History ofScience IExam 2 Study Guide INSTRUCTOR: GregorySmit
08 October 2017
Engineering 1: Focus in Ancient Greece and Rome
● Engineering: The application of knowledge (scientific, economic etc.) and/or know- how (pragmatic skill in crafting) to invent, design, build, maintain or improve useful things.
● Mechanical properties of the earliest materials: wood and stone ● Arches: they existed prior to the time of classical greek civilizations, but it was roman engineers who appreciated the power of arches and exploited it extensively (parts of an arch: keystone, voussoir, extrados, impost, intrados, rise, clear span, abutment)
● Tie beam truss: the triangle is a naturally stable shape, able to span longer distances and carry heavier loads that post and lintel arrangements
Islamic World of Science
● Astrolabe: functioned as an analog calculator.
○ It was used to find the direction of Mecca and to determine prayer times. It could also be used to locate and predict the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, surveying and triangulation. (driven by religion and also commerce)
● Two large observatories:
○ 1. Uzbekistan
○ 2. The House of Wisdom in Baghdad
● Astrology: heavily bodies influence forces and qualities that influence personal health, personal fortune and the fate of societies on earth. Specifically: air, fire, water, earth (hot, cold, wet, and dry).
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of lawyers?
● The Cannon was a massive compendium of all Greek knowledge plus improvements and interpretations by medical thinkers writing in arabic
● The Chemistry (“Alchemy”): Hierarchy of Metals: Gold-Sol, Silver-Luna, Copper-Venus, Iron-mars, Tin-Jupiter, Mercury (quicksilver)-Mercury, Lead-Saturn. All substances were composed of both matter and spirit.
● Very advanced mathematics because they had a very advanced writing system
● Properties of triangles was developed: they used the properties of triangles to figure out heights and circumferences
● Mathematics was also apparent in the government system: taxation and distribution of things needed the math If you want to learn more check out What is the primary factor in business success?
● Continuity vs discontinuity GREATEST DIFFERENCE
● Chinese physics embraced WAVES not particles
● Astronomy: Celestial Sphere: Both inside and outside the the heavens there is water. There heavens and the earth are both supported by either a material force or qui and water is carried around with them in their rotation. The universe or cosmos consists of a single matter which is qui. If you want to learn more check out What is the amortization of intangible assets?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the annexation of crimea?
If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a meridional flow pattern?
If you want to learn more check out What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?
● Yin and Yang: each constitutes the other, each flows into and becomes the other, cyclical flow and rhythm and an importance of balance
● Five Phases Theory
- Know the differences between Tico, Aristotelian, Copernican, Galieo, and Kepler’s ideas and systems.
- Isaac Newton vs DesCartes way of thinking and ideas
- Know what each century discovered/ created from the 13th century to the 16th century