Lecture 714 Terms
Industrialization divides work into simpler, smaller tasks, machines labor instead of physical labor for enhanced speed and efficiency, massproduction with lower cost, replaced organic energy with mechanical energy.
Enclosure movement enclosing many small landholdings to create one big farm. Proletariat the urban landless poor in Britain.
patent gave the owner a legal monopoly to use and distribute their invention or idea Protestant Work Ethic a protestant theological and societal belief that work was good and even desired.
Cottage industries industries that were very rural and decentralized and used family based labor systems (including women and children). Was basically merchant capitalism and was very popular in both the US and China.
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Water frame created rough yarn by spinning it with the use of water power, was later perfected by the cotton gin.
factory a place where all work and assembly for a product can be done under one roof. Calico Acts (1690 and 1721) restricted the importation of cotton goods to Britain cotton gin created a much quicker way to make sellable cotton and reinforced slavery in the process because of the great need for labor to pick said cotton.
Coalbrookdale home to Darby’s iron foundry that used coke instead of charcoal. Newcomb engine atmospheric engine which used air pressure to pump water out of mines very efficiently.
Watt engine created to perfect the atmospheric engine by separating the condenser, over 500 produced.
high pressure steam engines invented by Trevithick and Evans, very compact, powerful and dangerous and were used heavily in Mississippi steamboats and railcars.
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main issues of poverty?
Saint Monday workers got Monday off prior to industrialization to rest/drink . Industrial Discipline worked on the clock and stressed an attitude of timeliness and attendance with a strictness on sobriety and always with the mindset “time is money”. Taylorism scientific way of measuring and perfecting work flow and efficiency. Labor Unions formed to give a voice to workers. Performed strikes and protests to receive better work conditions/benefits/pay and eventually workers insurance. Don't forget about the age old question of Where does group translocation occur?
Bridgewater Canal built in 1761 and ran 41 miles from Worley to Manchester. Stockton and Darlington Railway worlds first public railway to use steam engines. Railroad System making one required railcars, routes, was very capital intensive, a costly and risky investment to back, must be standardized, routes had to be as direct and flat as possible, and you had to make sure to take care of freight and passengers while putting as many on as possible to maximize profit.
Collapsing Space making a large distance feel much smaller because of faster travel.If you want to learn more check out What is in one molecule of the compound?
Reorienting Time creating more time by taking less time to travel.
Monopoly a business entity that has such power that they can control market prices. Telegraphs fastest way to transport information which was done through making and breaking electrical signals through a wire.
Interchangeable Parts “holy grail” for militaries that allowed any part of one weapon to be used immediately with no alteration on another of the same make/model.
Fitters highly skilled workmen were essential in making detailed enough parts for interchangeability to work.
American System of Manufacturing extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization to produce a good.
Industrial Pollution came in the form of air, water, and noise from the byproducts of factories Moral Environmentalism believed the poor had to deal with the consequences of pollution because of their poor moral shortcomings.
Social Environmentalism believed the pollution was the result of the bad condition of the poor. Technology Transfer transferring information/technology from one company to another in order to further develop that product or commercialize it. Don't forget about the age old question of How do infants understand the world?
Advantages of “late” starters late starters in the industrial revolution had much less impacted economies and much less impacted militaries and eventually started it by indigenization by making it more and more apart of the culture.
Nationalism a culturally constructed framework of ideas that promote a dominate identity for a nation.
Romantic Nationalism an imagined community based on shared symbols or ideas, public primary education was a key component.
Competitive Nationalism competitive with resources, population, territory, militaries, economies, and market access but this brought with it imperialism, war, discrimination, and genocide.
Jingoism extreme nationalism with aggressive foreign policy
Conservatism religious monarchy that wanted to maintain the status quo and were very hopeless about human nature.
Liberalism Freetrade capitalists that were antimonarchy and favored laissezfair economics and believed in the good of human nature over the bad.
Socialism state control/regulation of society. Often a response to the detrimental effects of industrialization and capitalism.
Karl Marx started Marxism with the belief that societies develop through class struggle. Revolutions of 1848 the participants wanted to remove absolute monarchies, start nationalist unification movements, get voting rights and legal reforms, reverse the conservative points of the Congress of Vienna. The conservatives wanted to delay this as much as possible, use marshal military force to stop uprisings, and dismiss this “reform” and liberal unification. Main ones included France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, Britain. If you want to learn more check out What are the roles and tasks of management accountants?
