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CSU / Botany / BZ 110 / Why did darwin deserve the credit for his theories of evolution?

Why did darwin deserve the credit for his theories of evolution?

Why did darwin deserve the credit for his theories of evolution?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Botany
Course: Principles of Animal Biology
Professor: Karen raines
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and Zoology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is a complete study guide based off of Dr. Raines study guide questions and more! It includes Chapters, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10. I spent a long time making it and it will help tremendously before our Exam!
Uploaded: 10/09/2017
15 Pages 13 Views 7 Unlocks
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Chapter​ ​4:​ ​(Evolution:​ ​History​ ​and​ ​Evidence) 


Why did darwin deserve the credit for his theories of evolution?



1.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Greek​ ​Philosophers:​ (Aristotle and Empedocles) primitive concepts of change in living organisms over time

2.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Buffon:​ considered change DEGENERATE (apes are degenerates of humans)

3.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Lamarck​: change results from NEED, species do not go extinct they evolve into different species, GIRAFFES We also discuss several other topics like what evidence suggests that life arises relatively easily?

4.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Malthus:​ essay "Human Populations" said that humans have great ability to reproduce, but resources limit this.


What is parasitism?



5.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Wallace​: had very similar theory of evolution as Darwin, published ideas with him, but gave him most of the credit We also discuss several other topics like - How many ways to get a 50-dip ice-cream?

6.) Evolutionary​ ​change​ ​by​ ​Darwin​: theory of evolution, natural selection, Galapagos findings

7.) How long did Darwin spend in the Galapagos Islands?: 5​ ​weeks

8.) What​ ​was​ ​Darwin's​ ​first​ ​publication​ ​and​ ​what​ ​was​ ​it​ ​about?:​ On Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, variation between different species in different habitats 9.) How​ ​did​ ​George​ ​Lyell​ ​shape​ ​Darwin's​ ​ideas?:​ suggested that the earth is older than 6,000 years, made him think life forms must have changed if the earth changed. 10.) How​ ​did​ ​fossils​ ​influence​ ​Darwin's​ ​ideas?:​ he found a primitive giant sloth that was very similar to modern sloth, suggested that change occurs


How do protozoa reproduce?



If you want to learn more check out fiu law curve

11.) How​ ​did​ ​the​ ​Galapagos​ ​Islands​ ​shape​ ​Darwin's​ ​ideas?​: tortoises and finches were different on different ends of the islands

12.) Why​ ​did​ ​Darwin​ ​deserve​ ​the​ ​credit​ ​for​ ​his​ ​theories​ ​of​ ​evolution?:​ he did years of work and accumulated tons of evidence We also discuss several other topics like Who is the director?

13.) most​ ​compelling​ ​evidence​ ​for​ ​evolution:​ fossils

14.) adaptive​ ​radiation:​ ​formation of new forms from an ancestral species (ex. Galapagos finches)

15.) artificial​ ​selection:​ choosing certain traits to carry on (dog breeds) 16.) 4​ ​ideas​ ​of​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​by​ ​natural​ ​selection: We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by the gain of a control system?

a.) organisms have high reproductive potential

b.) inherited variation exists

c.) limited resources doesn't support reproduction potential

d.) adaptive traits become more common in each next generation

17.) How​ ​does​ ​adaptation​ ​occur?:​ comes from chance mutations that end up allowing animal to reproduce and survive more effectively than before mutation (natural selection) 18.) What​ ​is​ ​inherited​ ​in​ ​adaptation?:​ variation We also discuss several other topics like epidermal cells that are actively mitotic

19.) natural​ ​selection:​ only fittest survive, best traits that allow for best chance of reproduction end up being passed down

20.) microevolution:​ ​change in frequency of alleles in a population over time (ex. antibiotic resistance)

21.) macroevolution:​ large-scale changes, result in the extinction and formation of new species (ex. a species split in two)

22.) biogeography:​ ​study of geographic distribution of plants and animals 23.) What​ ​do​ ​biogeographers​ ​do?:​ attempt to explain distribution patterns 24.) paleontology:​ study of fossils

25.) fossil:​ evidence of plants and animals that existed in the past and have become part of earth's crust

26.) analogous​ ​structure:​ various structure in organisms have the same appearance, but evolved separately (bird wings and fish fins)

27.) convergent​ ​evolution:​ unrelated organisms evolve to have similar structures (birds and insects)

28.) homologous​ ​structure:​ resemblance that occurs because of common ancestry (bones in limbs of most animals)

