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UIUC / Psychology / PSYC 210 / What is collateral sprouting?

What is collateral sprouting?

What is collateral sprouting?


School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Galvez
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: neuroscience, Psychology, Brain and Behavioral Psych, sex, nervous system, aging, Dementia, damage, and Neurological Disorders
Cost: 25
Name: PSYCH 210, Week 6 Notes
Description: These are the notes for week 6 of the class.
Uploaded: 10/08/2017
7 Pages 172 Views 6 Unlocks

Lecture 13 (10/2/17) 

What is collateral sprouting?

Damage to the Nervous System (continued) 

• Collateral Axon Sprouting

o Part of a new circuit solution when anterograde degeneration happens to a  neuron

▪ When axon 2 degenerates, there is not enough synapse from axon 1 for  an action potential causing the cell to not get used as much

• The receptors stay when the axon dies, which is called  

Denervation Super Sensitivity

o Due to a loss of synapses, there is an increase in  

neurotransmitter receptors

o Parkinson’s Disease – loses neurons in the substantia  

nigra, therefore, striatum loses a lot of dopamine in axons

▪ Some causes are blows to the head or pesticides

What are the different types of traumatic brain injury?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the advantages of hedonism?

▪ Giving more dopamine doesn’t help due to the  

blood-brain barrier, but having supersensitivity  

increases the likelihood to use more dopamine  


o L-DOPA causes an increase in dopamine receptors

▪ This happens because L-DOPA can make it through  

the blood-brain barrier

• Has a dedicated transporter

▪ Some patients with Parkinson’s do fine on it for a  

while and other must stop and try again

• This happens since L-DOPA triggers more  

neurons than the targeted ones

▪ The healthy axon 1 will grow branches to replace axon 2

How is fragile x syndrome caused?

• This can potentially cause an action potential and allow the cell to  

be used more

• Can only re-branch with nearby (local) neurons

• Healthy axons do not grow long axons

▪ The new branch along with the old will now only carry partial information

Neurological Disorders (not associated with aging) 

• Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) – aren’t really known We also discuss several other topics like When did the planets form?

o A continuum of how bad TBI’s can be or get

o Concussion is on the mild side of TBI’s with a continuum from confusion to o Diaschisis – effects far from the injury  

▪ Bleeding (capillary tears), swelling, and local bleeding We also discuss several other topics like What would be a violation of the 8th amendment in the prison system?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the six external environment components?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the main types of bonds?

• Swelling does not go down with corticosteroids due to the blood

brain barrier

▪ Axons stretched and broken

▪ Necrosis/Apoptosis (cell death)

• Necrosis is death from damage while Apoptosis is death by  

genetic programming

• Necrosis is worse than Apoptosis  

▪ Cannot see damage/swelling with MRI

o MRI only shows holes and tumors but not internal damage

• Difficult to treat

• A second injury is more destructive than the first

• Repeat injuries eventually lead to dementia

o Treatments are to rest the brain and stabilize blood  


• Epilepsy

o Recurrent seizures  

o Seizure – imbalance between excitation and inhibition

▪ Too much excitatory transmitter or their receptors are too abundant ▪ Ion channel changes

o Treatment increases inhibitory transmitters

▪ Can get extremely drowsy or unaroused

▪ Sometimes cannot help really strong excitations

o Children can outgrow seizures

▪ Pruning might help this situation  Don't forget about the age old question of What did the headright system do?

• Tumors

o Occur mostly from gliomas – glia division

▪ Glia cells still divide for life, sometimes too much proliferation

▪ Fast vs. Slow growing

▪ Encapsulated vs. Invasive

• Aren’t in the brain vs. in the brain

• Invasive glioma is fatal

o Can surgically remove most of it but do not know if it’s all  

of it

▪ Can come from other body cancers

▪ Treatment is to stop blood vesicle growth

• This somewhat helps since glia need more blood than regular  


o Multiple Sclerosis (MS) – immune system attacks CNS myelin

▪ Do not know why it happens

▪ Axons can become dysfunctional

• Cannot reproduce same action potential as before

▪ Variable symptoms

• Remission – the immune system will stop attacking and  

remyelinate but then can start again whenever

▪ Treat symptoms

Lecture 14 (10/4/17) 

Neurological Disorders (continued) 

• Fragile X

o Most common type of developmental mental disability

▪ Continues through life

▪ DNA for Fragile X protein is silenced

• Too many repeats on the chromosome to be used  

o More common in males

▪ It is more obvious to pinpoint in males but harder to notice in females o Behavior: Autism, Hyperactivity, and Short-term memory deficits  

▪ Severity of each varies

▪ Fragile X is not the only cause of Autism

o Brain: dendritic spines are immature in the cortex

▪ Closer to dendrite

▪ Some variability

▪ Dendritic Spines

• A lot of neurons that deal with cognition (cortex and  

hippocampus) have dendritic spines for EPSP

• Spines – excitatory synapses

• Most excitatory synapses are on spines

• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – prenatal exposure to alcohol

o Variable severity

o Intellectual disabilities and poor muscle tone (always happens)

o Alcohol increases Apoptosis and kills proliferating cells (they are very vulnerable) o Interferes with CAMS (Cell Adhesions Molecules) and other cell signals o There is no safe dosage; it is best to NOT DRINK AT ALL DURING PREGNANCY

