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UNT / Merchandising / MDSE 3350 / What are sumptuary laws and what did they govern?

What are sumptuary laws and what did they govern?

What are sumptuary laws and what did they govern?


School: University of North Texas
Department: Merchandising
Course: Historic Costume
Professor: Jessica strübel
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Historic Apparel Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide is all the material needed to know for exam 2. Contains important information and comments made by professor.
Uploaded: 10/06/2017
27 Pages 160 Views 5 Unlocks

Historic and Contemporary Styles of Apparel 

What are sumptuary laws and what did they govern?

Exam 2 Study Guide 


Historic Importance 

Important People 

Social Class 

Important Dates 

Chapter 6: Late Middle Ages 

Medieval Period 

∙ Great cathedrals were built while the masses lived in hovels ∙ Chivalry flowered (knights and shining armor)

∙ Agriculture advanced

o Harnesses that fit the animals, enabling them to pull heavier  plows

o Development of crop rotation system (changing what is grown) o Windmills to help dredge bogs (swamp), thereby increasing  farmland

What is an example of a bourgeois?

Don't forget about the age old question of How do sensation and perception differ?

o Swiveling from axel on wagons (wheels will turn)

 Could only pull in one direction before swiveling axel

o Rediscovery of the water wheel to grind gain into flours ∙ Art, architecture, literature and music began to develop a new creative  aesthetic

∙ Christianity was the unifying force in Europe  Don't forget about the age old question of What is thomas piketty's view of the causes of unequal income distribution?

Politics 1300-1500 

∙ Feudalism was waning (smaller scale rule – controlled small areas) o Paid army replaced fiefdom

o Peasants paid rent

∙ Trade was flourishing

∙ Bourgeoisie  

∙ Growing importance of cities

o Fashion  

What is henry viii famous for?

 People were changing styles  


∙ City Living – Black Death

o 1348

o Repeatedly during 14th and 15th centuries

o 1665 – plague killed 1/3 of the population

Social Classes If you want to learn more check out What is the task of phospholipid?

∙ Nobility – those who fought

∙ Bourgeoisie  

∙ Peasants – those who labored

∙ Clergy – those who prayed

The Nobility 

∙ Court  

o Nobility

o Ladies in Waiting (Queens and princess had people similar to  nowadays housekeeper)

o Council  

∙ The Court of Burgundy

∙ “Renowned for its splendid costume”

∙ Travel

∙ Gifts of clothing

o French – liveree– “to distribute”

o English – livery  

The Bourgeoisie 

∙ Merchants and Bankers Don't forget about the age old question of What does publicization mean?

∙ Could afford whatever they wanted

∙ Sumptuary Laws  

o Laws that govern clothing

The Peasants 

∙ Agricultural or factory workers

∙ Cast majority of the population

Clothing Production

∙ “Putting out” System

∙ Tailors – apprenticeship (Pg. 153)

o Tailor would make clothing for you if you didn’t want to) ∙ Innovations: 

o Set-in Sleeve – compare to a tunic (bulky under sleeve)  This helped people in armor

o Bias-cut hose

 Lengthwise grain (strong)

 Crosswise grain (not as strong)

 Bias (more stretch, cling to body when worn)

o Gores (panels)

 Fullness at bottom – skirts

o Buttons  

∙ Specializations Developed: (Pg. 153)

o Tailors made garments

o Professional lingerie makers made wimples (undergarments) and  veils  

o Bootmakers made boots

o Shoemakers made shoes

Sources of Information

∙ Illustrated Bibles and prayer books

∙ Stone sculptures

∙ Tombs of the rich and high born

∙ Extant garments

∙ Woven tapestries We also discuss several other topics like Cite the similarities and differences between sensation and perception.

∙ Wills and wedding contracts (clothes given in wills)

∙ Literary works

o The Canterbury Tales

o Gutenberg’s movable type-1450

 Enabled faster reproduction of printed text If you want to learn more check out Give three different characteristics of a greek cult.

