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UMD / History / HIST 134 / What is the doctrine of preparationism?

What is the doctrine of preparationism?

What is the doctrine of preparationism?

Description

School: University of Maryland - College Park
Department: History
Course: Spies, Assasins, Martyrs, and Witches: Famous Trials in American History
Professor: Michael ross
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: hist134 and midterm
Cost: 50
Name: HIST134 Midterm Study Guide
Description: study guide for hist134 midterm. covers ann hutchinson, salem wtich trials, amistad, and john brown
Uploaded: 10/11/2017
28 Pages 57 Views 2 Unlocks
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HIST134S Midterm Study Guide


What is the doctrine of preparationism ?



The​ ​midterm​ ​examination​ ​will​ ​consist​ ​of​ ​a​ ​short​ ​answer​ ​section​ ​and​ ​an​ ​essay​ ​section.​ ​In​ ​the short​ ​answer​ ​section​ ​you​ ​will​ ​get​ ​to​ ​choose​ ​3​ ​out​ ​of​ ​5​ ​I.D.s​ ​and​ ​explain​ ​who​ ​or​ ​what,​ ​when, and​ ​(most​ ​importantly)​ ​the​ ​significance​ ​to​ ​the​ ​trial​ ​and​ ​themes​ ​of​ ​the​ ​lecture/course.​ ​Each I.D.​ ​will​ ​be​ ​worth​ ​20​ ​points.​ ​Please​ ​remember​ ​that​ ​for​ ​this​ ​course​ ​the​ ​historical​ ​events outside​ ​of​ ​the​ ​courtroom​ ​are​ ​as​ ​important​ ​as​ ​events​ ​in​ ​the​ ​trial​ ​itself.​ ​The​ ​following​ ​are possible​ ​i.d.s:


What is the function of american colonization society?



Don't forget about the age old question of In business strategies, what is vertical integration?

Trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637) 

● Puritans

○ Religious dissenters that felt persecuted in England

○ Families go to Plymouth Colony to start a new world

○ Disgusted by excess and corruption of Catholic and Anglican churches ○ Wanted to eliminate the religious hierarchy

○ Believed:

■ no one deserved salvation, but G-d in his mercy chooses to save a select few

■ no one can fully obey G-d

■ In the original sin and the innate corruption of man

■ Must live simply, work hard, and resist temptation

■ Should love the world w/ moderation, but G-d w/o limits


What is the role of lawyers?



● Calvinism & Predestination

○ Predestination - already determined before you’re born if you’ll go to heaven or hell If you want to learn more check out What is the annexation of crimea?

○ Calvinism

■ emphasizes the grace of God and the doctrine of predestination

■ Started by John Calvin

● Indulgences

○ Can basically pay the church so your sins will be forgiven

● Separatists & Plymouth Colony

○ Leave England b/c it’s too corrupt

○ Try Holland, but leave it b/c it’s too tempting Don't forget about the age old question of What is the amortization of intangible assets?

○ Go to colonies

■ Paid by Plymouth Co

■ Arrive on the Mayflower and form Plymouth Colony

● Massachusetts Bay Colony

○ Puritans, but not separatists

○ Believed the Anglican Church could be reformed by example

■ “City on a hill”

○ Led by prosperous Puritan lawyer, John Winthrop

● Mass. Bay vs. Jamestown

○ Jamestown was a Joint Stock Co for people looking to get rich quick ○ Massachusetts Bay was for religious people dissatisfied w/religious life in England

● John Winthrop

○ Led the Mass Bay Colony

○ Thoughts on democracy: We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of animism?

■ “Meanest and worst form of gov’t”

■ Allows people to indulge worst temptations

○ Thoughts on freedom:

■ It’s the ability to surrender to the will of the lord and defer to godly clerical and civil authorities who rule in his name

■ Ability to cast off corrupt churches and gov’t but then submit to others ● “A Model of Christian Charity” If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a meridional flow pattern?

○ Famous sermon written by Winthrop

○ Written on flagship Arabella as they crossed the ocean

○ “For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us”

○ Creating a new Israel, G-d’s errand in the wilderness

○ Says that if they screw up, G-d is going to punish them

● Great and General Court

○ Court system of Mass Bay

○ Presided over by Winthrop

○ All 3 gov’t branches in one

○ Members are elected but must be “saints”

● Banning of Christmas

○ Puritans banned Christmas Don't forget about the age old question of What is hydrogenation?

