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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 1000 / What kind of sleep disorder is parasomnia?

What kind of sleep disorder is parasomnia?

What kind of sleep disorder is parasomnia?


School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Fabian melinda
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Pscyhology, sleep, and learning
Cost: 50
Name: Psych Test 2 Study Guide
Description: This information is all fair game on the upcoming test
Uploaded: 10/15/2017
15 Pages 145 Views 2 Unlocks

Psychology Test #2- Bollins Topics Covered:

What kind of sleep disorder is parasomnia?

& Sleep

* Psychotric Drugs








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What is Sleep ?

(9.22.173 Natural periodic Suspension of consciousness

• Circadian rhythm. cycle of behavior & physiology

about every 24 hours

When does sleepwalking commonly occur?

Lo controled by Suprachias mane nucleus of hyatha lamang m e 4 varies between indinduals (genetic/age).

El circadian low points (drop in performance) 1-4pm We also discuss several other topics like How are genes regulated?

su plest We also discuss several other topics like What were the renowned works of michelangelo?
If you want to learn more check out Who introduced the type of notation used for alleles?




amplitude frequency

As a depressant, what does alcohol alter?

decreases -

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Stages of Sleep


4 synchronous activity of neurons amplices y "Brain Waves"

nudes - Stages: lain has a particular brainwave pattern We also discuss several other topics like Do some photoautotrophs contain chloroplasts?

-NPEM 1-ligntest stage ... Strange hallucinations neemake up - NREMZ-Spend most night sleeping in stage #2 LR-NREM3 - Slow wave (heart rate, body terapi breathing rate-Lom -REM Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two kinds of cognitive misers?

o formally stages 384 Progression through stages 4 sleep walk, talk, or wet the bed

order= 1, 2, 3, 2, REM Йем

· Rapid Eve Movement (eyes move around a lot

• "Paradoxical sleep" (awake . Yet asleep)

5 Brain actvity, Physiology, Paralysis

Animals & REM 113 ofery Functions of screep

- why sleep 2 we don't really know

-madda monone, con unjahon hymune function Sleep Deprivation fariave, wratability, inattention Leaming, ballucinations Don't forget about the age old question of How is ohm's law computed?

disrupts immune system, hunger, body tat hormones

· Mirmosillos functioning.impaired,

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Sleep Deprivacin Fatigue, irritability, inattention, learning, halluanations aisrupts immune system, hunger, and body tar hormones

Microswaps - Short (1 seconds) sleep penods. W/o 24 hours of sleep you are as impared as

someone who is intoxicated. Don't adapt to getting less sleep than Lyou need -functioning is still impaired-may feel as though you are getting used to it.

Functions of sleep . Restorative - restock, repair, reorganize

learning & memory Wincreased rate of protein begives the braina J Synthesis chance to put new learning into improves reaction times

indurance -Sports ability


Perceptual experiences during sleep

· Dream content-often reflect walking thoughts, conurns,

thougnts, daily experiences. is pe still registering sensations Thom your environment

gl Functions of dreaming/R&M appenaman

spend more time inesh - importance - REM rebound -learning memory, emotional Processing deprived of rem sleep next time sleeping Icausing of dreams to more quickly into REM Factivation-synthesis theory-dreams synthesized

thom random activita I bursts of actinty occur in the brainstem during REM

that spor up through the brain bringing up random events i feelings. frontal (more reasonable) parts of the brain start to maia sense of "the information.





to years

of hice sceert 70


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Sleep Disorders Parasom nia - undesirable behaviors or expenerus Calle

related to sleep (sleep walking taking Insomnia- most common caused by sther's horary - Narcolepsy - Sullpiness sulep attacks

Tin b Cotablexu - Sudden loss of muscle tone furtial/comide

U Lemonedal Triggers even Hypnogogic Hallucinations (fallng ascup) Hyphopompic

esy hallucination lawakening DAŽAUSIS

o 4 loss of Orexin/ bypocretin (autoimmune disorder

Suleb talang-more common in kids, genetic influence. more likely it tired/feverish can happen at any time in REM

4 Cataples

can happen



sleep walking more common in kids, Genene influence -Şimple afternos NON REM 3 -not associated wl dreaming

by its okay to wake up a sleep Walker Nantmares - scary areams in REM Warhat Teinis - more common in sleep Kids MonRem3 Lindividual appears to wake up (scream, yell, standup, like a panic attack during sleep.) KEM behavior disorder -person acts out dream

because they do not have seep palalysis

Ly more common in men so

L> parkinsons is associated

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actric Drugs



- Influence funchoning of brain $aler psychiological processes by interacting with nevrotransmitter system sayse Types: Antagonists: block neurotransmitters (almost like having 1055 neurotransmitters.