14th Century Costume 

Clothing for Men – 14th Century (style up until 1340) ∙ Chemise

∙ Braise

∙ Cote

∙ Surcote

∙ Heraldry (shields)

o Each family had their own design on their shield  

∙ Parti-colored hose

o As many as 4 colors

∙ Pourpoint (pour-pwant’)  

o Later called Doublet  

 Gipon (jhi-pahn’)

o Points (held hose onto garment)

o Closed with laces, strings or buttons

o Set-in sleeves

o Worn under armor

o Belted in later part of century

o Dagging (decorative scallop/square design at edge of hem) ∙ Cote-hardie (coat’ –har’dee)

o Like a long dress

o Worn by men and women

o Often laced or buttoned

o Pleats

o Worn by lower class, but adopted by upper class (trickle-up  theory)

∙ Houppelande (hoop’land)

o Later in the century – 1360’s

o Man’s housecoat worn over the Pourpoint

o Pleats are major detail

∙ Capes

o Houce or Housse (oose) – wide-skirted overcoat with winged  cape sleeves and two flat tongue-shaped lapels at the neck o Chaperon – hooded shoulder cape


∙ French – Poulain (poo-lan’)

∙ English – Crackowe (crak’ow)

o Symbolized that wearer doesn’t have to do anything  

Pourpoint Detail

∙ Points (held hose onto garment)

∙ Closed with laces, strings or buttons

∙ Set-in sleeves

∙ Worn under armor

∙ Belted in later part of century

∙ Dagging (decorative scallop/square design at edge of hem)  

Clothing for Women – 14th Century

∙ Layers

o Linen undergarment

o First fitted gown

o Second fitted gown (more decorative)

o Cloak or mantle

o Outer tunic or Surcote

∙ French queen or princess:

o Gown with long sleeves, fitted

o Surcote (side less) with low neckline

o Skirt – long and full; lifted when walking

o Accessories:  

 Bezants – jewel-like ornaments stamped from gold worn in  a vertical line down the front

∙ Tippets – long, narrow sleeve extensions

∙ Houppelande

o Outer garment

∙ Cote-hardie

o Dress  

o Used different color linings

∙ Capes  

Women’s Hair and Headdress – 14th Century

∙ Wide rather than high

∙ Veil, barbette and fillet

∙ If visible, hair was plaited and coiled around the ears or arranged  parallel to the vertical direction of the face

Women’s Shoes – 14th Century

∙ Generally, not visible, long skirts

∙ Not elongated

∙ Slippers  

15th Century Costume 

Men’s Costume – 15th Century

∙ Pourpoint became commonly called the doublet (jacket) o Became very short

o Exposed hosiery

∙ Codpiece (late century)

o Garment put in place to meet at two legs of hosiery  ∙ Houppelande – gown or robe

o Pleats  

∙ Sleeve detail  

o Open above elbow

o Fitted

o Funnel shaped

o Turned back (cuff)

∙ Huke or Huque (cape or surcote)

o Cover for armor  

∙ Joined hose with leather soles

∙ Parti-colored (2 or more colors)

∙ Pattens – raised platform shoes

o Protect shoe from dirt

∙ Jeweled collars

∙ Decorative belts

Men’s Hair – 15th Century

∙ Bowl crop – Pageboy

o Similar to longer chili bowl haircut

Women’s Clothing – 15th Century

∙ Chemise – under most garments

∙ Houppelandes – long and belted

o Vertical pleats under bust  

∙ High standing collars

∙ Gown (English), Cote (French)

o Sideless surcotes

o French – low necklines

o Pregnant look

o Bodice developed a deep V, sometimes reaching to waist. The  edges of the V are called revers. (lapels)

 Modesty piece (fabric attached in-between revers)

∙ Roc – loose-fitting gown

Women’s Headwear – 15th Century

∙ Hennin (“to inconvenience”)

o Possibly cone shaped

∙ Sumptuary Laws 

o Princesses – 36”

o Noble ladies 24” or less

Chapter 7: Italian Renaissance 

More Renaissance 

∙ Basically the same period as Chapter 6 – 1400-1600 

∙ Focus on Italy in Chapter 7

∙ “A new perception of life had begun to emerge in Italy in the 15th century and from there spread to the rest of Europe” (Pg. 179)

Famous Italian Renaissance Names 

∙ Michelangelo

∙ Leonardo di Vinci

∙ Medici Family

∙ Donatello  

∙ Shakespeare

∙ Christopher Marlowe (playwright)

∙ Christopher Columbus

∙ Copernicus (theory that the earth is round)


∙ Geographic area

∙ Citi-states – ruled by

o Princes  

o Military Commanders

o Wealthy Merchants

o Battled each other for territory – chaotic

∙ Rulers commissioned artwork


∙ Aristocracy

∙ Merchant Class

∙ Artisans and Artist

∙ Town Laborers  

∙ Peasants of the countryside

∙ Females inherited very little wealth

o Dowry (sum of money or resources used to make her more  attractive to man)