29.) How​ ​do​ ​we​ ​know​ ​that​ ​almost​ ​all​ ​vertebrates​ ​evolved​ ​from​ ​the​ ​same​ ​vertebrate?​: all have same bone structure (whales have vestigial pelvic bones)

30.) What​ ​is​ ​one​ ​way​ ​common​ ​features​ ​between​ ​related​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​retained?: similar developmental stages

31.) Changes​ ​in​ ​genes​ ​that​ ​control​ ​development​ ​can​ ​be​ ​harmful​ ​and​ ​are​ ​eliminated by​: natural selection

32.) molecular​ ​biology:​ study of nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, ribosomal RNA, and proteins

33.) What​ ​is​ ​direct​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​genes?:​ molecules

34.) How​ ​did​ ​Darwin​ ​get​ ​on​ ​the​ ​HMS​ ​Beagle?:​ scientist Henslow from Cambridge nominated him

35.) What​ ​was​ ​Darwin's​ ​role​ ​on​ ​the​ ​HMS​ ​Beagle?:​ naturalist

36.) What​ ​was​ ​the​ ​purpose​ ​for​ ​the​ ​HMS​ ​Beagle​ ​expedition?:​ It was a mapping expedition

37.) Where​ ​did​ ​the​ ​HMS​ ​Beagle​ ​expedition​ ​go?:​ under South America, through Galapagos Islands, back to Europe going under Australia and Africa

38.) Galapagos​ ​finches:​ adaptive radiation, made new forms of beaks etc when they went to different parts of island that had different types of food

39.) organic​ ​evolution:​ Charles Darwin, "descent with modification", populations change over time

40.) Do​ ​all​ ​evolutionary​ ​changes​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​perfect​ ​solutions?:​ No. mutations can cause bad traits to come out in a certain species

41.) How​ ​does​ ​comparative​ ​anatomy​ ​give​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​evolution?:​ ​different body structure in different species are the same (all vertebrates have same bone structure)

42.) How​ ​does​ ​biogeography​ ​give​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​evolution?:​ different species across the world came from same ancestor (jaguars in south america and leopards in asia) 43.) How​ ​does​ ​paleontology​ ​give​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​evolution?​: fossils give evidence of ancestral forms of modern animals (big sloth fossil very similar to modern day sloth) 44.) How​ ​does​ ​the​ ​molecular​ ​record​ ​give​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​evolution?:​ molecular clock dating (changes in DNA within a species over time)

45.) How​ ​does​ ​embryology​ ​give​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​evolution?:​ embryos with similar ancestors go through similar developmental processes

46.) vestigial​ ​structures​: has no apparent function in modern day animals 47.) molecular​ ​clock:​ the amount of change in DNA over time

48.) proportion​ ​of​ ​polymorphic​ ​loci:​ measures genetic variation in a population 49.) How​ ​does​ ​biogeography​ ​explain​ ​the​ ​distribution​ ​of​ ​the​ ​leopard​ ​and​ ​jaguar?:​ one of the ancestor of the jaguar and ancestor must have crossed over the Bering Strait and then was pushed down to Asia because of competing predators

50.) uniformitarianism​: Lyell, the earth is shaped by geological uplift, wind, rain, etc. just as it was millions of years ago

Chapter​ ​5:​ ​(Evolution​ ​&​ ​Gene​ ​Frequencies) 

1.) population​: group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at the same time and share a common set of genes

2.) What​ ​characterizes​ ​a​ ​population?:​ frequency of alleles for a given trait 3.) gene​ ​pool:​ sum of all alleles for all traits in sexually reproducing populations 4.) 4​ ​sources​ ​of​ ​variation​ ​in​ ​gene​ ​pools:

a.) independent assortment

b.) crossing over

c.) chromosome rearrangement

d.) Mutations

5.) Is​ ​gene​ ​variation​ ​limited?:​ unlimited

6.) When​ ​does​ ​evolution​ ​occur?:​ when the relative frequency of alleles change across generations

7.) population​ ​genetics:​ the study of genetic events in the gene pools

8.) Hardy-Weinberg​ ​Theorem:​ describes what happens to relative frequency of alleles in a sexually reproducing population over time