Agonist they have The SAME effect as neurotran smitters Chile adding more of the SAME heute transmitter).

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Terms: addichon reventive comspulsive use despite negative effects, Ibnsequenes. there are both physical & psychological components. tolerance need more of the ang to get the same effect as when you first started taking it (homeostasis effect) withdraw tundesirable effects of quitting



Abuse / Addiction some people are predisposed ladiogically to becoming addicted to certain drugs Depressants: Alcohol: alters MANY neurotransmitters with a widespread effect on the brain/ behavior: pretrontal cortex, hippocampus cerebellum brainstem reticular formation & medulla Benzodiazepines: Prescription drugs (valium, xanax, librium) causes: drowsiness $ relaxation. Effects GHBA nagonist.

Opiates: Painkilleurs, sleep inducers, feeling of euphoria. (morphine, heroin, codline, Vicodin, oxycontin). Endorphin aqonists

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Stimulants (Opposite of dipressants): Increase CNS a lhvity Caffeine: adenosin antagonist - Wavefulness nicotine. acetylcholine, DA, NE, Opiods, etc: enhances mood memory. Cocaine norepinephrine, dopamine, Selatonin oltr: Euphoric rush, oidence, optimism, well-being. amphet amines: Meth amphetamine, dexedrine, benzedrine. Norepinephrine, dopamine, seratonin: evphonic ruin (not same as cocaine but lasts longer MOMA:ecstasy. Dopamines Seratonin > euphona, closeness, hyper



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Psychodelic Hallucinogens: ILSD, Psilocylbin, mescalinel Deyote, Shrooms

a seratonin: hallucinations, mush.cal explanations, alers thinkina) emotions. POSSIBLE therapuetic


Marrjvana Challuino gen) THC, cannabinoid Odonist : berceptual altciations, yllaxation, dishinition: THEDAPSETIC

Learning befrian: a relatively permanent due to experience.

change in beharor, knowlege

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Quick Facts: learning lovschology - notant

is strongly associated with behavioral patterns & making associations

Hina, ovaanisms learn to associate between

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Types of Learning : classical conditoning organisms learn to assor 2 storm to study Ivan Pavlor salvation & abas unconditioned stimulus: naturally produces a response unconditioned response. unlearned, automatic , Veflexive vo vone to unconditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus aguires ability to produce a stimulus riescone by association with unconditioned stmuss Toodnoned ressonce learned response elliated by the conditioned stima


* Stud

1919 -Watson Rayner wanted to know if the classical

conditioning works in humans Process involved in Classic Conditioning Aquisition process of paing CS With UCS until CR is established (Pruss by which bell produced salivatior

-Timing -CS Before Usc (bell before meat

it's Cinduced Prediction in history biopreparedness

T 0. biolodically predisposed to make some associato

more readilly than others conditioned tastie aversion (CTA) (when you romit & hever want that tood again!

Unique aspects

paring (one-trial learning)


been feared

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is timing

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• Stimulus generallaanon tendency to produce CR to

muli similar to CS. Stimulus discrimination-learning not to produce CR to stimuli that don'tsignal Usc. . lexonchon getting rid of CR bu repeatedly presenting Is Wto ves




1 Operant Conditioning Behavior & Conselavences Contrast wl CC -1°C-associał z stimuli, OC-associate behavior wl styr

vlus (consequena) CC reflexive, OC Voluntame Cc does NOT depend on behavior of

orgamsm, OC does own benarior T Stimulus B.F Skinner

• Skinnerbox, to holdsmall

animal Crate, pigeon, vannit

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Shaving - reinfag

Shaping and even the hair




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Processing hvolved in oC Shading reinforcement of successive approximatoris

towards desired behavior Biological Predispositions almost impossible to sto soup lan ordanism from it's natural instincts