 Marriages somewhat arranged

 Dowry went to husband if something happened to wife o Convents  


∙ Sumptuary Laws

o Number of items an individual could acquire

o Controlled

 Types of materials

 Ornamentation

∙ Natural Fibers

o Silk was plentiful

o Italy had excellent trade relationship with Asia

∙ Tailors  

∙ Homemade Clothing

∙ Beginnings of clothing sale resale shops  

Men’s Costume – 1400-1450

∙ Gothic Styles still

o Emphasis on vertical

∙ Doublets (short jacket)

∙ Hukes over doublets

∙ Houppelandes  

∙ No bowl cut

∙ Shoes not as pointy  

Women’s Costume – 1400-1450

∙ Houppelande  

∙ Foreheads were bared and fashionably high

o Sometimes shaved top part of hair to make forehead appear  larger

∙ Large beehive-shaped, turban-like hat


Men’s Costume – 1450-1500

∙ Very familiar

∙ Linen drawers

∙ Undershirts  

o Camicia (ca-mee’chay)

∙ Doublet with attached hose

∙ Outer jackets

∙ Sleeves

o Puffy at the top; slender below the elbow

o Then, opened seams to provide ease of movement

o Hanging sleeves

Doublet Changes

∙ Waist to below the hip

∙ May have a small skirt

∙ Necklines are becoming distinctive

∙ U-shaped piece cut out of back

∙ Small skirt  

Women’s Costume – 1450-1500

∙ Chemise or Camicia – sometimes visible  

∙ Sometimes belted

∙ Necklines lowered over the period

∙ Sometimes fabric pulled through slits

Women’s Hair

∙ Northern European women covered hair

∙ Italian women arranged their hair

o Ferroniere (fehr’ohn-yair) - Headpiece

16th Century 

Men’s Costume – 1500’s

∙ Doublet

∙ Necklines became square

∙ Decorative slashing

o Decorative techniques used to beautify garments

∙ Blackwork might show

o Blackwork – form on embroidery (black thread)

∙ Codpiece became more padded  

Women’s Costume – 1500’s  

∙ Camicia – again, showing neckline  

o Embroidered sometimes

∙ Sleeves puffed at top

∙ Straight waistlines, gradually evolving to a V-shape

∙ Slashing  

o Decorative techniques used to beautify garments

Women’s Headwear

∙ Turban  

Chapter 8: Late Middle Ages 

Political Information 

∙ Rome was the center of the universe essentially

∙ No separation of church and state

∙ The protestant reformation

o Began in the German states of the holy roman empire

o Split Europe into two hostile religious regions

∙ Emperor Charles V

o Elected Roman Emperor at age 19

o Ruled large territory that was not contiguous (not all connected)


∙ Developments  

o German Artists rejected the Gothic styles

o The printing press

o The reformation

o Martin Luther (1483-1546)


∙ King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella 

o Funded explorations of the “New World”

o Trade flourished > lots of money

o Wanted to establish new trade routes for money

o Dominated Europe politically

o Charles V abdicated the thrown to his son Phillip II

o Battle over religion lost a lot of Spanish territory


∙ Henry VIII (1509-1547) 

o Married to Katherine of Aragon – couldn’t have boys

o Had one daughter – Mary Tudor 

 Left the Tudor thrown in question

o Asked the Pop to annul his marriage and the Pope said no. Henry  made his own church (The Church of England)

o He married again and conceived other children

 Edward VI (1547-1558)

∙ Very sick child  

∙ Mary takes the thrown (1553-1558)

o Wanted to return the Roman Catholic Church to England ∙ Her sister, Elizabeth takes the thrown (1558-1603)


∙ King Francis (1515-1547) 

o Married to Catherine de Medici (Italy, wealthy family, essentially  running Italy)

o When she entered Paris she brought many fashion related goods  to the nation. Dressmakers and perfumes for example

o Became regent after her husband died

o Supported Catholic side

o Caught up in the religious civil war

Technology Advances 

∙ Advances in spinning

o Finer > Yarns

∙ Hand knitting  

∙ Embroidery

o Advanced rapidly in terms of technique and fineness/quality  i.e. Black-work

∙ New technique: Drawn Work

o Removal of yarns from a finished good in a decorative design

∙ Cutwork

o Actually cutting the fabric into a design

∙ Filer or Lacis

o Embroidery on a net or loosely woven material

o Floating look

∙ Lace

o Constructed entirely of yarns

o No fabric

Men’s Wear (1500-1515) 

