CHAPTER 5: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: the observational study of change and continuity of an individual throughout their lifetime
● The brain is the first major organ to develop
● Next, is the heart, which develops a week later
STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
1. GERMINAL STAGE: Starts at conception and lasts for two weeks. The fertilized egg is considered to be a zygote (a single-cell organism). This zygote starts to split quickly about 36 hours after conception.
2. EMBRYONIC STAGE: This stage begins when the fertilized egg becomes successfully implanted in the uterine wall (around 2 weeks after conception).The group of cells is now considered to be an embryo. In this stage, all the major organs are developed. This stage lasts until 8 weeks after conception.
3. FETAL STAGE: This stage moves neurons from one part of the brain to their permanent locations. Bone cells begin to form. The fetus’ heartbeat can be detected between 8-12 weeks after conception. The organs grow and develop as the body quickly grows.
FETAL BRAIN AND SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
● NEURAL MIGRATION: occurs during the first 3-5 months of pregnancy. Neurons move from one part of the brain to their permanent locations. Don't forget about the age old question of chemistry 1 midterm study guide
● Mothers can feel movement of the fetus around 16 weeks of pregnancy ○ Male fetuses are more active in the woman that female fetuses ● Fetus responds to sounds around 26 weeks after conception, they begin to recognize voices. This is because the neurons that connect the ear to the brain are finished developing at 18 weeks.
● When a fetus is born, the sense that is least developed is vision, therefore babies cannot see clearly unless the object is close to their face. By 6 months old, their vision has developed fully.
NATURE + NURTURE INFLUENCES
● PRENATAL PROGRAMMING: when events in the womb change the growth and development of physical and psychological health.
○ TERATOGENS: substances that can cause damage to the fetus. It interferes with regular prenatal development and can cause permanent
damage and lifelong issues. Includes viruses, like measles and the flu, alcohol, nicotine, prescription drugs and radiation.
■ FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER (FASD): caused by exposure to alcohol in the womb. It creates damage in the brain
and CNS, mental retardation, behavioral problems and physical
■ SMOKING: when a pregnant mother smokes, it interferes with the oxygen to the fetus, which leads to premature babies and an
increased risk of stillbirth.
● “Morning sickness” is there to keep the fetus safe, it detects and removes toxins from the mother’s body. It especially occurs during the first 3 months of pregnancy and is more common with foods that are susceptible to molds. Don't forget about the age old question of bedside wab
● Personality is based off of temperament.
○ TEMPERAMENT: the genetic tendency to act a certain way from early in life
INFANT + CHILD DEVELOPMENT
● FINE MOTOR SKILLS: Developed in infants and children. It is the coordination of information from the eyes and many small muscles, used for drawing and using utensils.
● Since vision is not fully developed at birth, experience is very important its development. The occipital cortex has to be stimulated by visual information in order for it to develop the needed synaptic connections that process visual information.
● GIBSON AND WALK (1960): a study to determine whether infants who can crawl can see 3 dimensionally.
○ Created a visual cliff to determine the depth perception of babies. ○ They used clear plexiglass on one end of the crawl area to create the illusion of a steep drop off, the mother of the infant stood on the other side of this fake cliff and called the baby towards her. We also discuss several other topics like uic msw
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○ Babies stopped crawling when they reached the “cliff”.
● Learning and experiences strengthen synaptic connections
● PRUNING: Synaptic connections that don’t become strengthened “die off”, it is the removal of unimportant information, thus creating a more efficient brain ○ Vital for normal brain development
○ Problems with pruning results in neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.
● The quality of the environment one is raised in impacts how well our brains develop.
● ROMANIAN ORPHANAGE STUDY: there were too many babies in the orphanages in Romania, so babies were confined to cribs, which resulted in less brain activity and smaller brain size. These deficits can be fixed if the child is removed from that environment, but the longer they stay the less likely they are to overcome it.
● JEAN PIAGET’S (1954) 4 PHASES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: ○ SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: (ages 0-2), when infants use their senses and moving their bodies to learn about the world.
■ OBJECT PERMANENCE: (4-9 months) understanding that objects still exist when they are not being sensed.
○ PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: (ages 2-5) the development of “symbolic thought”, which is when they are able to use symbols (words, letters, pictures) to represent ideas and objects. If you want to learn more check out haidy kamel
■ ANIMISTIC THINKING: believing that inanimate objects are alive ■ EGOCENTRISM: when one sees the world solely from its own perspective
○ CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE: (age 6-11), the child can perform mental operations but still struggle with abstract ideas and reasoning. ○ FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE: (11-adulthood), the child receives the ability to reason and understand abstract ideas and problems.
● LEV VYGOTSKY (1978): developed a more social belief of cognitive development than Piaget.
○ He believed that other people can affect what we learn.
○ ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT: the difference between what a child can learn by itself and what a child can learn when helped by an adult.
DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING
● Lawrence Kohlberg (1981): studied the development of moral reasoning by giving children and adults a moral dilemma and recording their responses through the HIENZ DILEMMA
○ KOHLBERG’S 3 STAGE THEORY:
■ PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL: least developed level, the
reasoning behind their answer is based on avoiding punishment,
judgements are based off of needs.
■ CONVENTIONAL LEVEL: the person emphasizes caring, trust, and relationships (social order), and following laws. Judgement is
based of the needs of a group or society.
■ POST CONVENTIONAL LEVEL: believes that there are universal moral rules that may overrule unfair local rules
INFANT PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Don't forget about the age old question of for two individuals who engage in the same two productive activities, it is impossible for one of the two individuals to
● ALEXANDER THOMAS + STELLA CHASE: created a widely accepted model of temperament (3 categories)
○ EASY CHILD: 40% of children. They are predictable, happy, adaptable. ○ DIFFICULT CHILD: 10% of children. They are unpredictable, unhappy, and slow to adapt
○ SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILD: somewhat intense reactions, somewhat irregular/unpredictable.
● ATTACHMENT: strong emotional bond that develops between an infant and its caregiver
● JOHN BOWLBY: psychologist, described the process of attachment and the emotional distress that happens when the infant and caregiver are separated. ○ SEPARATION ANXIETY: the distress reaction of infants (around 9 months old) when they become separated from their caregiver. Order of reaction: protest, despair, then detachment.
○ ATTACHMENT THEORY:
■ With a reliable caregiver, the child can gain confidence and security in exploring the world
■ Infants use this bonding relationship which therefore provides a model for their future friendships
● MARY AINSWORTH:
○ “Strange Situation” study of babies and mothers
○ 4 types of attachment, 1 secure and 3 insecure.
■ Babies who are securely attached to their caregiver might be
distressed when separated. They will start contact with parents
after separation and can go back to playing. This includes about
65% of infants.
■ INSECURE AVOIDANT: appears to not be distressed during
separation, when the mother returns the baby ignores and avoids
■ INSECURE-RESISTANT: cannot be comforted, even by the mother when she returns. They have difficulty returning to play
■ INSECURE-DISORGANIZED/ DISORIENTED: shows conflicted behavior. Kids have been mistreated or abused are more likely to
IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL CONTACT
● HARRY HARLOW: studied baby monkeys that they separated from their mothers, they were placed in an area with two “mock” mothers, one was wire and the other was wood covered in fabric, even when the wire mother had the bottle (food), monkeys still tended to choose the fabric one over the wire one that would provide food for them. Thus proving that affection is as important as the need for nutrition.
FORMING RELATIONSHIPS AND EMOTIONS
● SOCIAL REFERENCING: being able to sense and use social and emotional information from another person(caregiver) in an uncertain situation ● EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE: occurs around age 9, the ability to control one’s emotions and to understand when it is acceptable to express certain emotions ● PEER INTERACTION: children begin to play socially around age 3 ○ Peers begin to have more influence on the child than parents
○ Children naturally tend to like playing with the same gender
3 TYPES OF TEMPERAMENT:
● WELL ADJUSTED
● UNDERCONTROLLED: children who were impulsive and had a temper, end up being thrill seekers, aggressive, hostile, more likely to have alcohol abuse. ● INHIBITED: avoid risk or harm, more likely to have depression, more likely to attempt suicide and be controlled by others.
