙ Touch

Know the four lobes of the brain and how they relate to the senses.  Figure 5.5 on p.127

∙ Occipital Lobe

o Visual processing

∙ Parietal lobe

o Plays a role in integrating sensory information

∙ Temporal lobe

o Auditory perception

o Language/memory

∙ Frontal lobe

o Decision making  

o Long-term memory

Be able to define and recognize and description of neuron, synapse,  and myelin

∙ Neuron – is a nerve cell that handles information processing  ∙ Synapse – tiny gaps between neuron fibers

∙ Myelin Sheath – layer of fat cells, encases many axons Be able to define and distinguish between brain plasticity and pruning ∙ Pruning – the action of losing items that are no longer in use ∙ Plasticity – the quality of easily being shaped and molded Be familiar with the actions that can be taken to reduce the risk of SIDS ∙ Lay baby on backs instead of bellies

∙ Leave a fan on

Be familiar with infant reflexes and when given an example be able to  identify the reflex. The chart on page 140 will be helpful. ∙

Be familiar with the difference between the palmer and pincer grasp ∙ Palmer – infants grip with the whole hand

∙ Pincer – use their thumb and forefinger

Be familiar with the impacts of infants not getting enough sleep at  night - see textbook for discussion

∙ Impacts cognitive development  

Be familiar with the sense of pain in infants

o Pain exposure – infants do feel pain at birth

 Questions of anesthesia use for infant  

surgery/circumcision

Be familiar with nutrition and obesity in infants and the role caregiver’s play in a child’s eating patterns

∙ By age 4 months, the average infants birth weight has doubled ∙ By age 1 the infants birth weight has tripled

∙ By the end of its second year, the average child weighs four  times its birth weight

∙ Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year ∙ By age 1, the average baby is 1.5 times their birth length ∙ Growth slows considerably in year 2

Chapter 6

Be familiar with how Piaget describes how children learn.  ∙ Piaget’s Theory

o Learn by doing – construct knowledge of the world

o Sensorimotor period

 Substages

o Key terms

 Schemes (schema) – actions or mental  

representations that organize knowledge

 Assimilation – incorporate new information into  

existing schemes

 Accommodation – adjust schema to fit new  

information and experiences  

Be familiar with the myth of the first 3 years and how it relates to brain development

∙ Myth of the 1st 3 years – things can change overtime Be familiar with Piaget’s substages of the sensorimotor stage, and be  able to identify the substage when given an example. ∙ Sensorimotor Sub Stages

o Simple reflexes (0-1m)

o Primary circular reactions (1-4m)

o Secondary circular reactions (4-8m)

∙ Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12m) o Goal directed behavior

∙ Tertiary circular reactions (12-18m)

∙ Internalization of Schemes (18-24m)

o Mental representations

o Deferred Imitation

∙ Object Permanence – the understanding that objects continue to  exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, etc.

∙ Look at the books table over Sensorimotor sub-stages Equilibration

∙ How children shift from one stage of thought to the next Memory

∙ A central feature of cognitive development, involving the  retention over time  

∙ Implicit memory – memory without consciousness recollection. ∙ Explicit memory – conscious memory of facts and experiences  Know the order of development of comprehension and production of  language-which comes first

∙ 10 months comprehension from 10-152 words production  generally at 0 words

∙ 16 months comprehension from 92-321 (production under 50  words)

Be able to identify an example of the components of the  developmental progression of language including gestures, first words  (holophrases), and first sentences (telegraphic speech) ∙ Babbling – starts around 2-4 months

∙ Stages of babbling

o Cooing – 2-3 months

o Reduplicative babbling 7-9 months

o Non reduplicative – 10 months to a year

∙ Universal to language specific babbling

o Biology to environment

∙ Infants start using gestures between 8-12 months

∙ Symbolic gesture – asking for more with hands; pick up with  arms up

∙ Pointing  

∙ Pre-linguistic communication

o Crying at birth, cooing 1-2 mos.

o Babbling (2-3mo to 1 yr.)