9.) 4​ ​assumptions​ ​that​ ​MUST​ ​be​ ​met​ ​for​ ​Hardy-Weinberg​ ​Theorem: a.) population size must be large

b.) no migration in or out

c.) mutations do not occur but mutational equilibrium exists

d.) sexual reproduction must be random

10.) What​ ​happens​ ​when​ ​any​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Hardy-Weinberg​ ​assumptions​ ​are​ ​not​ ​met?​ ​(2):

a.) allelic frequencies are changing

b.) evolution is occurring

11.) p^2:​ fz of homozygous dominant individuals in population

12.) q^2:​ fz of homozygous recessive individuals in population

13.) 2pq:​ fz of heterozygous individuals in population

14.) p​: fz of dominant alleles in population

15.) q:​ fz of recessive alleles in population

16.) What​ ​influences​ ​frequencies​ ​of​ ​genes​ ​in​ ​populations?:​ chance events 17.) What​ ​is​ ​most​ ​important​ ​in​ ​small​ ​populations?​ ​(2):​ -sampling of equally adaptive gametes

a.) random fertilization changes allele frequency

18.) founder​ ​effect​ ​+​ ​example:​ loss of genetic variation, from a population descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors (Amish people)

19.) bottleneck​ ​effect:​ near extinction reduces genetic diversity

a.) Example:​ cheetahs

20.) gene​ ​flow:​ ​changes in allelic frequency from migration of individuals 21.) mutation​: origin of all new genes

22.) mutation​ ​pressure:​ measure of tendency for gene frequencies to change through mutation

23.) Natural​ ​selection​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Hardy-Weinberg​ ​principle:​ natural selection upsets Hardy-Weinberg

24.) selection​ ​pressure:​ tendency for natural selection to occur

25.) 3​ ​modes​ ​of​ ​selection:

a.) directional selection

b.) disruptive selection

c.) stabilizing selection

26.) directional​ ​selection:​ ​one extreme of phenotype is selected against and eventually cut out

27.) directional​ ​selection​ ​example:​ black and peppered moths in industrial revolution 28.) disruptive​ ​(diversifying)​ ​selection:​ intermediate phenotype is selected against and are left with 2 distinct extremes (subpopulations) of the population

a.) example:​ plainfish (both small male and large male)

29.) stabilizing​ ​selection:​ extreme phenotypes are reduced until only intermediate is left a.) example:​ horseshoe crab, baby weight

30.) genetic​ ​drift:​ A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance 31.) speciation:​ ​Formation of new species

32.) polymorphism​: 2 or more distinct forms exist without a range of phenotypes between them

33.) balanced​ ​polymorphism​: different phenotypes are maintained at relatively stable frequencies (like disruptive selection)

34.) reproductive​ ​isolation:​ gene flow between populations or subpopulations does not occur

35.) species:​ a group or population in which genes are actually, or potentially, exchanged through interbreeding

36.) allopatric​ ​selection:​ ​subpopulations become geographically isolated from one another

37.) sympatric​ ​selection:​ reproductive isolation within a single population 38.) heterozygote​ superiority example: sickle cell heterozygotes are less susceptible to malaria

39.) What​ ​are​ ​carriers​ ​of​ ​sickle​ ​cell​ ​anemia​ ​resistant​ ​to?:​ malaria

40.) How​ ​are​ ​the​ ​2​ ​subspecies​ ​of​ ​African​ ​elephants​ ​different?:​ one lives in the savannah and the other lives in tropical forests

41.) Why​ ​are​ ​some​ ​scientists​ ​proposing​ ​that​ ​the​ ​elephants​ ​should​ ​be​ ​considered​ ​2 distinct​ ​species?:​ little gene flow exists between them

42.) phyletic​ ​gradualism:​ Species evolve by the accumulation of many small changes over a long time period

43.) punctuated​ ​equilibrium:​ long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change

Chapter​ ​7:​ ​(Animal​ ​Classification) 

1.) Who​ ​is​ ​the​ ​father​ ​of​ ​taxonomy?​: Gregor Mendel

2.) systematics:​ study of kinds and diversity of organisms an evolutionary relationships 3.) taxonomy:​ ​naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.

4.) nomenclature:​ Official system of naming

5.) taxon:​ ​taxonomic group of any rank (family, species, etc)

6.) Latin​ ​binomial​: 2 part name made of genus and species

7.) monophyletic​ ​group:​ A taxonomic grouping that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.

