Sociology 365 – 01: Social Stratification
October 2 – Social Stratification Slides & Class and Higher Education Questions – Week 4 ∙ The Relational Approach to Social Stratification Continued
o Characteristics of Canada’s Patriarchal Gender Order
Uneven across institutional domains.
Character is changing.
Overlain by other types of social stratification.
Men’s experiences of patriarchal privilege are variable.
o The Notion of a “Patriarchal Dividend”
Men sometimes benefit from patriarchy regardless of their own beliefs or intentions since gender inequalities are built takenforgranted system of meaning and social institutions.
∙ Men from no action of their own can gain benefits from a male
dominated system because of stereotypes and institutional practices
which they benefit from. If you’re advantaged in this way, you don’t
experience the advantage as “someone helped me out”, rather it’s just
“living your life.”
o There are doors that are opened that you don’t always notice
unless you are looking for it. If you want to learn more check out How many branches the government has?
∙ Example of a patriarchal dividend. We also discuss several other topics like What is a nuclear envelope?
o Think of male professors and female professors.
A male professor has the advantage that he can come to
class without thinking of his wardrobe, wearing casual
clothes. The dividend that the male professor has is that
‘people don’t look at him as less qualified because he
∙ It can be argued that female professors are
judged more harshly if they were to do this.
The way that patriarchy works is not uniform.
∙ It can both harm and benefits males and females.
There are systemic advantages of all different types.
∙ ‘For Poor, Leap to College Often Ends in a Hard Fall’ Reading Questions
o (1) Compare the educational successes and failures of Melissa, Bianca and Angelica since they graduated from Ball High School in Galveston, Texas in 2008 up until the end of 2012.
∙ Top of her class in high school with a GPA of 3.9. Went to Emory
where she had to take out a loan of $40,000 as she missed the deadline
for financial aid. She got A’s and B’s in her first year. In her second
year she again didn’t get the aid she needed as of a misunderstanding,
and had to take up a parttime job to support herself. We also discuss several other topics like What role does the ecosystem play in the evolution of behavior?
o (2) Stanford sociologist Sean Reardon is quoted in the article as asserting, "It's becoming increasingly unlikely that a lowincome student, no matter how intrinsically bright, moves up the socioeconomic ladder." What are the major obstacles that these three students faced as they contemplated and attempted using postsecondary education to begin moving up the socioeconomic ladder?
Some of these obligations included:
∙ Generational obligation
∙ Financial limitations
∙ Boyfriends and personal life
o The author puts a harsh look onto all of the boyfriends, some
deserved and some not. Fred for example wasn’t terrible.
o The idea made is that none of these girls had a father in their
life, and because of this they latch on to an older boyfriend and
it holds them down.
∙ Family lacked knowledge of postsecondary
∙ Campus isolation/alienation
October 4 – Class and Higher Education Questions – Week 4
∙ ‘For Poor, Leap to College Often Ends in a Hard Fall’ Reading Questions Continued We also discuss several other topics like What is a tie-beam truss?
o (3) What could have Emory University done differently in its dealings with Angelica so as to improve her chances of academic success?
Clearer communication with Angelica, such as an improved student
Not made assumptions of her family’s income, and if they did they could have confirmed this change.
∙ Corrected error after situation was cleared up.
Free counselling offered to students.
Academic advising opportunities.
o (4) How do affluent families (upper quartile on the income distribution) assist their children in succeeding in the educational system in ways that are often beyond the resources and capacities of poorer families (lower quartile on the income distribution)?
Financial help (tuition/living/emergencies)
Insider knowledge about universities
Parents advocating and using networks to solve problems If you want to learn more check out What is the function of american colonization in society?
Resources to help with admission, standardized tests, etc.
Family has more time available to help
No need to work, giving more time to the student
o (5) Click on the multimedia graphic display at the end of the article ("Related Coverage: Affluent Students Have an Advantage and the Gap in Widening"). Be sure that you understand and can explain the patterns and trends reported in the graphs.
As family income increases, the completion rate of college increases greatly.
∙ This is true when it comes to students with both above average and below average test scores.
o However, students with below average test scores who come
from high income families have a completion rate equal to
students with above average test scores with lower family
o If you have the combination of above average test scores and
high family income, you’re completion rate is at the highest Don't forget about the age old question of What is the primary factor in business success?
October 6 – Income and Wealth Inequalities in Canada – Week 4
∙ Social researchers can measure material inequality, as they have quantitative measures. ∙ Income and Wealth Inequalities in Canada Handout (Graphs and Handouts on D2L) o Table 1: ‘Average Total Family Income in Canada (Inflation accounted for)’
It’s clear that total family income has increased over double in the last 50 years.
∙ 1951 $33K; 1961 $42K; 1971; $62K; 1981 $78K; 1991 $80K; 2001 $90K; 2011 $99K
o 19511961; there are still very few women in the work force,
especially if you consider married women where it’s only near
20%. This large increase is mainly due to an increase in
productivity and innovation.
o Later on there is an increase in the amount of families who
have two earners, as married women are entering the work
force at a much larger rate.
o 1971; there had been a doubling of family income since the
o 1981; following 1981 there was a huge recession, but this was
remedied with the introduction of neoliberalism.
∙ However, this is not perfect as the average is drastically increased by including very rich families into the account. This is the mean, not the
o Table 2: ‘Distribution of total income of families and unattached individuals, by quintiles.’
Everyone is included, whether they live with others or individually.
∙ All of these units are rank ordered by their income, and their rows are then divided into 5ths; creating 5 quintiles.
If income was equally distributed, the pattern in a row would be
o Table 3: ‘Gini Coefficients for Categories of Income by Family Type’
When the Gini coefficient is equal to 1 the inequality is as high as possible, and when the coefficient is equal to 0 there is no inequality.
∙ This is a measurement of inequality.
When looking at a graph which demonstrates the income different quintiles take home, you may calculate the Gini Coefficient.
∙ Shaded area / lower triangle area = Gini Coefficient
o P90P10 Ratio
When I look at the row, the unit at the 90th% tile is compared to the 10th% tile, creating a ratio representing inequality. Comparing the poorest to the richest.
∙ Everyone benefits from a growing economy. Even if you get a smaller portion, if the entirety which is being shared increases than you still will benefit.
o This is an appeal to the middleclass, and an example of trickledown economics.