Microbiology Study Guide
- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) determines placement on phylogenetic tree
↳ inferred evolutionary relationships among other entities - their phylogeny - based upon similarities & differences in their physical or genetic characteristics
↳ Reference Lecture 1, Slide 9
- RNA is most likely found in early life due to catalytic activity and ability to store information
- Origins of mitochondria
↳ Endosymbiont Hypothesis
↳ Bacterial endosymbiont
↳ eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells
↳ Large host cell ingested bacteria & could easily become dependent on one another for survival
↳ Mitochondria have their own DNA & can reproduce
- Koch’s Postulates
↳Steps / PrinciplesMicroorganism must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organisms
Suspected organisms must be isolated and grown in pure culture
Same disease must result when the isolated microorganism is inoculated into a healthy hostSame microorganisms must be isolated again from the diseased host
We also discuss several other topics like What is the mass % of cu in the compound cufes2 (chalcopyrite)?
↳ Success?Connection between H. pylori & stomach ulcersCorrelation between organism & inflammation
↳ Failures?Doesn’t take into account other animals, what one disease does to one animal, may not affect anotherRefractive Index
↳ how greatly substances slows velocity of light
Don't forget about the age old question of Are newborns sensitive to the spatiotemporal cues that allow adults to perceive causality?Normal = line perpendicular to surface of mediaInto higher reflective index = bends towards normalInto lower reflective index bends away from normalResolution
↳ with higher resolution microscope could see either
↳ ability of a lens to separate or distinguish small objects that are close togetherWavelength of light used is major factor in resolution
↳ Shorter wavelength = greater resolutionNumerical Aperture = ability of lens to gather lightGram Stain
We also discuss several other topics like What are the roles and tasks of management accountants?
State / Bacteria
- Crystal violet (primary stain) for 1 minute. Water Rinse.
Cells stain purple
- Iodine (moderant) for 1 minute. Water Rinse.
Cells remain purple
- Alcohol (decolorizer) for 10-30 seconds. Water Rinse.
Gram + : remain purple
Gram - : colorless
State / Bacteria
- Safranin (counterstain) for 30-60 seconds. Water Rinse. Blot dry
Gram + : purple
Gram - : red
↳ Gram StainingDifferences in cell wall
↳ Acid FastDiagnostic for Mycobacterium Spp.High lipid content (mycolic acid) in cell wall
↳ Divide bacteria into groups based on resultsDiachromatic mirror in fluorescence microscopy
↳ Reflects short wavelengthsIf you want to learn more check out What happens to an efficient market with government intervenes?
↳ Transmits longer wavelengths
Light background + dark specimen
Stained & unstained samples
Resolution = 0.2 mM
size of small bacterium
Cannot visualize viruses
Fluorescent TV screen
Black / White images
↳ ProteinsFtsz : homolog of tubulininitiates cell division (cannot delete)MreB : homolog of actinGives rod shapeMbI equivalentCres : only in coulbacterHomolog of intermediate filaments
↳ Inclusion BodiesStorageMicrocompartment“Other”
↳ Bacterial RibosomesMade of protein & DNASizes30S = 16S rRNA + 21 proteins50S = 5S rRNA + 23S rRNA + 34 pro.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 different groups of adopters?
Closed, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule
Looped and coiled extens
Nucleoid proteins probably aid in folding
Nucleoid proteins differ from histones
Usually small, closed circular DNA
Exist and replicate independently of chromosome
Have relatively few genes present
Genes on plasmids are not essential to host but may come selective advantage (e. G. drug resistance)
We also discuss several other topics like How does a functionalist explain mass incarceration?