8.) polyphyletic​ ​group:​ lack a common ancestor

9.) character:​ ​anything that has a genetic basis and can be measured

10.) cladogram:​ ​depicts sequence in the origin of derived character stages 11.) derived​ ​characters:​ arisen since common ancestry with the outgroup 12.) phylogenetic​ ​tree:​ ​A family tree that shows the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms

13.) ancestral​ ​characters:​ ​attributes of species that are old and have been retained from a common ancestor

14.) clade:​ related subset within a cladogram

15.) taxonomic​ ​categories​ ​in​ ​order:

a.) Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

(Did​ ​King​ ​Phillip​ ​come​ ​over​ ​for​ ​great​ ​spaghetti)

16.) 3​ ​domains:​ ​eubacteria, archaea, eukarya

17.) eukarya:​ ​compartmentalized cells

18.) eukarya​ ​examples:​ ​all animals

19.) archaea​ ​examples:​ microbes

20.) eubacteria​ ​examples:​ human pathogens

21.) asymmetry:​ ​no symmetry:

https://farm1.staticflickr.com/96/208857632_4c50fe00b7_m.jpg 

22.) radial​ ​symmetry:​ ​Symmetry about a central axis.:

https://o.quizlet.com/o8DlHNeczpmr5aiEQqzF8A_m.jpg 

23.) biradial​ ​symmetry:​ : https://o.quizlet.com/ZqGnPIUPnOtvdS9SUGDroA_m.png 24.) bilateral​ ​symmetry:​ ​two equal halves.:

https://o.quizlet.com/pJEpgCGwvkmtfWTkRsv2fg_m.jpg 

25.) cephalization:​ ​concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body: https://o.quizlet.com/XQ4poAG7XizfTz0gv6qQGQ_m.jpg 26.) diploblastic:​ ​Having two germ layers.

27.) triploblastic​: Having three cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm 28.) dorsal​: Back: https://o.quizlet.com/i/Cfvfrxmmz5alJd2as3UuKQ_m.jpg 29.) ventral​: Belly side: https://o.quizlet.com/i/J1yYXwLGzooKMD8-KIlWoA_m.jpg 30.) anterior​: Front: https://o.quizlet.com/i/J1yYXwLGzooKMD8-KIlWoA_m.jpg 31.) posterior​: Back: https://o.quizlet.com/i/Cfvfrxmmz5alJd2as3UuKQ_m.jpg 32.) aboral​: away from the mouth

33.) oral​: Mouth

34.) acoelomate​: No body cavity

35.) pseudocoelomate​: An animal whose body cavity is lined by tissue derived from mesoderm and endoderm.: https://o.quizlet.com/RT2YsRNJKP1TFRmtAaMg8g_m.jpg 36.) coelomate​: true body cavity:

https://o.quizlet.com/V2uG0Hl.5h4q5zq4XhQB4g_m.jpg 

37.) coelom​: Body cavity

38.) protostomes​: Animals with mouths that develop from or near the blastopore 39.) deuterostomes​: Animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development

40.) characteristics​ ​of​ ​protostomes​: have cells with nuclei and live in moist surroundings 41.) protostomes​ ​phyla:​ Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda

42.) deuterostomes​ ​phylum​: Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata 43.) What​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​lophotrochozoa?​: molluscs, annelids and flatworms 44.) What​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​ecdysozoa?​: insects, nematodes

Chapter​ ​8:​ ​(Protozoa) 

1.) evolution​ ​of​ ​protists:​ polyphyletic, 1.5 billion years old, made when Archaea and Eubacteria diverged.

2.) plant-like​ ​protists:​ autotrophic

3.) autotrophic​: they make their own food

4.) animal-like​ ​protists:​ heterotrophic

5.) heterotrophic​: they feed on other organisms

6.) free​ ​living:​ not involved in a symbiotic or parasitic relationship

7.) protozoan​: complete organism, all life activities are carried on within a single plasma membrane

8.) How​ ​do​ ​most​ ​protozoa​ ​absorb​ ​nutrients?:​ active transport or phagocytosis 9.) cytopharynx​: where some protozoa ingest food

10.) Where​ ​does​ ​digestion​ ​and​ ​transport​ ​of​ ​food​ ​in​ ​protozoa​ ​occur?:​ ​food vacuoles that form during endocytosis

11.) How​ ​do​ ​protozoa​ ​reproduce?:​ both sexually and asexually

12.) What​ ​types​ ​of​ ​asexual​ ​reproduction​ ​do​ ​protozoa​ ​undergo?:​ binary fission, budding, and multiple fission

13.) symbiosis​: intimate association between 2 organisms of different species 14.) 3​ ​different​ ​forms​ ​of​ ​symbiosis:

a.) Parasitism

b.) Commensalism

c.) Mutualism

15.) parasitism​: one benefits and the other is harmed

16.) commensalism​: one organism benefits and the other is unaffected 17.) mutualism​: both organisms benefit