∙ Transition from medieval to renaissance

∙ Move to a more slender silhouette

∙ Shirts – more full and gathered

∙ Doublets and Hose

o Doublet is shortening – waist length  

o Often times had a deep V

o Filler – Stomacher – contrasting in color

 A stiff something that was inserted into the garment to  keep the stiff front

o Jackets (Jerkin)

o Bases – separate short skirts that are worn with a jacket o Gowns or robes

 With hanging sleeves and wide revers (lapels)

Men’s Wear (1515-1550) 

∙ Strong German influence

∙ Wider silhouette  

o Puffy areas

o A lot of bulk

o Slashing and panes

∙ Shirts

∙ Doublets

∙ Jackets (often slashed)

∙ Bases

∙ Full sleeves

Men’s Wear (1550-1600) 

∙ Strong Spanish influence  

∙ Width is decreasing (again)

∙ The codpiece is moving out of fashion

∙ The Ruff is coming into fashion

o The high, standing collar with lace

∙ Pedcadils – small flaps sewn just below the waist.  

o Sometime seen on the sleeve seams

∙ Peascod belly – resembles the puffed out chest of a peacock ∙ Breeches

o Venetians – skin tight tapered to knee

o Open breeches – wide and full throughout  

∙ The Trunk Hose

o Melon-Shaped (pumpkin)


o Fullness

∙ Gallygaskins or Slops  

o Lower ending breeches

∙ Culats

o Trunk hose that were so short that they were merely a pad  around the hips

∙ Bombast – padding

∙ Canions  

o An extension of the breeches to the knees or just below the knee ∙ The stocking became knitted

Women’s Wear (1500-1530) 

∙ Undergarments are becoming more important

o Protect fabrics

o Shaping the body

 Corsets – or Pair of Bodies (2-piece corset-like garment) ∙ The Busk – a long flat piece of wood or whalebone

o AKA the stomacher

∙ Transition from medieval to renaissance

∙ Chemise

∙ Layered dressed

∙ Trains – detachable for dresses

∙ Square necklines

∙ Still covering the hair with veils

Women’s Wear (1530-1575) 

∙ International influence

∙ Germans brought low square necklines and elaborate embroidery  across the bosom

∙ The introduction of the Petticoat

o Large dress that uses some kind of piping to give it shape ∙ Bodice

o Elongate V shape in the front

∙ Pecadils  

∙ Jeweled belts – accentuated the elongated V

∙ Ruffs became moderate in size

∙ Sleeves  

o Slender at the shoulder

o Wide at the wrist

o Maybe a contrasting cuff

o Paning with decorative fabrics

o Aiguillettes – small jeweled metal points that held panes to  sleeves

o Padding (seen in roll shape)

∙ Skirts

o More rigid; cone shaped

o Verdugale or Spanish farthingale provided support for these looks ∙ The Ropa

o Garment that looks like a vest, but it is really the outermost gown that is usually sleeveless.  

o It hangs from the shoulders and is often belted

o A-line

o Fell to the floor

o Spanish influence

o Kind of like a rope

Women’s Wear (1575-1600) 

∙ Bum roll – a padding that would have held the garment out away from  the body

∙ Wheel or Drum instead of the Cone shape during the part of the  century

∙ Ruffs (became enormous)  

o Open or closed

Chapter 9: Late Middle Ages 

Mannerist Style (≈1520-1580) 

∙ How have we seen body exaggeration exploited in dress? o Bulkiness of torso

 Padding  

 Sleeves

o Standing ruff elongating the neck

o Bases or trunk hose elongating the legs

o Stomacher elongating the torso

Style Comparison

∙ Renaissance

o Serenity

o Eternal

o Stability

o Horizontals/Verticals

o Calm nobility

o More reserved/Distant

o Idealized

o Uninterrupted contours

o Clear, even light

∙ Baroque

o Emotional intensity

o A moment in time

o Dynamism

o Diagonals

o Energy/Movement

o Involving/Close

o Real/Not idealized

o Interrupted contours  

o Effects of light

Overview of Text 

∙ France, England and Spain were the dominant European forces ∙ The Italian peninsula remains divided into different political units ∙ Holland is now wealthy and prosperous  