○ Pagan holiday

● Doctrine of “Just Price”

○ Making a small profit was okay, but too much profit was sinful ○ Charging too much called "oppression"

○ Makes life tricky for merchants like William Hutchinson

■ Merchants are looked down upon

● Anne Hutchinson

○ 46 years old, mother of 15 (might be preggers with #16)

■ 3 children die in the plague

○ Midwife to many relatives of people on the court

■ Well-respected midwife

○ Feared by some who suspect her of witchcraft

○ 8 ministers testify against her in court

○ John Winthrop calls her a devilish and a Jezebel

○ On trial officially for heresy (but really witchcraft)

○ Father was a rebellious pastor in the Anglican Church

■ Jailed 2x for refusing to stop speaking out

■ Always tried to get people kicked out of the Church

■ Believed daughter needed rigorous upbringing and an education ○ In 1612, she married William Hutchinson

■ Young merchant

■ has favor of many officials

○ Ann leads conventicles

■ Takes notes during Sermon to discuss later

■ Develops large following

■ believes she is receiving divine revelations from G-d

■ Colony's leaders think it’s unnecessary

■ Followers find her conventicles comforting in uncertain times

■ Many of her followers are women

● Some merchants, captains, and other shady characters join

● Her views become less about sermons and more about her own

views, particularly about "good works"

○ Argues against "good works"

○ Winthrop believes she is the main instigator and is the mouthpiece for Wheelwright

■ Fears she’s working with the Devil

○ 3 formal charges against her:

■ Encouraging “sowers of sedition” and violating 5th commandment ● Hosted Wheelwright and other followers in her house

■ Had meetings in her home unfit for her sex

■ Slandered ministers in colony by claiming they preached a “covenant of works”

○ Later charged with heresy

○ Is eventually banned and excommunicated

○ She and followers go to Narragansett Bay aka Rhode Island

■ Shortly after leaves there and dies

● Society of Deference

○ Relationships are vertical not horizontal

○ Society as extended household w/ king at head

○ Fathers have authority over the households

○ Social and political order depended on everyone knowing their place ○ Good order enforced by strict surveillance and stern punishments

○ Society of paternalism and obligation

○ Life was often cruel (lots of bad shit to handle)

■ Dependency was a means of dealing w/ a cruel harsh world

○ Not everyone is equal

○ Everyone has a place in the hierarchy

○ There are people you must be deferent to and people who must be deferent to you ○ Sense of obligation

○ Must protect those under you

● Coverture

○ Status of married women under common law

○ Undergoes civil death (feme covert) when married

○ Occurred when a woman married

○ Merges into the legal identity of the man

■ Her property and property rights passed to husband

○ Married women cannot buy or sell property, make contracts, or sue or be sued ○ Only liable for major crimes (murder, treason, heresy, witchcraft, etc.) ● Conventicles

○ Private gatherings where people came together to discuss and debate scripture and pray

○ Frowned upon by Anglican Church

○ Dens of radicals, Puritans, Anabaptists, and lay preaching of half-truths ● John Wilson

○ Leading minister in Puritan New England

○ Stressed the need for “preparation for grace”

■ “Good works” or doctrine of preparationism

○ People should live a godly life every day

○ Outward behavior could be taken as a sign of sainthood

■ Sinners would eventually crack and not be able to keep doing good ○ Followers of John Wheelwright and Ann Hutchinson go to his sermons so they can purposely walk out

○ Men in Ann’s faction refuse to serve in Pequot war b/c Wilson is the chaplain of the expedition

○ “City on hill” is showing cracks

● Absolute Truth

○ G-d's word revealed once and for all time in one place--THE BIBLE ○ Hutchinson claims she is a source of absolute truth since she’s talking to G-d ● Doctrine of Preparationism

○ Idea that there were steps could take to be more receptive to conversion if it came ○ Preached by John Wilson

● “covenant of works”

○ Critics called this "covenant of works"

■ Ann Hutchinson and John Wheelwright argue against this idea

● John Wheelwright

○ Married to William's sister

○ Along w/ Cotton, a dissenting minister that believed Wilson was preaching a "covenant of works"

○ Striving after grace = sign grace has not been granted

● 5th Commandment

○ Ann is repeatedly accused of violating this during her trial

○ “Honor thy father and thy mother”

○ Not respecting those she owes deference to in society

● Roger Williams

○ Puritan Dissenter

○ Believes clergy in Massachusetts Bay have too much power and too much daith in "good works"

○ Banished in 1635, supposed to be sent back to England, escapes to Narragansett Bay