Aging (does not involve much neurodegeneration) 

• Normal Aging (vs. neurodegeneration)

o Human Behavior  

▪ Slower, working memory, less flexibility, and sensory decrements (60-90  years old)

▪ Semantic memory is still okay and emotional regulation is better

o Rat Behavior  

▪ Harder to motivate to do things, poorer spatial abilities, and poorer  working memory

• Apathetic

• Human Neural Aging

o Sub cortex is unknown due to not being heavily focused on

o Shrinkage:

▪ Cerebral Cortex

• Neuron loss (10% between 20’s and 90’s cortex)

• Loss of dendrites and synapses in prefrontal cortex (0-50%)

▪ Hippocampus

• Cause of neuron loss is unknown

▪ White Matter

• Myelin, axons?

• Non-Human Neural Aging

o Cortex

▪ Regional neuron loss in cortex (rats and monkeys)

▪ Loss of dendrites, dendritic spines, and synapses (rats and monkeys) o Hippocampus (rats) – still have spatial problems

▪ No loss of neurons

▪ Variable loss of dendrites and synapses

o White Matter – no loss in rats

o Rats have less neural loss during aging than humans

• Dementia

o Global cognitive failure, behavioral disorganization, and loss of memory o 50% of people over 85 years have it

▪ Some are in early stages and will die before its gets worse

o Types:

▪ Alzheimer’s

• Most common form of dementia

• Plaques (Beta Amyloid) and neurofibrally tangles; especially in  

cortex and hippocampus

o Starts with loss of cholinergic input

o Globs up and blocks

• Given some drugs in early stages (acetylcholine) and increases an  

easier time with living with it

• Slightly more females get Alzheimer’s

• Decrease in brain weight

o Mostly in the hippocampus and cortex

o How big the ventricles become is a warning sign

o Hypothesis: neurons stop working and die

• Neurocognitive Reserve 

o More flexibility and awareness

• Healthy people have wide varying brain weight

o Can have smaller brains but no space in ventricles

Lecture 15 (10/6/17) 

Aging (continued) 

• Other Dementias

o Lewy Body Dementia

▪ Second most common

• People afflicted do not live very long

• Medications do not help

▪ Lewy Body – neurofilament clumping that kills cells

▪ Starts with Parkinson’s symptoms but degenerates quickly with dementia  as well

▪ Less obvious neural degeneration than Alzheimer’s

• No obvious shrinkage in the brain

o Vascular Dementia (can be combined with other forms)

▪ Caused by mini-stokes or mini-bleeds

• Either a bleed or block

▪ Variable Symptoms

o Frontal Temporal Dementia – sudden degeneration of frontal and temporal  cortex

▪ Less is known

▪ Can occur at a younger age

▪ Can cause a loss of inhibition

Sex 1 

• Levels of Sex Differences

o Genetic

▪ Male: XY, XXY, or XYY

• The Y chromosome is shorter than X

• Having a Y chromosome always is phenotypically male

• Y chromosomes do not complement the X chromosome

• Males express the X chromosome more so than women, who  

could express both X’s

• Males are more like their mothers

▪ Female: XX, XXX, XO (Turner’s Syndrome)

• XO is phenotypically female

o Fertility is compromised

o Not fatal

▪ XXY, XYY, XXX, and XO are the only triples that are not fatal

o Morphology

▪ Gonads

• Testes – produce sperm and Testosterone (androgen)

o Androgen is the general hormone for Testosterone and  


• Ovaries – produce eggs, Estrogen, and Progesterone

▪ Steroids: Testosterone, Estrogen, and Progesterone

• Testosterone become Estrogen

o Closely similar but one enzyme separates both; Aromatase

• All made from cholesterol  

o Pituitary Output

▪ LH: Luteinizing Hormone

▪ FSH: Follicle Stimulating Hormone

▪ All hormones turn off the organ that is secreting it if there is too much;  except Estrogen

• Feedback Loop

▪ Male

• LH ???? Testes ???? Testosterone  

• FSH + Testosterone ???? Testes ???? Sperm

o Sperm is constantly being produced

o If not released, it is reabsorbed

• If male does not have Testosterone, he will not be behaviorally  aggressive

• Found that winning and good feels increase Testosterone ▪ Female

• Cycle: Estrous or Menstrual

o FSH ???? Ovaries ???? E ???? EE ???? EEE ???? LH ???? Progesterone o Ovaries have the egg

o LH causes ovulation – the release of the egg

▪ Upregulates LH

o Mark of a female hypothalamus

• Estrogen ???? FSH↓ ???? Estrogen↓

• Progesterone ???? LH↓ ???? Progesterone↓

• Start Over: FSH

• Birth Control stops Ovulation

• Menopause has an increase in FSH

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