● The transition from childhood and leads to adulthood.
● Begins at age 11, ends at 18
● Puberty, menarche and spermarche
● Sex glands called gonads develop (testes and ovaries)
● Reasoning ability, critical thinking and abstract thinking develop and improve ● These developments of the brain mainly due to the dramatic brain development of the frontal lobes (controls planning, attention, memory, impulse control, etc) ● Synaptic pruning reaches its final stages
● Increase of GABAergic receptors in the hippocampus, which is linked to impairment of learning and is blamed for the risky behaviors of teens
ERIK ERIKSON created 8 stage model of personality development, each having an individual identity crisis that has to be overcome in that stage
1. INFANCY: basic trust vs basic mistrust
2. EARLY CHILDHOOD
3. PLAY AGE
4. SCHOOL AGE
6. YOUNG ADULTHOOD
8. OLD AGE
● BEGINNING ADULTHOOD
○ Establish career and sexual identity
● MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
○ Begin to have loss of hearing or vision
■ 3 biggest predictors of hearing loss are age, gender and profession ○ INDIVIDUATION: when a person’s personality has become fully developed
● LATE ADULTHOOD
○ FLUID INTELLIGENCE: knowledge that applies to pattern recognition and abstract thinking that can be applied to a situation or problem that they have never had before.
○ CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: the type of knowledge that is gained from experience, education and practice.
○ Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Death
CHAPTER 6: CONSCIOUSNESS
● CONSCIOUSNESS: awareness of surroundings and your own thoughts and feelings in a current moment
● WAKEFULNESS: being alert or the extent to which a person is alert and aware (the amount of energy you have)
● AWARENESS: the recognition and processing of your environment and your own thoughts
○ This is the reason you can hear and be woken up by your alarm even though you are asleep
● COMA: a conscious state, but the eyes are closed and the person is unresponsive.
○ Mainly due to illness or brain injuries
○ Glascow Coma Scale is used to determine severity of the coma ● VEGETATIVE STATE: a state of wakefulness without awareness. The person is unresponsive, even if the eyes are open and they are awake.
● MINIMALLY CONSCIOUS STATE: a person is barely conscious but can do some deliberate movements.
○ Example: they can follow a person’s movement with their eyes
● MODERATE CONSCIOUSNESS: the person has lots of mental activity ○ Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
○ Freud called this state of consciousness, “preconscious”, because it has information that is potentially accessible but isn’t available to their
○ This is where sleeping and dreaming occur
● FULL CONSCIOUSNESS: most alert and attentive stage, but still have fluctuations of alertness
○ FLOW: when someone engages in an activity that they enjoy to the point of losing track of time
○ MINDFULNESS: in the state of full consciousness, the individual has a heightened awareness of the moment occurring, allowing them to absorb information around them in a more detailed way.
● 3 attentional processes: selective, sustained, and shifting attention ● SELECTIVE ATTENTION: narrowly focusing attention, filtering out unwanted information from the environment to focus on a specific thing
○ COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT: the ability to turn unwanted noise into background noise, but being able to refocus on that noise when hearing your name
○ PERCEPTUAL LOAD MODEL: represents the limited amount of space in our attention
■ EXAMPLE: turning down the music in your car when trying to find your destination
○ INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS: focusing closely on one thing to an extent that it blinds us from other surroundings
● SUSTAINED ATTENTION: the ability to stay focused on a target, especially for longer periods of time.
○ CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE TEST: determines how long we can focus on one thing (adult average is about 15 minutes)
● SHIFTING ATTENTION/ MULTITASKING: switching attention between multiple things that require your attention
● MEDITATION: practices that people use to calm their mind, concentrate, and focus attention.
● MINDFULNESS MEDITATION: enhances overall health, reduces stress, helps with the management of depression, and improves physical health. It encourages focus of attention on the details of your thoughts, feelings and sensations that are currently being felt.
SLEEPING AND DREAMING
● CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: a 24 hour cycle that regularly switches between sleepiness and alertness (wake and sleep cycle).
