Botany Exam 2 Study Guide
Abscission: the natural detachment of parts of a plant, typically dead leaves and ripe fruit. Aerial Parasite: Seed germination takes place on the stem of the would be host Aerial Roots: A root growing from an aboveground portion of a plant Bark: the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Bracts: floral leaves that form at the base of a flower or flower stalk. Small and scalelike, and protect developing flowers.
Bud Primordium: organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development Bundle Sheath: a cylinder of collenchyma and parenchyma cells that surrounds vascular bundles in leaves, loading nutrients into phloem and providing structural integrity Buttress Roots: A root often found in tropical rainforest trees that serves primarily Casparian Strip: is a band of cell wall material deposited in walls of the endodermis, and is made of suberin and sometimes lignin.
Compound Leaf: A leaf composed of multiple leaflike structures called leaflets Compound Leaves: a leaf of a plant consisting of several or many leaflets Cork Cambium: is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis. Responsible for secondary growth that replaces the epidermis in roots and stems. Endodermis: an inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and stems
Fusiform Initial: Cells in the vascular cambium. Football shaped.
Haustorium: A root that invades the tissue of another plant and draws off nutrients Hemiparasitic: a plant that obtains or may obtain part of its food by parasitism, e.g., mistletoe, which also photosynthesizes. If you want to learn more check out What are the examples of governmental agencies?
Heterotrophs: an organism that makes its own food
Holoparasitic: Of or pertaining to a plant sustaining itself entirely through parasitism.
Botany Exam 2 Study Guide Leaf Primordium: a group of cells that will develop into a leaf, seen as small bulges just
below the shoot apex.
Leaf Trace: the point at which vascular bundles branch in the stem to enter the petiole of the leaf
Leaf: A structure that subtends an axillary bud
Lenticles: Pores that allow gas exchange between the environment and internal tissues Mycorrhizae: symbiotic relationships that form between fungi and plants. The fungi colonize the root system of a host plant, providing increased water and nutrient absorption capabilities while the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates formed from photosynthesis. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the fight-or-flight system?
Palisade Parenchyma: a layer of tightly packed chlorenchyma cells on the upper surface of a leaf largely responsible for photosynthesis
Parasitism: the practice of living as a parasite in or on another organism. Pneumatophores: A root that is modified to obtain oxygen above the surface of stagnant water
Ray Initial: In the Vascular cambium that produce vascular rays
Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem that puts out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals.
Root Parasite: a complete parasite attaches to the roots
Spines: a hard pointed defensive projection used as protecting the plant Storage Roots: A root in which nutrients are stored We also discuss several other topics like How long is female dog receptive to male?
Tannin: pigment that is responsible for leaves changing colors in the fall Tendrils: a slender threadlike appendage of a climbing plant, that grows and “climbs” to support and grow closer to light or nutrients
Thorne: any hard pointed defensive projection or structure
Botany Exam 2 Study Guide Transpiration: evaporation of water from the stomates of leaves; results in negative pressure
in the xylem which draws water upward
Tubers: a much thickened underground part of a stem that serves as a food reserve and bearing buds from which new plants arise. If you want to learn more check out Why can't utopians exist?
Vascular Cambium: Tissue located between the Xylem and Phloem in the stem and root of a vascular plant. Source of secondary growth.
Window Leaves: are common in many desert plants, a small transparent "window" tip protruding above the soil level.
Root Growth in Different Climates
• The Desert � (little precipitation, no water table, variable soils) We also discuss several other topics like What is the smallest group of organisms in which evolution can take place?
- Root systems are larger, wider and deeper
- Able to maximize gathering moisture when scarce If you want to learn more check out What energy is available for cellular work?
• The Beach � (thin shifting soils, variable precipitation)
- Long taproots to stabilize position in unstable soils.
• A Tropical Rainforest � (lots of precipitation, thin soils)
- Wide, woody root systems
- competition for sunlight
Types of Roots
• Aerial Roots �
- roots that arise on above-ground stems
- Ex: prop roots on corn, vines, epiphytes, Banyan tree
• Buttress Roots �
- flared roots that extend from tree trunks, used for stability.
• Pneumatophores �
- provide oxygen for plants in areas where oxygen levels are low
- Ex: Swamps
• Storage roots �
- roots modified to store water or food
- Parasitism: the practice of living as a parasite in or on another organism
– invasive, vascular organ that secretes digestive enzymes
– Attaches to host stems or roots
– anatomically diverse structures
– movement of nutrients from host to parasite is passive
Botany Exam 2 Study Guide