∙ The Vatican still holds a good deal of influence over parts of Europe ∙ Holy wars between Catholic and Protestants are still going on o Power struggles more than theological dissention  


∙ Louis XIII ruled from 1610 to 1643 

o Entrusted government to Cardinal Richelieu

o Began rule at young age  

∙ Louis XIV – The Sung King – 1643-1715 

o Most absolute of absolute monarchs

o Most powerful king France ever had

 Moved government to palace of Versailles  

 Most of his nobility lived with him

∙ Divine Right of Kings (He is connected to God – direct relationship)

The Court at Versailles

∙ “Louis XIV kept the nobles so busy waiting on him and spending  money that they had neither the time nor the funds to plot against  him” (Pg. 239)

∙ Court Etiquette  

Sumptuary Laws – French Court 

∙ Length of trains:

o Queen – 11 ells long – so 41.25 feet long

o King’s daughter – 9 ells long – almost 34 feet long

o King’s granddaughter – 7 ells long – 26 feet long

o A princess (related but direct descendent of the king) – 5 ells – 19 feet long

o Duchess – 3 ells long – 11 feet long

***1 ell = about 45 inches***


∙ While the French king grew more powerful, the English monarchy was  in difficulty.

∙ Queen Elizabeth died in 1603

∙ Succeeded by James VI of Scotland who became James I of Great  Britain, reigned from 1603-1625 

o Son of Mary, Queen of Scots

o Did not get along with Parliament

o Not very effective king

o Did not get along with Puritans (Protestants) either

∙ King James’ son, Charles I, succeeded him

o Ruled from 1625-1649 

o Also did not get along with Parliament  

o Civil war in 1642 – taken prisoner

o 1649 – Charles I was beheaded

∙ Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth until his death

∙ No strong Puritan leader emerged

∙ Charles II, son of Charles I, ruled rom 1649

∙ King of England, Scotland and Ireland

o Shred politician who believed in absolute power

o Left no legitimate children

∙ Society – court/London

o Society revolved around court in London (center of fashion) ∙ James II, Charles II brother, succeeded him

o Incompetent politician

o His son would be raised Roman Catholic

∙ William of Orange was brought in to end the reign of James II ∙ Parliament offered the throne to William of Orange and his wife, Mary  (ruled from 1689-1702) 

English Monarchy – in Summary 

∙ Queen Elizabeth (died in 1603)

∙ Charles I – brought over from Scotland (1625-1649) – beheaded ∙ Oliver Cromwell (1643-1651) 

∙ Charles II (King of Scotland in 1649; King of England/Scotland/Ireland –  1660-1685)

∙ James II – Roman catholic – (1685-1688)

∙ William and Mary (1689-1702)


∙ Prosperous middle class

∙ Dutch East India Company

North American Colonies

∙ The Puritans, called Pilgrims, came to the new world

∙ Dress was more conservative

o Less excess

o “Drab” – but really?


∙ Lagged in fashion

∙ Generally, more conservative

o Ruff

o Farthingale (structure underneath skirt)

∙ Excessively wide skirts

∙ Horizontal shoulder line

∙ Basque bodice (stiff)

∙ Full sleeves with slashing

∙ High chopines (high heels)

Textile Technology 

∙ More complex weaves

o More designs

∙ “Elaborately figured silk fabrics were woven on a draw loom, which  required a small boy or girl to sit on top and manually raise and lower

sets of yarns according to instructions from the weaver in order to  create a pattern” (Pg. 243)

∙ Professional Tailors – upper class

∙ Home Sewing – lower class

Sources of Information

∙ Art – sculpture, paintings

∙ Portraits – beware  

o Up to the painter point of view

∙ Fashion plates (drawings or paintings that people looked at for style)

Fashion Periods

∙ Men

o 1550-1625 

o 1625-1650 

o 1650-1680 

o 1680-1710 

∙ Women

o 1575-1630 

o 1630-1660 

o 1660-1680 

o 1680-1700 

Men’s Costume (1600-1625) 

∙ England – Charles I 

∙ France – Henry IV / Louis XIII 

∙ Clothing looks like the 1500’s

∙ Shirt

∙ Doublet (outer garment, Pourpoint)

∙ Jacket (Jerkin)

∙ Trunk hose or knee-length Venetians (similar to capris-fuller leg)