○ 3 bodily functions that change on a circadian cycle (body temp is higher before bed and lowers during sleep)
○ Light hits the eyes which triggers the pineal gland to produce more or less melatonin to wake us up or make us tired.
○ The suprachiasmatic nucleus creates these cycles. It is located in the hypothalamus, which has an internal timekeeper.
● BETA WAVES: energy waves produced when we are awake, brain activity that is rapid, low energy waves
● ALPHA WAVES: relaxed or drowsy awakeness; slower, higher energy waves REM sleep: (Rapid Eye Movements) the deepest sleep, where most vivid dreams occur. non-REM: characterized by fewer eye movements during sleep, it is the 2nd major type of sleep. 3 Stages of non-REM sleep:
1. THETA WAVES are present (slow, low energy waves)
2. Begins about 5-7 minutes after stage 1 begins. Theta waves occur but with periods of quicker, higher energy waves included (k-complexes).
3. Consists of theta waves and high-energy delta waves. More delta waves become present the longer in Stage 3. After this stage is complete, you fall into REM sleep.
● These cycles through the different stages lasts about 90 minutes, but they get longer the longer you sleep
● non-REM dreams are less detailed than REM dreams
● SLEEP OVER A LIFETIME:
○ Infants spend the most time in REM sleep, so scientists believe that REM sleep helps with brain development and growth
○ REM sleep decreases over the lifetime
WHY IS SLEEP IMPORTANT?
● It helps with restorative processes, growth and development, repairing damages to the body (that’s why you sleep more when you are sick)
● It helps us remember what we have learned better because it absorbs and solidifies newly learned information
● SLEEP DEBT: representation of the amount of sleep we owe our bodies. You have to “pay it back” when you don’t get enough sleep
● Sleep deprivation can cause mental health deterioration
● INSOMNIA: taking more than 20 minutes to fall asleep, not being able to stay asleep or not feeling rested after sleep. Has to go on for more than 2 weeks. ● SLEEPWALKING: when a person performs regular daytime activities in their sleep, happens during non-REM sleep
● NARCOLEPSY: a genetic condition when people cannot stop themselves from falling asleep randomly
● HYPERSOMNIA: when a person sleeps 10+ hours a day for more than 2 weeks. The person has strong urges to nap randomly throughout the day, especially when bored.
● NIGHT TERRORS: mainly occurs in children. The person speaks in their sleep and thrashes in their sleep. NOT nightmares.
● COGNITIVE MEANING: lucid dreaming, developed ability to be able to be aware that you are dreaming and have more control over their dreams
● Can be used as therapy, pain relief when giving birth, dental procedures, and surgeries.
● Aids in treating addictions, phobias, and anxiety
STROOP EFFECT: tests visual selective attention, when colors of words are different than their meaning, it creates a delay in processing and answering.
● PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: drugs that produce changes in consciousness or reality
● ALCOHOL: most popular, drinking over a long time shrinks the brain ● SEDATIVES
● Activate nervous system
● Caffeine and nicotine are the only legal stimulants
● Nicotine addiction is harder to quit than heroin, unpleasant withdrawals ● COCAINE
CHAPTER 7: MEMORY
● HYPERTHYMESTIC SYNDROME: the ability to remember every single day of your life
3 TYPES OF MEMORY
● SENSORY MEMORY: holds information for a small period of time (a couple of seconds)
○ Smell, taste, touch, see, and hear experiences/memories
○ Created from the quick trace of a sensation left by the firing of sensory neurons from the brain
○ ICONIC MEMORY: a quick visual record left on the retina of the eye ○ ECHOIC MEMORY: the short term record of sounds
● SHORT TERM MEMORY: An area of memory used to store information required to work on a current problem. It temporarily stores a limited amount of information before it gets transferred to long term storage or is forgotten.
○ SERIAL POSITION EFFECT: people are better able to remember items at the beginning and end of a list of items, they tend to forget the items in the middle
■ PRIMACY EFFECT: the tendency to remember items at the
beginning of the list
■ RECENCY EFFECT: the tendency to remember items at the end of a list
○ SHORT TERM MEMORY CAPACITY: can hold between 5-9 units of letters, numbers, or chunks of information.