∙ First words (Holophrases)

o 18 months can say 50 words

∙ First sentences (telegraphic speech)

o Two word utterances 18-24 months

∙ Mastery of language

Know the following terms from the rules of language and be able to  identify the term when a description is given- morphology, syntax,  semantics, and pragmatics

∙ Phonology – sound system of a language

∙ Morphemes – minimal unit of meaning  

o Help, helper

∙ Semantics – meaning of words and sentences

∙ Pragmatics – social language

∙ Syntax production

Be able to identify an example of deferred imitation

Be familiar with strategies caregivers use to help develop infant’s  language including recasting, expanding, and labeling ∙

Be familiar with the class discussion of teaching baby signs to infants

∙ Baby’s can learn sign before language, it does not hinder their  language development, research shows that sign can actually  improve language development

Be familiar with Caroline Rovee-Collier’s research in which she tied a  mobile to infants’ feet and what she believed it showed about infant  memory

Chapter 7

Be able to recognize descriptions of the different types of infant cries. o Basic – rhythmic pattern, usually indicates hunger

o Anger – loud, harsh sound, like shouting

o Pain cry – sudden long initial loud cry followed by breath  holding

Know the qualities of temperament, and be able to distinguish between the types of temperament discussed in the text and in class ∙ Easy, difficult, slow to warm

Know Tronic ‘s Mutual Regulation Model and be able to distinguish  between synchrony, gaze aversion, and Dysregulation when given a  description

∙ Mutual regulation Model – Ed Tronick

o Synchrony – infants change their emotional expressions in  response to parents emotion, and vice versa

o Gaze aversion – looks away from parent to avoid  

discomfort

o Dysregulation – poorly modulated emotional response  Out of the norm of accepted responses

o Sill face procedure

 Depressed caregivers – imagine the infants  

experience

Be familiar with Erickson’s stage of development for infants known as  trust vs. mistrust

o Erikson – trust vs. mistrust

o Care needs to be consistent

∙ Social orientation – infants captivated by the social world o Preferences – faces, caregivers voice

o Locomotion – explores the environment

o Joint attention – focus on same object or event

o Social Referencing – reading other people

∙ Attachment – close emotional bond between two people Be familiar with Harry Harlow’s monkey study and his ethological  theory

o Harry Harlow’s rhesus monkeys

 Comfort or food?

Be able to describe the attachment styles of Bowlby and the parenting  styles/interactions associated with each

∙ Phase 1 – direct their attachment to any human

∙ Phase 2 – attachment focused on one figure, usually primary  caregiver

∙ Phase 3 – attachment develops to regular caregivers ∙ Phase 4 – awareness of others feelings

Be familiar with child care in infancy – most common settings, who  primarily provides childcare for infants

∙ Children with 30+ hours of child care a week were more at risk  for impulsivity and other issues

Be familiar with Bowlby’s work on attachment, and know the 4 types of attachment

∙ Securely attached: babies that use the caregiver as a secure  base from which to explore their environment

∙ Insecure avoidant babies: babies that show insecurity by  avoiding the caregiver

∙ Insecure resistant babies: often cling to the caregiver, then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or  pushing away

∙ Insecure disorganized babies: show insecurity by being  disorganized and disoriented

Be familiar with the strange situation experiment

∙ Requires infants to move through a series of introductions,  separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult  stranger in a prescribed order

Be familiar with the characteristics of temperament and Chess and  Thomas’ three classifications

∙ Easy – generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular  routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences ∙ Difficult – reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in  irregular daily routines and is slow to accept change

∙ Slow to warm up – has a low activity level, is somewhat negative  and displays a low intensity of mood.

Be familiar with the term separation protest and when it begins to  occur

Be familiar with the term goodness of fit in relationship to an infant’s  temperament

∙ Goodness of fit – match between temperament and  environmental demands

o Lack of fit can produce adjustment problems

o Some temperaments pose parenting challenges

∙ Parental impact

o Respect infants individuality

o Extra support for distress prone infants

o Structure the child’s environment

Be familiar with the terms social referencing, and self-soothing ∙ Social referencing – look to caregiver for reassurance ∙ Self soothing -

Be familiar with Lewis’s rouge study and what it reveals about an  infant’s recognition of self

∙ Putting a dot of rouge on the babies nose or forehead and then  observing to see if the baby touches themselves where the mark  is or touching the mirror.  

∙ If the child touches itself to touch the dot of rouge they are  thought to recognize themselves in the mirror.

∙ If the child touches the mirror they have not yet reached this  milestone and do not recognize themselves just yet.

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