○ Founds city of Providence (1636)

○ Believed you had to pay Indians for land

○ Separation of Church and State

○ No forced practice of religion, freedom of religion

■ Can try to convert people but by law they can choose

Salem​ ​Witchcraft​ ​Trials(1691-​ ​92) 

● Salem Town vs. Salem Village

○ Salem Town

■ merchants/commerce

■ Outcasts, viewed as sinners

■ wealthier

○ Salem Village

■ Farmers

■ More traditional/conservative

● King William’s War

○ England was at war w/ France as as result of the glorious revolution of 1688 ○ Louis XIV supported James II vs William and Mary

○ French and Native American allies (Wabanaki conference) launch bloody raids on outlying Puritan settlements in Maine and Western Massachusetts

● The Putnam Family

○ From Salem Village

○ In Salem for 3 generations

○ World where status came from piety and owning land

○ See commercial value of Salem Town as a looming threat

○ See Salem Village as last line of defense against evil values

○ Want an official Salem Village Church

■ Church = gathering of people who have been accepted by an ordained minister as “visible saints”

● Deodat Lawson

○ Putnam’s choice for minister of Salem Village

○ Pastor 1684-88, ordained in 1686

○ His ordination causes deep divisions in Salem

■ Opposed by rival family--the Porters

○ Lawson leaves in 1688 due to divisiveness, but asked to return by Putnams in 1692

● World of Signs and Wonder

○ Everything is a sign from G-d

○ Life is not randomly cruel

○ All bad things are punishments and signs you’re failing

● Visible Saints

○ people who were predestined to go to heaven by god

○ had their moment of revelation to which they were able to preach about it ■ called the moment of sanctification

● Samuel Parris

○ Controversial minister who takes over for Lawson in Salem Village in 1688 ○ His complaints further divide a divided village

○ Wants his own house, gold candlesticks, firewood

○ Used to be a businessman in Barbados but fails and becomes a minister ■ Resents commercial success of the colony's merchants

○ Owns 2 "Indian" slaves: Tituba and John

○ 2 girls in the Parris household have the first fits

○ His 9 year old daughter Elizabeth and his 11 year old niece Abigail Williams ○ Doctor (Dr. Griggs) called to their bedside says they were "under an evil hand” ● Tituba

○ Often depicted as a slave of African descent

○ Probably not accurate

○ Described in primary sources as "indian" or "spanish indian" (indians captured by England's Native American allies and enslaved to Spanish colonists)

○ Not described as "negro" until 1867 (while other slaves in Salem were) ○ Same is true of knowledge of voodoo

■ Knows English folk magic from mistress in Barbado

● Witch Cake & Witches’ Familiars

○ Witch cake - cake fed to alleged witch’s presumed familiar to see if she’s a witch ○ Familiar - animal/demon sent by devil to help the witch

■ Supposedly left bite marks on the witch and the afflicted and witch had extra teat to feed the familiar

○ Parris's neighbors Mary Sibley, aunt of one of the afflicted girls, asks Parris's slave Tituba make a witch cake, a cake designed to reveal witches

○ Fed cake to dog, if dog had symptoms= bewitchment or might cause witch pain ● Abigail Williams

○ 11 year old niece of Samuel Parris (parents unknown)

○ One of the first to have “fits” and a primary accuser

○ Accuses 44 people of being witches by the end

● Glorious Revolution of 1688 & John Locke

○ Enlightenment ideas

○ Rationality

○ Questioning “divine right”

○ Associated w/ John Locke

○ This is significant because it means that people are starting to doubt society rules. ○ We were on the verge of enlightenment -> Not actually that long ago! ● Jonathan Corwin & John Hathorne

○ 2 county magistrates who preside over the initial hearings

○ Corwin’s daughter was afflicted and mother in law was accused

■ When mother in law was accused he started to stop believing accusations and told girls they were going too far

○ Hathorne always presumed guilt

■ Encouraged “witches” to confess and name other “witches”

● Court of Oyer and Terminer

○ “To hear and determine”

○ Grand Jury

○ Petit Jury

○ Defendants could call witnesses, offer evidence

○ Still no lawyers allowed

○ For extraordinary situations when regular court system is overwhelmed ○ 6 members of Gov. Phips’ council plus deputy gov. William Stoughton ○ This​ ​was​ ​a​ ​court​ ​specifically​ ​created​ ​for​ ​these​ ​trials

● Role of Lawyers

○ In England, lawyers viewed as corrupt tools of the king

○ Lawyers for hire are hated by people in colonies and are banned

■ Can only represent someone for free

○ Viewed as sinful to change your values for money to represent someone ○ If they had lawyers:

■ Might have blunted pro-prosecutorial stance of the judges

■ Might have stopped unfair questions

● Ex. “Why do you torment these girls?”

