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UWM / African Studies / MENAS 401 / Where does group translocation occur?

Where does group translocation occur?

Where does group translocation occur?


School: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: African Studies
Course: General Microbiology
Professor: Sonia bardy
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Microbiology, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, organelles, postulates, archaea, and Microscopy
Cost: 50
Name: Microbiology Study Guide
Description: Study guide covers lectures 1-8
Uploaded: 10/06/2017
14 Pages 54 Views 7 Unlocks

Microbiology Study Guide

  1. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) determines placement on phylogenetic tree

↳ inferred evolutionary relationships among other entities - their phylogeny - based upon similarities & differences in their physical or genetic characteristics

↳ Reference Lecture 1, Slide 9

  1. RNA is most likely found in early life due to catalytic activity and ability to store information
  2. Origins of mitochondria

↳ Endosymbiont Hypothesis

↳ Bacterial endosymbiont

↳ eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells

↳ Large host cell ingested bacteria & could easily become dependent on one another for survival

↳ Mitochondria have their own DNA & can reproduce

  1. Koch’s Postulates

↳Steps / Principles

  • Microorganism must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organisms

  • Suspected organisms must be isolated and grown in pure culture
  • Same disease must result when the isolated microorganism is inoculated into a healthy host
  • Same microorganisms must be isolated again from the diseased host                
  • We also discuss several other topics like What is the mass % of cu in the compound cufes2 (chalcopyrite)?

            ↳ Success?

  • Connection between H. pylori & stomach ulcers
  • Correlation between organism & inflammation
  •                 ↳ Failures?

  • Doesn’t take into account other animals, what one disease does to one animal, may not affect another
  • Refractive Index
  •      ↳ how greatly substances slows velocity of light

    Don't forget about the age old question of Are newborns sensitive to the spatiotemporal cues that allow adults to perceive causality?

  • Normal = line perpendicular to surface of media
  • Into higher reflective index = bends towards normal
  • Into lower reflective index bends away from normal
  • Resolution
  • ↳ with higher resolution microscope could see either

    ↳ ability of a lens to separate or distinguish small objects that are close together

  • Wavelength of light used is major factor in resolution
  •         ↳ Shorter wavelength = greater resolution

  • Numerical Aperture = ability of lens to gather light
  • Gram Stain
  • We also discuss several other topics like What are the roles and tasks of management accountants?


    State / Bacteria


    1. Crystal violet (primary stain) for 1 minute. Water Rinse.

    Cells stain purple

    1. Iodine (moderant) for 1 minute. Water Rinse.

    Cells remain purple

    1. Alcohol (decolorizer) for 10-30 seconds. Water Rinse.        

    Gram + : remain purple

    Gram - : colorless


    State / Bacteria


    1. Safranin (counterstain) for 30-60 seconds. Water Rinse. Blot dry                

    Gram + : purple

    Gram - : red

  • Differential Staining
  • ↳ Gram Staining

  • Differences in cell wall
  •         ↳ Acid Fast

  • Diagnostic for Mycobacterium Spp.
  • High lipid content (mycolic acid) in cell wall
  •         ↳ Divide bacteria into groups based on results

  • Diachromatic mirror in fluorescence microscopy
  •         ↳ Reflects short wavelengthsIf you want to learn more check out What happens to an efficient market with government intervenes?

            ↳ Transmits longer wavelengths

  • Light Microscopy                        
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Light background + dark specimen
  • Stained & unstained samples
  • Resolution = 0.2 mM
  • size of small bacterium
  • Cannot visualize viruses
  • Bacteria visualized
  • Electron beam
  • Magnets
  • Vaccuum
  • Fluorescent TV screen
  • Black / White images
  • More resolution
  • View viruses
  • Cytoplasm
  •         ↳ Proteins

  • Ftsz : homolog of tubulin
  • initiates cell division (cannot delete)
  • MreB : homolog of actin
  • Gives rod shape
  • MbI equivalent
  • Cres : only in coulbacter
  • Homolog of intermediate filaments
  •         ↳ Inclusion Bodies

  • Storage
  • Microcompartment
  • “Other”
  •         ↳ Bacterial Ribosomes

  • Made of protein & DNA
  • Sizes
  • 30S = 16S rRNA + 21 proteins
  • 50S = 5S rRNA + 23S rRNA + 34 pro.
  • We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 different groups of adopters?
    We also discuss several other topics like How does a functionalist explain mass incarceration?

  • Bacterial Chromosomes        
  • Bacterial Plasmids
  • Closed, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule
  • Looped and coiled extens
  • Nucleoid proteins probably aid in folding
  • Nucleoid proteins differ from histones
  • Usually small, closed circular DNA
  • Exist and replicate independently of chromosome
  • Have relatively few genes present
  • Genes on plasmids are not essential to host but may come selective advantage (e. G. drug resistance)
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