Italian Unification became constitutional monarchy after their third war for independence.
German Unification Were unsure whether to involve Austria in the German Confederation and eventually left them out and added Prussia instead.
Otto Von Bismarck Leader of Prussia and Germany (German Conf.) from 1860s1890s Great Powers the main players in European politics: Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire
“Sick Man of Europe”described the once great but slowly fading Ottoman Empire Realpolitik focused on accepting situations as they were rather than relying on ideology, morals, or ethics.
Cossacks mounted Siberian fighters that combined sedentary and steppe warfare. Siberia the northern area of Asia covering most of Russia’s eastern front which contains some of the harshest and most uninhabitable land on the planet.
Treaty of Nerchinsk treaty between Russia and the Manchu Chinese which checked Russia’s western expansion.
Peter the Great leader of the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire. A Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow book by Alexander Radishchev which is considered the Russian Uncle Tom’s Cabin that basically is an educated rebuttal to the social, political, and economic problems with Russia.
Emancipation of the Serfs The Emancipation Reform of 1861 abolished serfdom in Russia (forced agricultural labor).
Empire of Liberty the ideology coined by Thomas Jefferson that it is basically the US’s job to spread freedom around the world.
Manifest Destiny the belief that it was God’s will for the US people to expand their territory and politics across all of North America.
Civilization Policy the attempt of Americans to “civilize” Indians.
PanIndian movement a call of unity among all Native Americans against American expansion. Indian Removal Act deal that gave the US all the land east of the Mississippi and some more and Native Americans had to be on the western side of the river because they did not think they could ever be civilized.
King Cotton a mindset used by prosecessionist in the south that they could secede whenever they wanted without fear of war with the north.
Paternalist Ethos the mindset that slaveowners thought they were kind and responsible even though they were buying and selling human beings.
Internal Slave Trade forcibly relocated 2 million slaves which aided in the expansion of slavery. The Frontier combined geography, history, folklore, cultural life and more in the wave of American expansion to the West.
The American Civil War (18611865) was fought between the northern and southern (Union vs. Confederate) over the morality and legality of slave trade and labor.
Reconstruction built by 13th ,14th , and 15 Amendments which abolished slavery, gave equal protection to all citizens and gave every free man the right to vote (respectively). Also contained many social programs started to build economic and infrastructure growth in the US. Transcontinental Railroad (1869) built by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroad companies which raced towards each other to build a crossAmerica railroad starting in Omaha, Nebraska and Sacramento, California.
Tools of Empire in India internal and external telegraph lines, steamboats, and British railway usage in India.
Sepoys Indian soldiers trained and employed by the British East India Company (BEIC). Indian Rebellion (18571858) natives formed an unsuccessful uprising against the BEIC. British Raj (18581947) rule by the British crown in the Indian subcontinent which was the “model for colonial governance”.
Government of India Act (1935) this was the last British constitution in India until 1947 when they lost rule and it split into Pakistan and India.
“the knife of sugar” a phrase by Naoroji to describe how British rule in India had become smooth and sweet like sugar but was still killing them like a knife they never knew was there.
involution a decline in additional production per unit of additional labor. Great Qing Code the law in China since 1644.
Lord Macartney set out on the first diplomatic mission to China in 1793. opium highly addictive narcotic drug acquired from the dried latex form from the opium poppy. Commissioner Lin was tasked with the beginning of stopping the opium trade and epidemic in China
First Opium War (18391942) fought between Britain and the Qing over conflicts pertaining to diplomatic relations, trade of opium and the administration of justice (or lack of) in China. Treaty of Nanjing ended the first opium war and was the first of the unequal treaties which basically required nothing of British action. Granted indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain. Second Opium War started by the lack of improved trade and diplomatic relations for Britain. Taiping rebellion fought between the Qing and the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace and resulted in 2030 million dead.
Boxer rebellion the violent antiforeign, anticolonial, antichristian uprising from 18991901 at the end of the Qing Dynasty.
America’s “Open Door” policy effort by the US to keep trade with China open and equal with everyone wile supporting their territorial and administrative integrity.
Sun YatSen first president and founding father of the Republic of China. “Civilizing Mission” a rationale for intervention or colonization following the mindsets of westernization and conquering of indigenous peoples.