■ But spectral evidence is hard to overcome

● Indian Raids

○ January 1692

○ 40 miles North

○ 50 killed, 80 kidnapped in raid in Maine

● Goody Osborne

○ one of the first three women accused of witchcraft (with Tituba and Sara Good)

○ did not regularly attend church,

○ social outcast

● Rebecca Nurse

○ pious/respected

○ accused by Abigail

● Giles Corey

○ refused to participate in trial because didn't want to sully his name or land ■ Didn’t want family to lose rights to land

■ Was older and ok with dying

○ pressed to death

● John Hale

○ pastor

○ originally present at witch trials but later revokes his support of witch hunts ● Spectral evidence

○ Things only the accusers can see

■ Ex. crows flying near the witch, the witch appearing to them with a book ○ Reverend Cotton Mather assures the court this evidence can be trusted ● Touch Test

○ witch poisons victim through eyes

○ if witch touches victim all poison is sucked out and they are healed ● Trial By Ordeal

○ Had to take heated, red hot piece of metal and make accused hold it and walk a certain distance w/ it

○ If after a week the wound was healing they were innocent, if wound is infected they were guilty

● Compurgation

○ Defendant swears oath to swear truth over bible or holy object, warning from clergy of a 1,00 year in purgatory

○ Had to say excessive oath "without slip or trip"

○ Oath helpers (character witnesses) also had to say special oaths perfectly ● Ergot Poisoning

○ Proposed explanation for the witch trials and accusations

○ LSD like hallucinations (tingling, convulsions, hallucination, vomiting, delirium) ○ Caused by wet springs and summers

○ Can be localized to one field and not another

○ But why no where else in NE

○ It wasn’t a wet year

○ Why only young girls?

● Cotton Mather

○ Leading Puritan minister in NE

○ Ins some ways, a man of the enlightenment

■ Interested in science (hybridization, inoculations)

○ But also wrote 1689 book on witchcraft

■ Discussed signs and symptoms of witchcraft

■ Could have been read by accusers and used as guide to fake episodes ● George Burroughs

○ One-time minister, before Deodat Lawson

○ Made mistake of borrowing money from the Putnams and not paying it back ○ Fought in 3 Indian raids and survived

■ Instead of being viewed as favor of G-d, viewed as Devil saving him ○ Accused of leading the Satanic plot

● The Crucible

○ play during era when thousands of americans were being accused of communism ○ Shows the craziness of the trials

The Case of the Amistad (1839- 41) 

● Slave Ship Tecora

○ The slave ship tecora was the boat that many slaves came from Sierra Leone to Cuba on

○ The conditions were horrible

○ had a main deck and lower deck for the slaves

■ was absolutely no space on the deck

○ Contained many different ethnicities

● Amistad

○ July 1839: 53 of Africans on the Tecora are bought by 2 spanish slave-owners and put on small boat the Amistad to the other side of Cuba

○ 49 men, 1 boy, 3 girls

○ At least 25 of captives speak mende

○ In addition to captives, the ship had 3 spanish crewman, an enslaved cook, a slave cabin boy, and the 2 “slaveowners”

● Pedro Montes & Jose Ruiz

○ Montes = 58 year old Cuban businessman

■ Buys most of slaves

○ Ruiz = 24 year old Cuban plantation owner

○ Both had purchased some of the “slaves”, now sailing to their plantations ● Cinque

○ Aka Sengbe Pieh

○ Son of West African Mende Village Leader

○ Around 26 years old

○ Captured by tribesmen of Ley people because of debt he allegedly owed a creditor ○ Credited w/ being one of the leaders of the rebellion

○ Becomes the face of the Mendi people in America during the trial

● Jefferson and Slavery

○ Believes slavery is horrible

○ Believes slavery will ruin democracy

○ Despite this, owns slaves

○ 15% of Washington’s troops were African

● Gradual Emancipation

○ Way to end slavery over time

○ At the age of 18, the children of slaves are free

○ After revolution, Massachusetts & New Hampshire end slavery

○ All other Northern states move to gradual emancipation during 1776-1804 ○ States that implementing these laws are the states w/ the smallest amount of slaves