18.) flagellates​ ​examples:​ termites, giardia, trich

19.) trophozoite​ ​stage:​ ​causes symptoms

20.) cyst​ ​stage:​ infective stage of parasite, you must ingest the cyst formed by parasite to be infected

21.) trichomoniasis:​ "trich", usually sexually or close contact transmitted

22.) African​ ​Sleeping​ ​Sickness:​ T. brucei, transmitted to humans by the bite of the tsetse fly

23.) vector:​ organism that transmits disease or pathogen to another organism 24.) vector​ ​example:​ tsetse fly with african sleeping sickness

25.) dinoflagellates:​ contain variety of pigments, marine organisms 26.) red​ ​tides:​ caused by a bloom of colorful dinoflagellates

27.) dinoflagellate​ ​toxins:​ created by large group of df, can infect fish which if we eat it will infect us

28.) entamoeba​ ​histolytica:

a.) Ameba

b.) human only parasite

c.) causes amebiasis from ingestion of cysts

29.) foraminifera​: secretes shell out of calcium carbonate called a test 30.) apicomplexans​: possess apical complex, ONLY parasitic, do not move except in reproductive stages

31.) apical​ ​complex:​ ​structures that allow apicomplexans to penetrate cells of other organisms

32.) diseases​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​apicomplexans:

a.) Malaria

b.) Toxoplasmosis

33.) Do​ ​apicomplexans​ ​reproduce​ ​sexually​ ​or​ ​asexually?:​ ​both

34.) How​ ​do​ ​humans​ ​contract​ ​toxoplasmosis?​ ​(4):

a.) Food

b.) Zoonotic

c.) Congenital

d.) rare instances

35.) food​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​toxoplasmosis:​ uncooked meats

36.) zoonotic​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​toxoplasmosis:​ exposure to infected animal 37.) congenital​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​toxoplasmosis:​ mother to child (crosses placenta) 38.) What​ ​happens​ ​with​ ​congenital​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​toxoplasmosis?:​ can cause miscarriage, skeletal deformity, blindness etc

39.) rare​ ​instance​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​toxoplasmosis:​ blood transfusions, tissue transplants 40.) Why​ ​is​ ​Africa​ ​most​ ​affected​ ​by​ ​Malaria?:

a.) efficient mosquitos

b.) local weather

c.) scarce resources

41.) Who​ ​is​ ​most​ ​vulnerable​ ​to​ ​malaria?:​ young children, pregnant women, travelers/migrants

42.) ciliates​ ​+​ ​structure:

a.) most complex protozoa

b.) have cilia, a macronucleus, and multiple micronuclei

43.) How​ ​do​ ​ciliates​ ​reproduce?:

a.) asexually through binary fission (budding)

b.) sexually through conjugation

44.) conjugation:​ exchange of micronuclei between ciliates of compatible mating types 45.) contractile​ ​vacuole:​ The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell

46.) pellicle:​ A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane

47.) longitudinal​ ​binary​ ​fission:​ divides lengthwise

48.) transverse​ ​binary​ ​fission:​ ​divides widthwise

49.) schizogony​: multiple fission, rapid replication of chromosomes, forming multiple nuclei

50.) How​ ​do​ ​humans​ ​contract​ ​Toxoplasma​ ​gondii?:​ undercooked meats 51.) How​ ​many​ ​super​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​protists​ ​are​ ​currently​ ​recognized?:​ 6 52.) How​ ​many​ ​of​ ​protist​ ​super​ ​groups​ ​contain​ ​protozoa?:​ 4

Chapter​ ​9:​ ​(Phylum​ ​Porifera​ ​and​ ​Cnidaria) 

1.) porifera​: sponges, no tissues

2.) cnidaria​ ​and​ ​ctenophora:​ tissue level organization

3.) Dujardin:​ ​french biologist, choanoflagellate cells are similar to those in sponges 4.) porifera​ ​symmetry:​ asymmetrical or superficially radially symmetrical 5.) 3​ ​cell​ ​types​ ​of​ ​porifera:

a.) Pinacocytes

b.) mesenchyme cells

c.) Choanocytes

6.) How​ ​do​ ​porifera​ ​feed?:​ filter feeding through series of channels and chambers 7.) Sponge​ ​classes​ ​(3):

a.) Calcarea

b.) Hexactinellida

c.) Demospongiae

8.) pinacocytes:​ outer surface, contractile

9.) mesohyl​: jellylike middle layer

10.) mesenchyme​ ​cells​: amoeboid cells, reproductive

11.) choanocytes​: flagellated, filter feeding

12.) How​ ​do​ ​choanocytes​ ​trap​ ​food?:​ collar like ring of microvilli traps food particles 13.) skeleton​ ​parts:​ ​spicules and spongin

a.) spongin​: protein that contributes to skeleton of sponge

14.) ascon​ ​body​ ​form​: most simple, least common, straight edged walls: https://o.quizlet.com/i/Y27xQBhpfA3Ea47VixBsxg_m.jpg 