Suez Canal artificial sealevel canal in Egypt connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
Battle of Isandlawana first main encounter of the AngloZulu War in which the lessarmed, less skilled 20,000 Zulu warriors beat the 2000 wellarmed, wellskilled British. Rourke’s Drift 150 British soldiers held their ground against 5000 Zulu warriors. Maxim Gun (1883) first recoil operated machine gun.
Conference of Berlin regulated European colonization and trade in Africa and coincided with Germany’s emergence as a world power.
Effective Occupation acquired by formal treaties, some administration, maintaining the public order, and having a constant and direct presence in the colony.
Herero Wars wars between the German Empire and the natives of German South West Africa (their only overseas territory) when Germans started and continued to take land from natives. Matthew Perry used gunboat diplomacy in Japan to basically make them comply. Meiji Restoration restored practical imperial rule to Japan.
Iwakura Mission (1871) hoped to gain recognition, renegotiate treaties, and observe western models.
Modernization adapting to modern needs instead of expanding further.
RussoJapanese War was fought between the Russian and Japanese Empires over the rival imperial ambitions for Manchuria and Korea.
Eastern Question the strategic competition and political considerations following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Committee of Union and Progress comprised of young Turks and was a constitutional monarchy based on Ottoman patriotism.
Pogroms AntiJewish Russians that rioted against Jews in Russia
Ottoman Palestine built of Muslims, Christians, and Sephardic Jews.
First Aliyah the first major wave of zionist immigration to Israel between 18821903. Zionism a movement for the reestablishment and protection of a Jewish nation. Second Aliyah second move of 35,000 Jews from Russia to Israel from 19041914. Conflict at Rehovot a conflict based around a dispute over pasture rights.
Abandoning Bismarck’s Foreign Policy Russia’s growth lead to a treaty with former German enemy France and everything started to shift.
Triple Entente linked Russia, France and Britain.
Dangerous Balance of Power this lead to basically splitting the power of Europe in half. The Black Hand extremist terrorist group who planned the assassination of Ferdinand and in turn the start of WWI.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austrian archduke which was murdered by a bomb from Gavrilo Princip and the Black Hand.
“Schliefen Plan” German armies plan for war against France and Russia. Industrial Warfare brought the fight home, lead to increases in industrial output, technological advantages, strategic resources and attrition.
The Great War the first World War from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918. Trench Warfare the use of trenches to protect soldiers from small arms fire but keep progress to a snaillike pace across the battle field.
Western Front the main theater of action for the duration of the war in Europe. Stalemate a gridlock of two forces where it doest seem a winner will ever be chosen. Shell Shock a form of PTSD (before it was called that) many soldiers got during the war. Battle of Jutland (1916) naval battle between Britain and Germany’s navy off the coast of Denmark in which ended in a stalemate with both sides losing a lot. Only major sea battle of the war.
National War Labor Board created by Woodrow Wilson to make sure labor strikes didn’t effect the way efforts.
United States Railroad Administration largest American experiment with nationalization and was done out of emergency to transport war goods.
Tsar Nicholas II the last Emperor of Russia.
Armenian Genocide the Ottoman government’s systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians.
Provisional Government a sort of emergency stand in government following the abdication of Nicholas II.
Bolsheviks a member of the Russian Social Democratic Party (later the Communist Party). Alexander Kerensky minister of justice and war of the provisional government of Russia. Treaty of BrestLitovsk ended Russia’s participation in WWI
Woodrow Wilson president that lead the US into WWI
The Spring Offensive (1918) a series of German pushes along the western front as a sort of last ditch effort at victory.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare subs can and will sink anything without warning. Wilson’s Fourteen Points a blue print for world peace used for negotiations after WWI. National SelfDetermination creation of national governmental institutions by a group or people that describes themselves as a nation.
Treaty of Versailles created by the “Big 4” and put all blame of the war on Germany, requiring a disarmament, large loss of land, and huge war debts
German Reparation Payments fined $33 billion but was only technically required to pay $12.5 billion in order to deceive but please the AngloFrench public.
League of Nations a forum for resolving international disputed (the baby UN) Mandate System a compromise between the Allies of WWI taking Germany’s colonies and dividing them among themselves and saying they never fought the war for that reward in the first place.