○ Jefferson’s Version

■ When children born into slavery reach adulthood (18 for females, 21 for males) they become free

■ VA. should pay to educate them in arts, science, farm, husbandry ■ Colonization

● Among point of freedom, these people expatriated from Virginia

and preferably US

○ Prejudice won’t allow them to live with each other

● Article 4, Section 2 (U.S. Constitution)

○ If person escapes a slave state, they do not become free

○ Must be delivered back to the South

● 3/5 Clause

○ in terms of population, slaves counted as 3/5 of a person

● Article 1, Section 9

○ Can’t end international slave trade until 1808

○ They never used the word slavery because they know it’s wrong but they are not ready to give it up yet

● Haitian Revolution

○ 1791-1808

○ At least 200,000 former slaves and free persons of color die. 24,000 white residents

○ At least 50,000 french troops

■ Napoleon had sent troops to fix situation but so many died, he gave up and left

○ French colony of Saint-Domingue becomes the Republic of Haiti

○ While two ruling classes argued, slaves rebelled and won

● Gabriel Prosser

○ literate enslaved blacksmith

■ Reason why slaves were no longer allowed to read/write

○ Prosser had organized 1,000 slaves

○ Flood knocks out the bridges

○ 55 slaves arrested and executed

● Louisiana Purchase

○ 1803

○ $15 million dollars for 828,000 square miles

○ 15 cents an acre

○ Land for yeoman farmers

○ But also slavery and "diffusion"

● 1811 Louisiana Slave Revolt

○ Jan 9-11, 1811

○ Led by Charles Deslondes, a slave from Saint Domingue inspired by the haitian revolution

○ At its height, an estimated 500 slaves armed with knives, hoes, and axes ○ Eventually put down by 400 Louisiana militia men. 60 slaves killed, 75 brought to trial held at Destrehan Plantation. 18 executed

○ 11 slave states, 11 free states

○ Whenever they added a slave state, they also added a free state and vice-versa ● Tallmadge Amendment

○ bill requesting the Territory of Missouri to be admitted to the Union as a free state ○ Says that people can bring slaves with them but no new slaves and when children ● Missouri Compromise

○ Maine comes in as a free state so that Missouri comes in as slave

○ 36-30 line- below is slave and above is free

○ Free gets more land bc they thought midwest was desertland but it wasn’t ● Denmark Vesey

○ Born in Africa, enslaved in Saint Domingue, then Charleston

○ Purchased his own freedom with lottery ticket winnings

○ Read missouri compromise debates

○ Plans rebellion for July 14, 1822 (Bastille Day)

○ Torch Charleston and sail ships to Haiti

○ Plot collapses bc some slaves were in slightly higher status so they revealed the ○ plot so that they could keep their status

○ 131 Trials

○ 72 found guilty of conspiracy

○ 35 hangings

○ 35 exiles

○ Some claim Salem like Hysteria

○ Vesey's action blamed on Tallmadge Northern Radicals

● American Colonization Society

○ Would pay free slaves to expatriate back to Africa

○ Purpose was to show slave owners what they could do to slaves if they free them to avoid a race war

○ Largely a failure, only expatriate 6,700 African Americans after 3 decades ● David Walker’s Appeal

○ most radical of all anti-slavery documents 

○ Walker was a free black originally from the South 

○ goal was to instill pride in its black readers and give hope that change would someday come 

○ spoke out against colonization 

● Nat Turner’s Rebellion

○ Enslaved preacher known to some as “The Prophet”

○ Turner and 70 followers kill over 60 people (every white plantation family they find)

○ Southampton County, VA

○ Proves Clay and Jefferson are right about a slave rebellion

● William Lloyd Garrison

○ Garrison the newspaper publisher is accused of starting the rebellion ■ People believed slaves were happy and wouldn’t rebel on their own ■ Thought Nat Turner managed to learn how to read and got his hand on The Liberator which sparked his rebellion

○ Believed in immediate abolition and moral suasion

■ Pacifist, believed must use morality and truth to stop horrible things ○ First time someone is not sugarcoating it for the slaveowners

■ Called southern slaveholders “maggoty rascals”

■ Told them they’re evil and are working for the devil

■ Will get internal damnation if they don’t change

● Moral Suasion

○ Idea that everyone has good in them

○ Use morality to appeal to the conscience

● Abolitionism

○ Movement to end slavery

● Doctrine of Immediatism

○ Garrison advocated for this

○ No gradual emancipation or colonization

○ Fully integrate AA in society

● Judge Andrew T. Judson

○ Former Congressman

○ Democrat (pro-slavery)

