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ReviewBar graphs are for 3 different and distinct categories of variables o Ex. Low fat, high fat, medium fat diets Histogramso Looking for a median, shows a distributionLine graphs o Looking at a trend over time Scatter plotso Regression lines!!! o Correlate two distinctly different categoriesStudy time and exam score PhysiologyIntro to physiology o Technically the study of nature o Study the nature of humans o Organization of lifeThe cell is the unit of life Molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms o Function vs ProcessFunction explains the ‘why’Teleological approach o Why do I breathe, why do I have to eatProcess or mechanism describes the ‘how’Mechanistic approacho How do I breathe, how do I eat The answers to the similar but diff questions have different answersExampleWhy does a fan spin: to create an air currentHow does a fan spin: motor creates a forceelectromagnet rotatescreates a current CQ: why do the lungs expand during inspiration (teleological: why)Because contraction of the diaphragm causes thoracic cavity volume to increase (mechanism)Because air needs to be brought into the lungs for gas exchangeBecause the pressure in the atmosphere exceeds thoracic pressure (mechanism)CQ: how does the collecting duct of the kidney conserve water? (mechanistic: how)Because the body needs to maintain a homeostatic balance of ionic concentration Because blood pressure depends on blood volumeBecause vasopressin causes increased permeability to waterThemes in physiologyo CompartmentationDivisions of the body
Compartments within the cellAdvantagesAllows for specificity o Specific cells with specific enzymesConcentrate enzymes/chemicals to specific placesDisadvantagesTransport Availabilityo Structure function relationshipsNodal pathway Ion channels Pumping of heart Things have certain shapes and types that give it its function They depend on each other (function on structure and vice versa)Ex. Red blood cell shapeo Energy transferLife is workMaintaining homeostasis o Requires energy o Homeostasis and control systemsThe biggest theme that we follow in classMaintenance of a constant controlled environmentHuman body is a dynamic system Internal control systems as well as external control systems The food we eat, temp, water, drugs, effects the body…etc etc etc Internal systemsWhat cells are exposed to;o Metabolism, blood pH, temp, solute concentration Internal constancyo Critical for proper functionCoordinated physiological processes which maintain most of the constant states in the organism = homeostasisRegulators vs ConformersConformerso Allow internal environment to fluctuate with externalRegulationo Maintain constancy o Regulatory systemSensor 1Detects changes in the environment Controller/integrator 3Interprets info sent by the sensorControls activity of the effector Effector (glands or cells or organs, etc)Performs activity that compensates for the change Feedback (response)
Negative o Defined by: opposing the change in the variable (REVERSAL) o If something goes down the effector brings it back up o Ex. BP drops and its sensed by baroreceptors effector is the heart and the heart increases the BP againPo siti ve o Amplifies or exaggerates the original stimulus o Ex. Pressure on the cervix Sensed by a stretch receptors effector is the hypothalamus and releases oxytocin and contracts the muscle of the area and increase the pressure even moreo Much more rare than negative feedback FeedforwardAnticipationStimulus produces physiological response in anticipation of a change or need Ex. Digestion o Production of saliva when hungry o Typically the production of saliva/stomach acid/enzyme release is food but since its feedforward it happens before food even enters the body Feedback mechanism Cycle of events in which status of variable is constantly monitored and reported back to the control centerVariable o Regulated feature of internal environment Receptor/sensor o Sensitive to changes in the variable usually a surface protein. Serves as a monitor of a variable and sends info to control center Control center (afferent from receptor (to CNS)) o Determines a set value for the variable. Analyzes input from receptor and will act or adjust accordingly based on info received from the receptor Ex. Nervous AND endocrine
Effector oEfferent (from CNS) pathway out to effector from control centero Receives info and produces a response AutoregulationLocal stimulus elicits local response Response may involve positive or negative feedback and is usually independent of neural or endocrine involvement Ex. Heart o Low O2 due to excessive contraction increased adenosine vasodilation allows more blood flow and O2Two organ systemsNervous system (hormones)o Detection of changes in external and internal environments o Initiation, control and coordination of rapid responses designed to restore homeostasiso Ex. Heart rate regulationEndocrine system (glands)o Generally, endocrine regulation producesmore diffuse action than nervous system effects o Ex. Blood glucoseModulation of signal pathways Specificity and competitionAgonist o Binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to add what’s naturally produced o Natural or pharmaceutically formedAntagonisto Binds to the receptor and it inhibits the receptor so it can’t do anything at allMultiple receptors for one ligand (receptor) Disease/illness is caused due to lack of homeostasis o CQ: the only system that can integrate a sensation is the nervous systemFalse because endocrine and nervous systems are integrators o Control Systems (tonic vs antagonistic)Tonic ControlRegulates physiological parameters in an up-down fashionExo Dilation vs constriction of a blood vessel o A single neuron with a single chemical is used to do both o To dilate Less chemical secretion, signal rate is decreasedo To constrict
More chemical secretion, signal rate is increased Ex. One volume dial that can go up and down to adjust volume Antagonistic ControlAntagonistic neurons control heart rate: some neurons speed it up and some slow it downEx. Hearto Parasympathetic stimulation to relax and slow heart rate o Sympathetic control to increase heart rate when scared o Tonic control: parasympathetic usually, regulation of a single chemical o Antagonistic: sympathetic usually, regulation of 2 differentchemicalMolecular Interactions o Structure of an atomProtons, electrons, neutronso Cation+charge loss of e-o Anion-chargegain of e-o isotopesneutron differences radioisotopeunstable nucleiemit energy radiation o medically used as a tracer glucose o used for pet scans o wherever glucose is concentrated is visible in the scans o areas with concentration of glucose is highly metabolic so areas like the brain, kidneys and heart show concentration in radioisotope scan o molecule vs compoundmolecule: 2 or more atoms joined, can be same or diffcompound: 2 or more atoms joined, has to be diffo types of bondscovalent bonds polar o uneven distribution of electronsnonpolaro even distribution of electrons share a pair of electrons ionic bondstransfer an electronopposite charges attractloose or gain electrons
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Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Colorado at Boulder who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Course: Human Physiology 1
Professor: Heidi Bustamante
Term: Fall 2017
Name: Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: All of the lecture notes and things talked about in class. It's a long document but its thorough and has everything in it!