■ CHUNKING: useful tip for memory, where you group certain of pieces of information together into chunks to make it easier to
HOW SHORT TERM MEMORY WORKS:
➔ Alan Baddeley suggested that our memory has 3 distinct processes: attending to a stimulus, storing information about the stimulus, and rehearsing the stored process in order to help solve a problem.
◆ The central executive decides where to focus attention
● LONG TERM MEMORY: can store a large amount of information for as little as 30 seconds up to a lifetime.
○ It is the most complex form of memory
● IMPLICIT MEMORY: made up of knowledge based on previous experiences, these memories are skills that we can perform automatically once we have learned them
○ Examples: riding a bike, simple math, etc
○ PROCEDURAL MEMORY: knowledge we have for any behavior or skill we learn
■ Example: tying a shoe, playing golf
○ PRIMING: when remembering/ recalling is improved by prior
exposure to the same stimuli
● EXPLICIT MEMORY: the purposeful accessing of facts and events (declarative memory).
○ SEMANTIC MEMORY: memory of facts and knowledge
○ EPISODIC MEMORY: memory for the experiences we have had. More personal than semantic memories.
● STAGES OF LONG TERM MEMORY:
○ ENCODING: when the brain attends to and integrates new
■ AUTOMATIC PROCESSING: happens with little conscious
effort to the task. Not processed as deeply and less likely to
be remembered. (Example: what you ate for breakfast)
■ EFFORTFUL PROCESSING: when we put conscious effort
into remembering something. Usually involves the rehearsal
of the information.
○ CONSOLIDATION: solidifying a memory
■ Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation
○ STORAGE: the retention of memory over time
■ HIERARCHIES: organizes information from the most specific
feature the memories have in common to the most general
■ SCHEMAS: develops from our experiences with certain
people, objects, and events. It tells us how things are most
likely to look or act which helps us organize our experiences
■ ASSOCIATIVE NETWORK: association between related
ideas. Each idea in a network is called a node.
○ RETRIEVAL: the recalling of information stored in long term
PREFRONTAL CORTEX:the frontmost region of the frontal lobes. It is important for attention, social behavior, impulse control, and memory.
NEURAL BASIS OF MEMORY
● (LTP) LONG TERM POTENTIAL: concept from Donald Hebb, when synaptic connections are strengthened because a synapse of one neuron fires repeatedly which excites another neuron. The more these synapse fire together, the stronger the bond between them becomes
○ Cells that fire together, wire together
SENSORY MEMORY SYSTEM
● Sensory neurons carry information about stimuli in our environment from our sense organs to the brain.
● The sensation is transferred to the thalamus, then it is relayed to the cerebral cortex
● 3 out of 5 sensory systems have a specific sensory cortex for that sensory stimuli.
○ The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobes
○ The auditory cortex is in the temporal lobes
○ The somatosensory cortex (touch) is in the parietal lobes
Short term memory is mainly located in the hippocampus
EMOTION AND MEMORY
● Emotional memories are easier to remember than factual ones
● Emotions help us retrieve and process memories
● Important emotional structures for memory: amygdala and the hippocampus ● There is positive bias in autobiographical memory recall, meaning that when people look back on their lives they are more likely to recall the positive memories rather than the negative ones.
● FLASHBULB MEMORIES: highly emotionally charged events. (9/11 terrorist attack)
FORGETTING AND MEMORY LOSS
● INTERFERENCE: a way we forget, occurs when other information competes with the information we are trying to remember
○ PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE: when previously learned information interferes with learning new information
● BLOCKING: being unable to recall information that was once stored in memories. ○ Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
● SUGGESTIBILITY: when memories are put in our minds based on questions, comments, or suggestions by another person
MEMORY LOSS DISEASES
● AMNESIA: memory loss due to a brain injury or disease
● ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA: being unable to to remember the events and experiences that happen after the injury or the disease. People with this condition cannot make new long term memories.
● RETROGRADE AMNESIA: being unable to remember events or experiences that happened before the disease/injury.
● ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: a form of age related memory loss, a brain disease. ● CLIVE WEARING: got an illness that ruined the hippocampus, could not put short term memories into long term memory. Could only remember things for a couple of minutes.
CHAPTER 8: LEARNING
● ASSOCIATION: when a piece of information from the environment is linked many times with another, so the organism starts to connect the two pieces of information. (method that helps with learning)
CONDITIONING MODELS OF LEARNING
● CONDITIONING: a type of associative learning where a behavior becomes more likely because the organism links that behavior with certain things in its environment ● CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
○ Learning happens when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus to which the learner has an automatic response
■ PAVLOV’S DOGS: study done by Ivan Pavlov, studying digestion in dogs and realized that dogs began to salivate before even being fed, just by
being able to smell the food. He then began to use a bell before feeding
them and then found that even on times when he didn’t have food, if he
rang the bell the dogs would salivate
○ CONDITIONED STIMULUS: a neutral stimulus that becomes conditioned when the organisms learns to perform when presented with only the conditioned stimulus.
○ UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS: unlearned stimulus
○ CONDITIONED RESPONSE: a behavior that one learns to perform when they have been presented with only the conditioned stimulus.
○ In order to get a stimulus response in conditioning there has to be multiple pairings of the same two things and both the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus must be presented very close together in time
○ STIMULUS GENERALIZATION: when there is an association between the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus to a variety of similar stimuli.
■ Example: hating chocolate donuts and also hating other types of donuts as well, just because the chocolate ones make you sick
○ STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION: when a conditioned response only happens to the exact stimulus that it was conditioned to.
○ EXTINCTION: when a conditioned response becomes weak and disappears, however it is never truly eliminated only repressed
○ SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: the reappearance of an extinguished response
○ “LITTLE ALBERT”: a baby that was conditioned to fear of white rats and anything white and furry by pairing seeing a white rat with a loud noise
● OPERANT CONDITIONING:
○ Edward Thorndike: found that rewarding consequences makes a spontaneous behavior more likely to happen again
■ LAW OF EFFECT: the consequences of a behavior increase/decrease the likelihood that the behavior will happen again
○ OPERANT CONDITIONING: modifying a behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior.
● PRIMARY REINFORCER: not learned. It often satisfies biological needs. ○ Food, water and sex.
● SECONDARY REINFORCER: conditioned, includes money, grades, and approval from peers.
○ Learned by association
● NEGATIVE REINFORCERS: increase desired behaviors through a negative stimulant ○ Example: the care beeping loudly to remind you to put your seatbelt on PUNISHMENT
● POSITIVE PUNISHMENT: adding a stimulus to decrease a behavior
● NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT: decreases behavior by removing a desirable stimulus
SKINNER BOX: Skinner, a scientist, created a cage for a rat and a lever to press that would deliver food as a reinforcer and the floor can shock it as punishment. The rats learn that part of the floor.
SHAPING: gradual reinforcement of behaviors that come closer to the desired target behavior, in order to produce the desired target behavior.
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT: patterns of reinforcement characterized by whether reinforcement occurs after a set number of responses or after a certain amount of time ● Continuous Reinforcement vs Intermittent: intermittent produces stronger responses than continuous
● FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE: reinforcement follows a set number of responses ● VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE: the # of responses needed for reinforcement depends, it produces a steady rate of response because the individual is not sure when they will receive the reinforcement
● Example: slot machine
● FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE: reinforcement always happens after a set amount of time. Produces a pattern
● VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE: the first response is reinforced after different durations of time has passed
3 TYPES OF RESEARCH THAT CHALLENGE CONDITIONING
1. CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION: learned avoidance of a certain taste after having nausea about the same time as eating the food, only requires a brief pairing 2. INSTINCTIVE DRIFT: learned behavior shifts towards instinctive tendencies 3. LATENT LEARNING: learning that happens in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs
● MODELING: imitation of behaviors performed by others (copying)
● SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: the kind of learning that happens when we model and imitate the behavior of others
● ENACTIVE LEARNING: learning by doing
● OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING: learning by watching