○ Appointed by President Van Buren

○ Part of ACS

○ Deeply opposed abolition

■ Send them to Africa or leave them

○ Rules that property issues and questions of jurisdiction should be formally decided by a federal court

○ US District Attorney appeals to Circuit Court, says ship and alleged slaves should be turned over to Spain

■ Calhoun also believed this

■ Don’t want Americans talking about another slave rebellion

○ Final Ruling: January 13, 1840

■ Mendes are not slaves

■ Mutinied out of desire to be free and return to families

■ Orders US gov’t return them to Africa

■ Cabin boy, Antonio, was a slave and should be returned to master

■ Crew of USS Washington has salvage rights to ship and cargo

● John C. Calhoun

○ Congressman from South Carolina

○ implements gag rules during Congress sessions and censorship of mail to stop the sending of anti-slavery propaganda

○ Believes slavery is a positive good and a perfect system of labor

■ Allows all whites to be equal and devote themselves to the arts

○ Wants to conquer other countries and make a slavery empire

○ Says all the good classic societies had an elite class

○ Claims north is constantly on strike, not an efficient system and is a sign of evil ○ Pressures Van Buren on the Amistad Trial

○ Fears an abolitionist victory

● Elijah Lovejoy

○ White abolitionist and newspaper editor

○ killed in 1837

○ Turning point

○ Indifferent northerners are now getting upset

■ People killed for first amendment rights, censorship of mail

● Lewis Tappen

○ Wealthy abolitionist

○ Forms “friends of the Amistad”

○ Pays for legal defenses for the captives

● “Friends of the Amistad”

○ American supporters of the captives

○ Pay for legal fees of the Amistad Captives

○ Publish pro-detainee flyers and posters

■ Highlight Cinque in the posters and make him a hero of their movement ● Mende Poro Society

○ Secret hierarchy/elite group in mende society

○ Some captives were allegedly high members in this

■ Allowed them to take charge and be respected by other captives

● Roger Baldwin

○ Defense lawyer for the captives

● James Covey

○ Mende translator

○ Sold into slavery in Africa in 1819 at age of 12

○ Was on ship bound for Cuba that was intercepted by a British warship ■ Knows mende and english

○ Joins british navy

○ Arrives in NY in 1839

○ Baldwin went to the port looking for someone who might know mende ○ Major turning point in the case

■ The captives can now openly communicate and tell their story

● Queen Isabella

○ Queen of Spain at the time

○ Tell Van Buren to just order the ships be sent back

■ Doesn’t understand how having separate branches of gov’t work

● Roman Law vs. Common Law

○ Common law - developed in England, judge made law based on precedents ○ Roman law - courts tool to enforce directives of king or queen

○ Codes v Precedent

○ Judges as investigators vs. judges as arbiters

○ Top down v the law of the land

● Pinckney’s Treaty

○ International treaty that included US and Spain to end international slave trade ● John Quincy Adams

○ 73 years old

○ Former president of US

○ Balmed slaveholders for blocking policies

○ Becomes an abolitionist

○ Takes an interest in the Amistad case

○ Calhoun was his VP

○ Asks gov’t papers on case to be opened

○ Tappen and Baldwin recruit him

○ Known for his oratory skills

○ Recruited by Baldwin to orate during the trial on behalf of the captives ● Justice Joseph Story

○ 61 years old from Massachusetts

○ Has spoken out against slavery

○ Says US doesn’t have to pay to send them back to Africa

○ Captives came as free men and are on their own as free men

The Trial of John Brown (1859) 

● Wilmot Proviso

○ resolution to prohibit slavery from going into Mexican Cession (lands captured from Mexico)

○ Debated repeatedly 1846-48, passes House, stalled in Senate

■ Creates giant divisions btwn North and South

● Compromise of 1850

○ California enters as free state

○ Rest of land is divided as territories: New Mexico and Utah (line close to 36 30) ■ One to enter as free and one to enter as slave

○ Slave trade banned in Washington DC

■ Can own slaves, just can’t buy/trade them

○ New, aggressive fugitive slave law

■ Runaway slaves must be captured and returned to owners

● Fugitive Slave Law of 1850

○ Accused could be seized w/out warrant

○ Burden of proof placed on alleged runaways

○ Slave catchers/marshals could deputize bystanders

○ New federal commissioners in every county

○ Jury trials and habeas corpus prohibited

○ Alleged fugitive can’t testify on his/her own behalf

○ No statute of limitations

○ Commissioners paid $5 (wrongly seized) & $10 (runaway slave)

