Political Science Study guide: Test 2
Interest groups: definition
- A group of people that seek to influence public policy based on a common interest or concern.
How do interest groups influence public policy?
- Lobbying, representatives that advocate on behalf of the group’s interests.
What are selective benefits?
- Goods that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues (ex: publications, travel discounts)
Interest groups and their representation/mediation roles What are the different types of interest groups and what are examples of each: Public interest groups; economic interest groups, ideological groups, issue interest groups
- Public: organizations who exist to provide services to the needy (League of Women Voters)
- Economic: organizations that represent big businesses (U.S. Chamber of Commerce)
- Ideological: political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions or principles (NAM) - Issue: groups who come together to form solutions when a specific political issue is a large-scale issue (Wildlife Fund)
Main strategies used by interest groups: lobbying, electioneering, appealing to the public
- Electioneering: direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and some form of Political Action Committee.
- Lobbying: organization or individual who attempts to influence government decisions
What is Grassroots lobbying? Astroturf lobbying? Indirect lobbying?
- Grassroots lobbying: the act of asking the public to contact legislators and government officials, bringing voters to government
- Astroturf lobbying: Groups that create front organizations designed to give the appearance of a greater level of public concern than really exists
- Indirect lobbying: getting the public to do the lobbying Iron triangles
- Tight mutually beneficial connections between congressional committees, executive agencies, and interest groups How lobbying congress differs from lobbying executive branch - One involves providing technical expertise on policy issues and when lobbying the executive branch people must appear at administrative hearings to offer information Don't forget about the age old question of Placebo Effect refers to what?
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Corporate welfare including corporate tax breaks, tariffs and trade barriers, subsidies
- Corporate Welfare: government support or subsidy of private business, such as by tax incentives Don't forget about the age old question of A system where powers are shared by the state and the national government.
- Tax Breaks: a tax concession or advantage allowed by the government
- Trade Barriers: taxes on foreign imports and subsidies to domestic producers to make them competitive with foreign products
What are professional associations? What do they do? - A nonprofit organization seeking to further profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest. Involves research, industry knowledge, and networking.
Federalist Paper #10 and factions
-essay written by James Madison, argues for the adoption of the constitution, factionalism, issues with the strong central government
The Wright amendment
- A law that governed at traffic at Dallas Love Field airport, more nonstop flights from Dallas
Likelihood of American citizens to participate in a civic association or community-service group as compared to other countries The right to organize groups