Be sure to have read the chapters for this section. I have compiled definitions for many terms you need to know as well as listed some subterms. There are also concepts to understand in order to be successful on the test.
1 Microevolution: evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period.
Macroevolution: major evolutionary change. The term applies mainly to the evolution of whole taxonomic groups over long periods of time.
Allele frequencies: a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. In population genetics, allele frequencies show the genetic diversity of a species population or equivalently the richness of its gene pool.
Cline: a gradation in one or more characteristics within a species or other taxon, especially between different populations.
gene pool: the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population.
Equilibrium: a state of rest or balance due to the equal action of opposing forces Static: lacking in movement, action, or change
Speciation: the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution. Anthropogenic: originating in human activity. If you want to learn more check out How does the second law of thermodynamics relate to spontaneous process?
Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
Balanced polymorphism: a situation in which two different versions of a gene are maintained in a population of organisms because individuals carrying both versions are better able to survive than those who have two copies of either version alone.
deme: a subdivision of a population consisting of closely related plants, animals, or people, typically breeding mainly within the group.
reproductive isolation: The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation. They prevent members of different species from producing offspring, or ensure that any offspring are sterile.
endogamous /exogamous: Endogamy is when one marries someone within one's own group. Exogamy is when one marries someone outside one's own group.
Norwegians only married other Norwegians; "community endogamy" would mean that one only married other members of one's community. We also discuss several other topics like Which criminologist believed that criminals could be identified by observing the physical traits of offenders?
Don't forget about the age old question of How many people does each legislator represent?
The organizational advantage of endogamy is that few outsiders are brought into the group. HardyWeinberg Equilibrium p+q=1 / (p+q)2 =1
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
The seven assumptions underlying Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium are as follows: 2 organisms are diploid.
3 only sexual reproduction occurs.
4 generations are nonoverlapping.
5 mating is random.
6 population size is infinitely large.
7 allele frequencies are equal in the sexes.
there is no migration, mutation or selection.
Mechanisms can act simultaneously and provide examples of each
know mutation types
mutagens an agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, that causes genetic mutation.
Gene Flow: In population genetics, gene flow is the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another.
admixture increase within pop variation
migration decrease between pop variation We also discuss several other topics like What is cestoda?
Genetic Drift Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution in which allele frequencies of a population change over generations due to chance (sampling error). Genetic drift occurs in all populations of noninfinite size, but its effects are strongest in small populations. Bottleneck a point of congestion or blockage, in particular. increase between pop variation
Founder effect decrease within pop variation In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Natural Selection acts on variation and fitness
Remember moth wing color (melanin) case
Know how each Directional selection works and what it is and how they act on pop variation (with and between)
Stabilizing selection, Disruptive selection, Positive / negative selection
Know relationship between terms: Malaria hemoglobinopathies hemolytic anemias abnormal hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia If you want to learn more check out Define limiting reactant.
G6PD A condition causing red blood cells to break down in response to certain medications, infections, or other stressors.
Huntingdon’s An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time. Klinefelter’s syndrome A genetic condition in which a male is born with an extra copy of the X chromosome
thalassemia A blood disorder involving less than normal amounts of an oxygencarrying protein. longterm (genetic)
shortterm (functional adaptation)
Stressors A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism. An event that triggers the stress response may include: environmental stressors If you want to learn more check out What are the personality traits that increase with age?
Homeostasis the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
acclimatization the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
Homeothermic is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment
vasodilation the dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.
Vasoconstriction the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. –hypothermia Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. ... Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest.
Bergmann’s rule Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Allen’s rule The principle holding that in a warmblooded animal species having distinct geographic populations, the limbs, ears, and other appendages of the animals living in cold climates tend to be shorter than in animals of the same species living in warm climates. Wolff’s Law states that bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads under which it is placed.
Micronutrients: The microminerals or trace elements include at least iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc and molybdenum. Micronutrients also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required as nutrients in trace amounts.
Macronutrients: Find general resources on carbohydrates, proteins, fats and cholesterol, fiber, and water below.
nutrition transition: Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes.
Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism
hypercholesterolemia High amounts of cholesterol in the blood.
type 2 diabetes A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar Growth stages prenatal stage postnatal stage adult stage
growth velocity is a variable derived from the measurement at different times during a fixed period.
Know the difference between Longitudinal / Crosssectional dentition
Deciduous Aging This system static shedding of deciduous teeth is used to “age” Senescence the condition or process of deterioration with age.
Menopause A natural decline in reproductive hormones when a woman reaches her 40s or 50s.
the intrauterine environment is critical for the development of brain, adipose, and muscle tissue since differentiation and replication chiefly occur during limited periods of development.
The secular trend in development is the fact that puberty is starting earlier for boys and girls now than it did a hundred years ago.
Osteoporosis A condition in which bones become weak and brittle.
Understand the process of UV radiation Pigmentation and its relationship with folate protection High altitude adaptation hypoxia deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues. Know genetic environmental effect formula Fst P=G+E
Adaptations to the environment (Genetic) Relationships: Developmental (during childhood) Physiological (acclimatization) Behavioral (culture)
Know the elements discussed in class Teeth, Cranium, Pelvis, Limbs,
Osteology terms and subtopics: Vertebrae, Diaphysis, epiphysis nonmineralized rigidity, hyaline cartilage synovial fluid, muscle, ligament sagittal crest, temporal muscle, line skull, skull sutures, Cormic Index, Cephalic Index, Nose Index, Cranial capacity
Gloger’s rule: is an ecogeographical rule which states that within a species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments Rensch’s rule: is a biological rule on allometrics, concerning the relationship between the extent of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and which sex is larger. Thompson’s rule: He is best remembered for his formulation of Thomson's Nose Rule, which states that ethnic groups originating in cold, arid climates tend to have longer and thinner noses, while the noses of those from warm, humid climates tend to be shorter and thicker. Remember Examples from class Ancient Eleon and MS State Asylum
Forensic Anthropology Biological Profile Is a summary of the essential biological information regarding an individual. It generally includes estimates of age, sex, stature, and ancestry.
Be familiar with FACTS