○ In first month of operations, 84 seized AA ruled to be runaway slaves and sent to South, only 5 released

○ During entire decade of 1850’s, only 11 seized prisoners are released ● Christiana Riot

○ September of 1851

○ Lancaster County, PA

○ Maryland posse & US Marshals raid farm owned by free AA William Parker ○ Search for 4 runaways

○ Met by armed black and white abolitionists

○ Maryland Posse member killed

○ Marshalls return w/ 3 detachments of the US Marines to capture alleged fugitive slaves

○ Cong. Thaddeus Stevens serves as defense attorney for first tried: Quaker William Hanway

○ Jury acquits after 15 minute deliberation. Prosecutors drop charges against the rest ○ Jury nullification of unpopular fugitive slave law

● Shadrach Minkins

○ 1851

○ African American

○ Escapes from Norfolk, VA to Boston in 1851

○ Working as waiter, US Marshals pose as customers

○ Freed from courtroom by “Boston Vigilance Committee”

● Anthony Burns

○ Fugitive slave from Virginia, captured in Boston in 1853

○ Abolitionist mob storms the building and US Marshal is killed

○ President Franklin Pierce sends troops

○ Burns sends back into slavery (although freedom is purchased several years later) ● Stephen Douglas & “Popular Sovereignty”

○ Wants to get transcontinental railroad from Chicago to San Francisco ■ Unorganized territory stops him because the slavery debate is stopping the territories from being governed and organized

○ Decides that they need popular sovereignty in the territories

■ People who settled in territories get to vote on slavery

● Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

○ Kansas-Nebraska Bill

■ Repeal Missouri Compromise line

● Infuriates Northerners

■ Create new territories of Nebraska and Kansas

● Jayhawkers

○ Fighters in Kansas for it to be a free state

● Bleeding Kansas

○ The most pro and anti slavery people rush to kansas

○ Mini civil war in Kansas

● Border Ruffians

○ Fighters in kansas for it to be a slave state

● Lecompton Constitution

○ Lecompton legislature, 36 proslavery, 3 antislavery delegates

○ Speaking against slavery became a criminal offense

○ Death penalty for aiding runaway slaves

○ Rigid slave code

○ All voters has to take an oath to uphold the slave codes

○ Competing Legislatures in Kansas

● Pro-slavery Legislature in Lecompton, Kansas

● Free soil legislature in Topeka, Kansas

● “The Sacking of Lawrence”

○ proslavery advocates raid anti-slave town and kill people

● The Caning of Sumner

○ Charles Sumner is a pro-slavery senator

○ Gives 2 day speech on “crimes against kansas”

○ Calls the border ruffians “murderous robbers from Missouri picked from the drunken spew of vomit of an uneasy civilization.”

○ Preston Brooks challenges the honor of Sumner by hitting him over the head w/ a cane

○ Sumner suffered serious neurological damage and was kept out of the Senate ○ South loves the caning

● John Brown

○ Born in CT in 1800

○ Stern Calvinist father who believed “Golden Rule” applied to people of all races. ○ Father taught him slavery was a sin against God.

○ Failed businessman

○ 20 different enterprises (tanner, sheep farmer, wool brokerage, horse breeder, lumber dealer)

○ Personality perhaps too rigid for business

○ Declared bankruptcy at age 42

● John Brown’s “Liberty Guards”

○ anti-slavery militia organized by Brown

○ kill slaveowners and pro-slavery advocates

● Birth of Republican Party

○ Whig party collapsed after Sumner caning

■ Used to be united over other issues, but can’t withstand this

○ Leads to the rise of an all-northern party of free-soil northern Whigs and Dems who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act

○ Birth of Republican Party (1854-55)

● Pottawatomie Creek

○ Mary 24, 1856

○ “Fighting Satan’s legions”

○ “I only have a short time to live-only one death to die, and I will die fighting for this cause. There will be no more peace in this land until slavery is done for.” -John Brown 1856

○ split heads of slave owners to make up for caning of Sumner

● Dred Scott v. Sandford

○ Dred Scott

■ First master (Peter Blow) dies in 1832

■ Sold to John Emerson, Army doctor

■ Emerson takes Scott to Fort Armstrong in Illinois (3.5 years) and then to Fort Snelling in Minnesota Territory (Free state and free territory)

■ There Dred Scott marries Harriet Robinson

■ Move back to St. Louis, Emerson dies in 1846

■ Sons of Peter Blow try to buy Scott but can’t

■ Launch lawsuit

○ Mrs. Sandford (widow of Emerson) sells Scotts to her brother who works in NY ○ Scott tries to buy freedom and when she refuses he sues saying he’s technically a free slave since he’s been living in free territory

○ Sandford files plea of abatement saying Scott doesn’t have standing to sue in federal court

○ African Americans (enslaved or free) cannot sue in federal court as they are not citizens of the United States

○ Congress cannot ban slavery from the territories

○ Violates the 5th Amend.