15.) scyon​ ​body​ ​form:​ canals lined with choanocytes

16.) leucon​ ​body​ ​form​: most complex, canals and chambers:

https://o.quizlet.com/i/PHmbCWHygm5rYVyHOjDh_g_m.jpg 

17.) What​ ​do​ ​complex​ ​sponges​ ​have​ ​more​ ​of​ ​than​ ​simple​ ​sponges?:​ ​more surface area for filtering large volumes of water and getting more nutrients

18.) How​ ​does​ ​phylum​ ​porifera​ ​feed?​:

a.) filter feeding

b.) Phagocytosis

c.) active transport

19.) filter​ ​feeding​ ​(3​ ​steps)​:

a.) bacteria, algae, etc is trapped in choanocytes collar

b.) then into food vacuole

c.) digested by lysosomal enzyme

20.) How​ ​do​ ​porifera​ ​get​ ​rid​ ​of​ ​waste?:​ ​diffusion

21.) What​ ​is​ ​waste​ ​product​ ​of​ ​poriferas?:​ ammonia

22.) porifera​ ​reproduction:

a.) monoecious (external fertilization)

b.) Asexual

23.) asexual​ ​reproduction​ ​of​ ​porifera​ ​(2):

a.) budding​: formation of external buds

b.) gemmules​: internal buds

24.) monoecious​: one individual produces both type of sex cells

25.) Parenchymula​ ​larva:​ a solid ball of flagellated cells, stage of development in sponges

26.) What​ ​type​ ​of​ ​larva​ ​is​ ​most​ ​common​ ​in​ ​sponges?:​ planktonic 27.) Phylum​ ​cnidaria​ ​symmetry:​ radial/biradial

28.) biradial​ ​symmetry:​ : https://o.quizlet.com/ZqGnPIUPnOtvdS9SUGDroA_m.png 29.) diploblastic​: cnidarian, two germ layers

30.) cnidaria​ ​level​ ​of​ ​organization:​ tissues

31.) cnidarian​ ​nervous​ ​system:​ nerve net

32.) cnidaria​ ​digestion:​ gastrovascular cavity

33.) gastrovascular​ ​cavity:​ digestive chamber with a single opening 34.) cnidarian​ ​defense​ ​cells:​ ​cnidocytes

35.) cnidocytes​: stinging cells: defense, feeding, attachment

36.) What​ ​lies​ ​between​ ​epidermis​ ​and​ ​gastrodermis​ ​in​ ​cnidaria?:​ mesoglea 37.) cnidarian​ ​epidermis:​ outer cellular layer, ectodermal:

https://o.quizlet.com/i/5uS4Hb6sRPJE0T_Vl4tvpA_m.jpg

38.) cnidarian​ ​gastrodermis​: inner cellular layer, endodermal: https://o.quizlet.com/i/5uS4Hb6sRPJE0T_Vl4tvpA_m.jpg 

39.) cnidaria​ ​mesoglea:​ jellylike, between epidermis and gastrodermis: https://o.quizlet.com/i/5uS4Hb6sRPJE0T_Vl4tvpA_m.jpg 

40.) cnidaria​ ​polyp​ ​stage:​ asexual reproductive

41.) cnidaria​ ​medusa​ ​stage:​ sexual reproductive

42.) gastrovascular​ ​cavity​ ​functions​ ​(5):

a.) Digestion

b.) gas exchange

c.) Excretion

d.) Reproductive

e.) hydrostatic skeleton

i.) hydrostatic​ ​skeleton:​ support and movement

43.) nerve​ ​net​ ​function:​ coordinate body movements

44.) reproduction​ ​of​ ​cnidarians:​ dioecious, sexual and asexual 45.) What​ ​type​ ​of​ ​larva​ ​does​ ​cnidaria​ ​medusa​ ​produce?:​ planula larva 46.) What​ ​does​ ​polyp​ ​stage​ ​of​ ​cnidaria​ ​produce?:​ miniature medusae 47.) 3​ ​classes​ ​of​ ​cnidaria:

a.) Hydrozoa

b.) Anthozoa

c.) Scyphozoa

48.) Hydrozoa​ ​(cnidaria)​ ​characteristics​ ​(3):

a.) cnidocytes and gametes only epidermal

b.) mesoglea does not have cells

c.) medusa with velum

49.) velum​ ​in​ ​medusa:​ concentrated water to create a jet-propulsion system 50.) hydrozoa​ ​examples:​ obelia, fire coral