Men’s Costume (1625-1650) 

∙ England – Charles I; France – Louise XIII 

∙ Full shirt

∙ Falling band replaces the ruff (moved down to shoulders, more  wearable)

∙ Doublet  

o Panes and slits, but not like before

∙ Breeches

o Cut full or

o Tapering gradually to knee

∙ Capes – Balagny (bal-ahn’yee)

∙ Coats – cassocks or casaques (ka-zaks’) in French

Men’s Hair (1625-1650)

∙ Love lock

o One lock of hair that is longer than the rest, likely hung over  shoulder

∙ Large brimmed hats with feather plumes

Men’s Shoes (1625-1650)

∙ High heels (maybe 2inch)

∙ Straight soles I-no shaping for left and right foot

∙ Slap soles (element of shoe that connects heel to toe)

∙ Boots

∙ Lachets (side is open, top of shoe and heel of shoe connected with a  band)

Men’s Costume (1650-1680) 

∙ England – Oliver Cromwell; Charles II 

∙ France – Louis XIV 

∙ Changes in the doublet are making the shirt more visible o Biblike, lace trimmed construction

∙ Doublet shortened – to several inches above the waist; unfitted  ∙ Petticoat Breeches or Rhinegraves  

o For women, (looks like divided skirt) undergarment that provides  structure to undergarment

o For men, full cut of pants

∙ Canons (style term that describes ruffle sewn onto the bottom of the  leg)

∙ Vest or Waistcoat

Men’s Hair (1650-1680)

∙ Long and curly

∙ Hat denoted politics

Men’s Costume (1680-1710)

∙ England – James II 

∙ France – Louis XIV 

∙ Cravat (serves same purpose as a men’s neck tie)

o Doesn’t look like a modern day tie

o Full, light, soft piece of fabric

∙ French – Surtouts (sur-tu’) or justacorps (jewst-a-cor’)

o Similar to jacket garment

∙ Vest = Waistcoat

Men’s Hair (1680-1710)

∙ Wigs  

∙ Sometimes dusted with powder

Women’s Costume (1600-1630) 

∙ Wheel farthingale

o Flattened in front

o Lines grew softer

∙ Necklines low and becoming round

∙ Stomacher elongated into a rigid U-shape

∙ Multi-layered sleeves  

∙ Ruff continued to be enormous  

Women’s Costume (1630-1660) 

∙ U-shaped stomacher continues

∙ Layered skirts

o Modest (mow-dest’) – outer layer

o Secret (sek-ray’) – under layer

∙ Virago Sleeves – paned and tied into a series of puffs

∙ Low necklines

∙ Falling Ruffs evolving to the Bertha (wide collar with circular piece of  fabric on top of garment)

Women’s Hair (1630-1660)

∙ Parted hair behind the ears and drew back hair into a roll or chignon at  the back of the head. Front hair arranged in curled locks around the  face.

Women’s Costume (1660-1680) 

∙ Chemise with under petticoat

∙ Outer (decorative) petticoat or skirt

∙ Skirts open or closed

∙ Drawers – undergarment under petticoat-looser fit

o Serves same purpose as underwear

∙ Bodices lengthened and narrowed – V-shaped

o Still has stomacher to keep shape

∙ Whisk collar (similar to Bertha) – wide laced collar or band of linen ∙ Ruffles  

Women’s Costume (1680-1700) 

∙ Necklines becoming more square

o Madame de Maintenon

∙ Visible corsets – heavily decorated

∙ Pronounced V at the waist

∙ Overskirt sometimes looped up in a complex drapery forming a back  train

∙ Mantua (man-too-a’) or Manteau (man-toe’) – dress cut in one length  from shoulder to hem

Women’s Hair (1680-1700)

∙ Up-do’s – high, on top of the head

∙ Curling locks on sides

∙ Fontange (fone-tanj’) in French or Commode in English o Hair piece for top of hair

o Adds height  

Women’s Shoes (1680-1700)

∙ Pointed toes

∙ Heels becoming higher and narrower

∙ Brocades and decorated leathers

∙ Pantofles (pan-toff’-ahl) – heel-less slippers or mules becoming more  popular at the end of century  

o Shoe that doesn’t have a back

Women’s Jewelry and etc.