○ “No person shall...be denied life, liberty, or property​ without due process of law.”

○ Final result is supreme court ruling that slaves are not automatically free when they enter a free state and are property which can’t just be taken from you

● The Secret Six

○ Funded Brown’s raids in secret

● Brown’s “Provisional Constitution”

○ Constitution Brown wrote for his own quasi gov’t

○ Used to prove he was mentally ill

● Ralph Waldo Emerson

○ Tells Brown that his plan seems a bit too violent and far-fetched

○ Brown responds that it's better that everyone be swept in a violent death than slavery continue

● Frederick Douglass

○ Has secret meeting w/Brown in a rock quarry in Chambersburg, PA August 1859 ○ Brown wants Douglass to help gather the slaves support

○ Douglass refuses saying it’s a bad idea and too dangerous

● Colonel Lewis Washington

○ Nephew of George Washington

○ Is a prominent member of the town Brown is attacking

○ Taken as hostage along with 2 neighbors by Brown’s men

● Dangerfield Newby

○ First of Brown’s men to die at Harper’s Ferry

○ African american

● Governor Henry Wise

○ Insists on state court trial, feared federal courts wouldn’t execute him

○ “I told officers of the US that they might have the bodies of prisoners after the VA tribunals are done with them”

○ President Buchanan is pro-slavery so he agrees

● Virginia’s Treason Statute

○ levying war against state

○ Adhering, aiding, comforting enemies

○ Establishing w/out authority a gov’t separate from the gov’t

■ What Brown is guilty of

○ Punishment = death by hanging

● Samuel Chilton

○ Brown's second defense attorney hired by abolitionists at last minute

● Barclay Coppoc

○ one of Brown's supporters, took refuge in Iowa

● Article 4, Section 2

○ fugitives may be sent back to the state from which they flee

The Lincoln Assassination Trials (1865) Will be part of the final exam.

Essay​ ​Portion:​ ​For​ ​the​ ​essay​ ​portion​ ​(40​ ​points),​ ​you​ ​will​ ​have​ ​the​ ​choice​ ​to​ ​write​ ​one​ ​of two​ ​essay​ ​questions.​ ​You​ ​will​ ​want​ ​to​ ​use​ ​the​ ​essay​ ​to​ ​show​ ​of​ ​what​ ​you​ ​know​ ​(including​ ​as many​ ​specific​ ​details​ ​as​ ​you​ ​can).​ ​As​ ​you​ ​study​ ​for​ ​this​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​exam,​ ​please​ ​keep​ ​the following​ ​questions​ ​in​ ​mind:

1. How did each trial reflect what was happening in American history at the time? a. Reflect the main controversy of the times

b. Shows the biases society had

2. Why were each of these trials so well known when they occurred?

a. Very controversial trials

b. Reflected the main issue in society so people were invested

c. Involved a lot of people

d. Depended on the trial. In the case of the Salem Witch Trials, it was because so many people were being accused. In the case of the Amistad Rebellion a lot of this can be attributed to the effort to specifically spread the word about these trials.

3. Did historical events outside the courtroom shape what went on inside the courtroom? a. Yes, many events shaped what went on inside the courtroom from wars to treaties and books

4. Was justice served in each of these trials? Were the outcomes fair? If so, why? If not, why not? Do you think that in any of the trials the gender, race, or political affiliations of the defendants affected the outcome?

a. Justice was not served in most of these trials

b. Witch trials were clearly ways of getting revenge on people you didn’t like and accepted spectral evidence which was unfair; city affiliations (town vs village) definitely played into the justice at first

c. Ann Hutchinson trial was unjust because she was a woman and she spoke out against the ministers who were in essence the law

d. Amistad trials got justice in the end, but in the beginning were unjust b/c of race e. John brown trials were not just in the sense that the outcome was predetermined b/c of his political views on slavery

5. Why do you think we remember these trials today?

1. Show us how unjust our laws can be

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