51.) scyphozoa​ ​(cnidaria)​ ​characteristics​ ​(4):

a.) medusa dormant (no velum)

b.) cnidocytes epidermal and gastrodermal

c.) mesoglea has cells

d.) gametes gastrodermal

52.) scyphozoa​ ​examples:​ moon jellyfish

53.) anthozoa​ ​(cnidaria)​ ​characteristics​ ​(3):

a.) Solitary

b.) lack medusae

c.) mouth leads to pharynx

54.) anthozoa​ ​examples:​ anemones and corals

55.) What​ ​does​ ​external​ ​fertilization​ ​produce?:​ planula

56.) protandry:​ male gametes mature first

57.) stony​ ​corals:​ cuplike calcium carbonate exoskeleton

58.) hermatypic:​ reef forming

59.) How​ ​do​ ​you​ ​describe​ ​an​ ​animal?​ ​(3):

a.) Multicellular

b.) Eukaryotic

c.) Heterotroph

60.) What​ ​are​ ​possible​ ​origins​ ​of​ ​multicellularity?:

a.) Precambrian (selective advantage for multiple cells)

b.) colonial hypothesis

c.) coenocytic hypothesis

61.) colonial​ ​hypothesis:​ ​cells of a dividing protist stayed together

62.) coenocytic​ ​hypothesis:​ mitosis was not followed by cytokinesis

63.) monophyletic​ ​group:​ ​includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants. 64.) What​ ​evidence​ ​do​ ​we​ ​have​ ​that​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​monophyletic?​ ​(4): a.) cellular structures

b.) flagellated cells

c.) asters, cell junctions

d.) molecular data

65.) choanoflagellates:​ protists considering to be closest related to humans 66.) ameboid​ ​cells​ ​function:​ pick up and distribute nutrients

67.) dioecious:​ ​Having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals 68.) hermaphroditic:​ ​Possessing both the male and the female reproductive organs 69.) How​ ​do​ ​sponges​ ​develop?:

a.) sessile polyp (asexual)

b.) free-living medusae (sexual)

70.) venus​ ​flower​ ​basket:​ holds 2 fish (male and female) in its body and they live their life in there

71.) cnida:​ ​types of cnidaria cells

72.) nematocyst:​ food gathering and defense

73.) cnidocil:​ A hairlike trigger on the cnidocyte surface

74.) rhopalium:​ sensory structure at base of ocelli (phototaxis)

75.) mesoglea:​ in cnidarians, the jellylike material located between the ectoderm and the endoderm

76.) What​ ​do​ ​cnidaria​ ​eat?:​ small planktonic animals

77.) Why​ ​does​ ​a​ ​disturbed​ ​coral​ ​reef​ ​turn​ ​white?:​ ​the algae dies

Chapter​ ​10:​ ​(Phylum​ ​Platyhelminthes) 

1.) Phylum​ ​Platyhelminthes:​ flatworms

2.) triploblastic​ ​body​ ​plan:​ ​3 germ layers

3.) What​ ​body​ ​plan​ ​is​ ​a​ ​flatworm?:​ acoelomate

4.) acoelomate:​ has body cavity

5.) pseudocoelomate:​ ​false body cavity

6.) coelomate​: body cavity is completely lined by mesodermal tissue 7.) cleavage​ ​of​ ​protostome:​ spiral

8.) cleavage​ ​of​ ​deuterostome:​ radial

9.) fate​ ​of​ ​blastopore​ ​in​ ​deuterostomes:​ becomes anus

10.) coelom​ ​formation​ ​of​ ​protostomes:​ schizocoely

11.) coelom​ ​formation​ ​of​ ​deuterostomes:​ enterocoely

12.) schizocoely:​ mesodermal tissue splits

13.) enterocoely​: mesodermal tissues develop at the same time 14.) Flatworm​ ​body​ ​plan:​ ​acoelomates

15.) flatworms​ ​gut:​ ​gastrovascular cavity (incomplete)