∙ Pomander Balls – worn around waist on chains

o Scent decoration inside

∙ Patches – black patches (shapes) that were put on face

∙ Plumpers – wax ball that a women put in her cheeks to make them  more plump

Accessories for Men & Women (Pg. 259)

∙ Gloves

∙ Handkerchiefs

∙ Purses – fashion accessory worn around waist (much smaller) ∙ Fans  

∙ Muffs – round elongated donut shaped accessory that hands go in  ∙ Face masks (worn by ladies)  

o To protect from weather or flirt while being modest

∙ Aprons  

Children’s Costume

∙ Children’s wear beginning to become a thing

∙ Breeching – ceremony where a young boy is presented with first pair of breeches

o Family ceremony, very important

∙ Leading strings or Ribbon of Childhood – strings on back of children’s  garments  

o Used to hold onto child or for style

∙ Carrying Frock – garment (gown) child wore while still being carried ∙ Going Frock – garment (gown) child wore while child becomes mobile ∙ Pinafore – apron that served as a bib (over garment served to protect  under garment)  

∙ Muckinder – handkerchief that layered over garment

∙ Pudding – padded hat worn by children learning to walk

Layette – List of things one needs when having a newborn ∙ Swaddling bands

∙ Bibs  

∙ Caps (biggins)

∙ Shirts

∙ Mittens and sleeves

∙ Tailclouts or nappies or diapers

∙ Coral teething rings

Chapter 10: Late Middle Ages

Overview of 18th Century 

∙ The Enlightenment

∙ Individual rights

∙ Issac Newton developed theories

∙ Microscope was refined

∙ Intellectual Curiosity

∙ Political attitudes influenced by

o Voltaire

o Locke

o Rousseau

∙ Interest in the Greek concept of democracy

Background – France 

∙ Louis XIV – powerful influence on arts and fashion

∙ Louis XV – powerful influence on arts and fashion

o Reigned from 1715-1774 

o Started reign at age 5, so Regency made decisions on his behave from 1715 to 1723 

o Moved government back to Paris

o Not particularly intelligent

 “Lazy, egotistical, and bored by affairs of state, he sought  entertainment through hunting” (Pg. 268)

o Other pastime – women

o Madame de Pompadour – King Louis mistress

o Marie Leszczynska – wife of King Louis XV

o Lavish Lifestyle

o King during costly wars

 1719 – France declared war on Spain

 1739 – War between Spain and England

 1755-63 – French and Indian Wars in America

 1755-63 – Seven Years War between France and England o Had half-hearted effort at solving the nation’s mounting fiscal  crisis

o Ultimately hated an despised by people of France

On the other hand…

∙ France dominated the culture of western Europe

o Fashion

o Literature

o Decorative Arts

o Philosophy  

∙ French became the international language of Europe ∙ Philip V, great-grandson of Louis XIV, became Spain’s first Bourbon  king in 1700

o Alliance through marriage

Madame de Pompadour 

∙ Image of women for this period

∙ Favored light, airy fabrics (feminine)  

∙ Silks with floral designs were a favorite

o “Pompadour Taffeta”

o Enormous hairstyles

Ikat – Pompadour Taffeta fabric

∙ Trying and printing the warp yarns

∙ Print the warp

∙ Weave the fabric

Le Petite Trianon

∙ Home that Louis XV built for Madame de Pompadour

Madame Du Barry – Louis XV mistress #2 

∙ Attractive and influential

∙ Did not have the style of Madame Pompadour

King Louis XVI 

∙ Reign 1774-1792 

o 20 years old when he became king

∙ Court became less important

∙ Military power declined

∙ Bankruptcy  

∙ Increased taxes – desperate to make more money

∙ Extravagance in the court

Marie Antoinette

∙ King Louis XVI wife

∙ Child bride

∙ Strict etiquette  

∙ Spent lavishly while France was dealing with a difficult economy ∙ Loved clothes

o Rose Bertin – Marie Antoinette dressmaker  

∙ Petit Trianon  

∙ “Country Living” – created farm

∙ Party girl

∙ Extravagance and lifestyle which led to French Revolution

The Arts

∙ Rococo

∙ Neoclassical Revival during midcentury


∙ Old money meets new money

o People started running out of money

Speaking of American Money…

∙ Fashion Babies – Fashion Dolls  

o Dolls wearing new French fashion

∙ Quaker Dress

∙ American colonists were forbidden to buy French textiles ∙ Many families produced their own fabrics

