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UGA - PSYC 1101 - PSYC Test 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UGA - PSYC 1101 - PSYC Test 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image PSYC Test 2 Study Guide
1. Acquisition of skills, knowledge, or response
2. Experience (DO or ID)
3. Change occurs and is relative
Types of learning- 1. Habituation- reflexive response to a stimulus
2. Classical of Pavlovian Conditioning- learning that one stimulus goes 
with another stimulus 3. Operant conditioning- learning that a response goes with a stimulus
4. Insight learning
5. Observational learning
Habituation- reflexive response to a stimulus  If a stimulus is presented repeatedly for some reflex, responses  diminish in intensity Reaction to drugs- Tolerance; as you use substances more and 
more, you need more and more substance in order to produce an
effect, or your response is not as strong (novel stimuli becoming 
Ex: new alarm clock, continued graphic violence increase in 
Some stimuli don’t habituate- air puff and kicking from hammer
Reflexes Reflex- unlearned link between stimulus and response 
Ex: air puff- causes blink
       Hammer on knee- kick
       Loud noise- startle
       Novel stimulus- draw more attention
Classical Conditioning Pavlov Classic Experiment Wasn’t psychologist, was a gastric physiologist wanting to 
research the salivation of dogs
Phases 1-3 of conditioning
1. Ring bell, provide food separately
2. Present bell followed immediately by food
3. Ringing bell, resulting in salivation
New links are created in the brain, resulting in new reflexes.
A natural stimulus produces a response when paired with a stimulus 
that always produces a reaction.
US- Unconditioned stimulus- thing that naturally causes a response 
without conditioning UR- Unconditioned response- the response that 
occurs naturally based on stimulus 
background image CS- Conditioned stimulus- neutral stimulus that will be paired with  stimulus CR- Conditioned response responding to neutral stimulus based on  pairing with US
Reflex-stimulus response (unlearned/unconditioned)
Ex: salivate (UR) around food (US) Learned reflex- stimulus response link requiring conditioning and learning Ex: bell (CS) causes salivation (CR) in dogs B.F. Skinner- Operant conditioning Pigeon and the red light (when it pecks the light, it gets food)
neutral stimulus----conditioned response 
The reinforcement depends on response/ small procedural difference 
compared to Classical conditioning makes all the difference.
The Common Principle- the cat with lever in the box experiment Edward Thorndike- The law of effect- gradually learning (cause-and-
effect) a little more likely to behave in a certain way due to receiving a 
reinforce after behavior
Remember extinction and spontaneous recovery from last exam Acquisition- beginning stage of pairing stimulus with unconditioned stimulus 
Extinction (CS)- just the CS with no CR, starts to have no effect
Spontaneous recovery (CS alone)- stimulus pairing happens again and CR 
occurs again
Stimulus Generalization- if you’re classically conditioned, similar stimulus will
produce similar response 
Stimulus Discrimination- can tell if stimulus is very different and will not 
produce same CR
Phobias- Systematic Desensitization- constant exposure to stimulus causes 
you to become desensitized to the stimulus
Alcohol aversion therapy- Antabuse- Instant horrible hangover 
immediately after any amount of consumption of alcohol
Taste Aversion- learned 
*rapidly in few times
*over long periods
*because of perceptual qualities (smell)
*novel foods
*natural associations
Biological preparedness- propensity for learning particular kinds of 
associations over other (snakes and heights)
Operant conditioning- 
background image Reinforcement- (opposite punishment) *Strengthening of behavior, increase in rate, intensity, percent of
time spent, etc., perfect for Skinner’s desire to ignore the 
concept of the mind
*Positive- done by presenting something the subject wants in 
order to induce or reduce behavior
*Negative- withdrawing something the subject does not want in 
order to induce or reduce behavior
Nucleus acumens- neural structure most responsible for reward-related reinforcement Punishment (opposite reinforcement) *Behavior, not a person is punished
*Ex: A bad child wants attention, so he acts out. Teacher then 
gets angry and gives him attention. The child will act out more in
order to receive this attention again. (negative reinforcement)
*Positive- give something the subject doesn’t like in order to 
change behavior *Negative- removing something the subject does like in order to 
prevent behavior
Successive approximations- reinforce what is closer to the desired behavior Harlow’s experiments of attachment (monkey and mother studies) Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous- reinforcing a behavior every single time it occurs (not very effective) Intermittent- reinforce some of the time the behavior occurs (better  more effective) Frequency of Reinforcement Ratio- set reinforcement based on amount of occurrences
Fixed Ratio- ex: 1 out of every 5 times (FR 5)
Graph- stair step Variable Ratio- ex: on average every 5 free throws, not guaranteed (VR 
Graph- upward line with a few small kinks Interval- more used in a lab; after a certain amount of time, reinforce 
the behavior, but do not reinforce behavior if it occurs during the time 
Fixed Interval- set interval of time before the behavior is reinforced
Ex: only reinforce behavior every 5 minutes (FI 5)
Graph- scallop
Variable Interval- after some average amount of time, reinforce the 
behavior, but subject is unaware at the amount of time

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School: University of Georgia
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Dyckman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Name: PSYC Test 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for psyc test 2.
Uploaded: 10/15/2017
11 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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