16.) incomplete​ ​gut:​ ​one opening

17.) flatworm​ ​symmetry:​ bilateral

18.) flatworm​ ​germ​ ​layers:​ ​triploblastic

19.) protonephridia:​ regulates fluids in body, excretes by diffusion 20.) parenchyma​: mesodermally derived loose tissue

21.) 3​ ​classes​ ​of​ ​flatworms:

a.) Turbellaria

b.) Trematoda

c.) Cestoidea

22.) How​ ​do​ ​flatworms​ ​compensate​ ​for​ ​a​ ​circulatory​ ​system?:​ they have a highly branched digestive system to get nutrients to body

23.) turbellaria​ ​(2):

a.) free-living

b.) marine and freshwater

24.) turbellaria​ ​example:​ planarian

25.) turbellaria​ ​locomotion:​ cilia and muscles

26.) turbellaria​ ​digestion:​ extracellular and then intracellular

27.) turbellaria​ ​nervous​ ​system:​ primitive brain and nerve cord 28.) turbellaria​ ​reproduction:

a.) asexually by transverse fission

b.) Sexual

29.) trematoda​ ​examples:​ ​flukes

30.) trematoda​ ​(3):

a.) Parasitic

b.) incomplete gut

c.) Monoecious

31.) What​ ​do​ ​trematoda​ ​usually​ ​infect?:​ vertebrates

32.) tegument:

a.) Syncytium

b.) protection against immune response of host

33.) syncytium​: forms continuous layer of fused cells

34.) glycocalyx​: outer part of tegument holding nutrients

35.) digeneans​:

a.) majority of flukes

b.) Parasitic

36.) Fasciola​ ​hepatica​ ​(common​ ​liver​ ​fluke)​ ​definitive​ ​hosts:

a.) Sheep

b.) Humans

37.) Fasciola​ ​hepatica​ ​(common​ ​liver​ ​fluke)​ ​contraction:​ eating water crests 38.) Chinese​ ​liver​ ​fluke​ ​contraction:​ ingesting undercooked fish 39.) Chinese​ ​liver​ ​fluke​ ​definitive​ ​hosts:​ humans

40.) Chinese​ ​liver​ ​fluke​ ​intermediate​ ​hosts:​ snail, fish

41.) Schistosome​ ​Fluke​ ​(blood​ ​fluke)​ ​contraction:​ free-swimming cercariae penetrate skin

42.) Schistosome​ ​Fluke​ ​(blood​ ​fluke)​ ​intermediate​ ​host​: snail

43.) Schistosome​ ​Fluke​ ​(blood​ ​fluke)​ ​definitive​ ​host:​ human

44.) cestoidea:

a.) Tapeworms

i.) 3 parts of tapeworm body:

(1) Scolex

(2) Neck

(3) Strobila

ii.) scolex:​ anchors in digestive tract

iii.) strobila:​ proglottids budded off neck region

45.) gravid​ ​proglottid:​ filled with eggs

46.) pork​ ​tapeworm​ ​contraction:​ ​eating raw pork

47.) What​ ​disease​ ​does​ ​the​ ​pork​ ​tapeworm​ ​cause?:​ ​neurocysticercosis 48.) beef​ ​tapeworm​ ​contraction:​ eating raw beef

49.) Where​ ​does​ ​beef​ ​tapeworm​ ​attach?:​ ​small intestine

50.) broad​ ​fish​ ​tapeworm​ ​contraction:​ ​eating undercooked fish 51.) ocelli​: eye spots, phototaxis

52.) auricles​: sensory lobes

53.) oral​ ​sucker:​ anterior, surrounds the mouth:

https://o.quizlet.com/i/vpdD6zE7JXdXta8HISB1sQ_m.jpg

54.) acetabulum:​ below oral sucker

55.) miracidium:​ ciliated larva, finds intermediate host

56.) cercaria​ ​(2):

a.) has digestive tract, suckers, and tail

b.) finds second intermediate or final host

57.) metacercariae​ ​(2):

a.) cercariae encysted in host

b.) develops into adult in final host

58.) sporocysts​: contain embryonic cells from asexual reproductive 59.) rediae​: daughter sporocysts, produce cercariae

60.) proglottid​: contains reproductive structures

61.) gravid​: detached proglottids

62.) oncosphere​: The motile, first stage larva of certain cestodes; armed with six hooklets. (hexacanth embryo)

63.) bladder​ ​worm:​ ​encysts in fluid-filled bladder from eating infected meat 64.) cysticercus​: cysticercus cysts in brain, can be fatal

65.) neurocysticercosis​: from pork tapeworm, cysts in brain

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