o “Drab colors” – dull, not much color

Clothing of the 18th Century

∙ Colorful, elaborate, extravagant

∙ Women’s dress

∙ Marie Antoinette

∙ Silhouette – narrowing over course of century

∙ Emphasis on leisure  

Men’s Costume – 18th Century

∙ Undress – lounging

∙ Dress – daytime or evening wear

∙ Full dress – most formal evening dress

∙ Nightgown – dressing gown, worn indoors

∙ Powdering Jacket

o Worn to keep powder off of clothing

∙ Beau / Coxcomb / Fop – man who paid a great deal of attention to his  dress

∙ Macaroni – members of Macaroni Club

o Wore bows

o Cared about appearance

∙ Tailors are still making suits for the wealthy

Men’s Costume 18th Century to Mid-Century (1700-1750) ∙ Under drawers

∙ Shirt

o Chemise became shirts

∙ Cravat – fabric around neck

o Steinkirk (bottom of Cravat pushed through button hole) ∙ Waistcoat – ended close to the knee

∙ Outercoat

o Length

o Buckram – stiff fabric that held garment away from body o Boot Cuffs or back slit – big cuff that folds to elbow

∙ Knee-length breeches

o Length

o Fall closure

∙ Ditto Suit – all of fabrics matched (waistcoat, outercoat, etc.) ∙ Frock coat – similar to outercoat, but has much fuller cut (looser) ∙ Hose

∙ Shoes – buckles very important

∙ Hats/wigs

Men’s Costume After Mid-Century (1750-1800) 

∙ Coat fullness decreased

o Front curved toward side

∙ Stand-up collar

∙ Sleeves are no longer full and puffy

∙ Waistcoats – single and double breasted

o Very decorative

∙ Breeches fit the body

o Flap closure

∙ Cravat is being replaced by stocks

o Stocks – linen square of fabric around neck often bow tied  

Men’s Footwear After Mid-Century (1750-1800)

∙ Artificial calves

Women’s Costume – 18th Century

∙ Undress / Half dress /Morning Dress – clothing worn around the house ∙ Habit – describes riding costume

∙ Coat – petticoat

∙ Greatcoat – coat in today’s terminology

o Most outside coat

∙ Dressmakers for wealthy women – but women are making a lot of their  own clothing

∙ Supporting undergarments

o Pannier  

Women’s Costume 1715-1730 

∙ Gowns – unbelted

o Robe Battante (ba-tahnt’)

o Robe Volante (vo-lahnt’)

o Innocente (in-no-sahnt’)

o Pet en l’airn (pet’ahm-lair)

o Mantua  

∙ Hair

o Fontange – out of fashion about 1710

o Hats

 Pinners – indoors – circular caps with single or double frills  around the edge that were placed flat on the head  

 Mop Caps – high puffed-out crowns at the back of the cao  and wide, flat borders that encircled the face  

Women’s Costume 1730-1760 

∙ Robe a’la Francaise (frahn-says’)

o A lot of fabric in back

o Fitting in front

∙ Robe a’ l’Anglaise (lahn-glays’)

o Fitted front and back

o Lifted in front

∙ Watteau back

o Pleated back that drapes from neckline down to floor

∙ Open bodices

∙ Skirts that displayed stomachers and petticoats

∙ Eschelles (eh-shell’)

o Masses of ribbons of artificial…

∙ Engageants (on-gaj-ahnt’)

o Ruffles at the sleeve hem

Women’s Costume 1760-1790 

∙ Robe a la Francaise – paniers were replaced with hip pads ∙ By 1780, the Robe a la Francaise was no longer in fashion ∙ False rump – hip padding filled with cork

∙ Polonaise – overdress or petticoat that is puffed and held up with loops  or tape

∙ Round Gowns – gowns that are closed all the way around ∙ Redingote Dresses – resembled English riding coats

o Wide lapel or revers at neck

∙ Chemise a la Reine – white muslin (looked like Chemise)  o Much softer and more comfortable

Women’s Costume Hair 1760-1790


∙ 1770s – maximum size was reached

∙ Decorations

∙ Worn for weeks at a time  

Women’s Costume Other 1760-1790

∙ Tippets – band of fur worn around neck

∙ Muffs

∙ Gloves

∙ Mittens  

∙ Pockets - worn around waist

o Not actually part of garment

∙ Fans

Children’s Wear

∙ Ribbons of Childhood still appearing

∙ Specialized clothing became more popular

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