Stimulus discriminakop - Leaming that a behavior will Ilead to a particular consequence in presence of some stimuli but not others - if friends only laugh @nor

love when dunk, you won't tell them pokes when your Sober

ascriminative Stimuli-Signal that behavior will lead Ho particular conscience (drink friends Simdlys Aubalization - engaging in behavior in the presence of stimulate that previously be signal that reinforument would occur -- or visversoe (Hellingjoles to other drink pels expect

thend to laugh) Cumulus discrimination a almeralizations animal abilities -

(Pigeons w/ trees food & picaso food)

hein forcement - Sthengthens the behavior that it follows bear ws defined by behavior and differs for the individual

4 positive -add good negative-remove bad persistance

(seat belt to Stop beeping)

Loescabe lavoidence of rengrement-continuous -reneurad everytime it occurs ca rat getting good eney time it prossies, a bard

Partial -sometimes reinforced somtimes not gambling) Extincton -elimiting / decreasing reinforcement o Partial -renfinement extinction effect • used to not beina being reinforced eveytune






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Punishment - makes the event that follows less likely to follow Defined by impact on behavior because what would be a Dunishment to one person isnt to another

Positive Punishment - add some thing unpleasant (sponad, Yelladat) Negative punishment - Vemove some thing pleasant (grounded)

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Negative hen foraemont vs. Punish

When you supply negative reinforument strengthens a behavior Woù wanted strengthened Processes involaed in! - Delay of consequences - timny important (ture for reinforement & punishment)

Problems w/ Punishment - generally more advisable reinforcement rather than punishment

to use

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Observational learning modeling, social learning Watanina į imitatinga



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Observational Learning

• Modeling, social learning Watching s imitating

Banduraš Bobo doll experunu

" after the tas saw the adutts beat Up Bobo, they started doing the same thing & sayin a similar words. Kids will see 8000 televised murders by the time

they are Ro teens - exposure to media violences increases likelihood of agress ive behavior when provoked

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media Vround: correlatonal $ experimental evidence desensitizes s primes. Other factors


how well

Memory definition: retention of thformation over time. encoding-getting into into nuemony Storage - holding into in memory retrreval- finding infot in memory

Encoding: einer automatic processing - space, time sequence, frequency

things you autophatically rememered) * → effortful processing - maintehence Rehearsal - repition

serial Position ettects-primary effects i Recently as 4 (exremember beginning š end rather than middle ) 4 reancy goes away sooner... Elaboran ve Rehearsal-thinking about the meaning of info

La dleper than maintenang - The deeper the more dwable x 4 linking-link info you are trying to encode will into you know

'ls self reference lifestopersonal examples

Spacing Effort recall better if encoding is distributed over

not very durable

you remember che


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· Information processing Mode of Memory: 3 stages

before it is firmly embedded

must pass througin 3 stages Sensory memory-breof indication - Justinias identification to occur Short-term Themory (STM) into we are currently using Long-term humouy (LTM) STM - working memory - merttal manipulanon ('Chalkboard) Storage capacity-immediate memory span -max # of items that can be recalled perfectly after 1 presentation

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Stod South

LTM - limited capacity, but relathely permanent duration

- Tupes declarative

25 Explicit de plata na - conscious: episodic- persona!

where & when Logeneralized wedge semantic-facts simplicit - unconscious - procedural - how to

priming, classical conditioning Who conscious recotection

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Brain Damage continued Kapusoane H.M could form implicit memories → throwing tembus balls improved skill but still didn't remember doingit. Both types OT amnesia both involue loss of explicit " weniory more than implicit

Thinking dos Cognition manipulating s transforming into (working

SS Lthinking, knowing, remembering u į communication)

Cognitive errors confirmation bias tendency to seek out s pay attennon to information that confirms our belief and Vise versa - more interested in proving our points

to be collect whether than discovering twin




for heuristics

Belief Perservation tendancy to cling to our belot even when presented with opposing evidence Blased evaluation of evidence. 4 uncritically accept into that proves our benet while avoiding & even attacking into that

suggests iwe are wrong. Therefor, it often takes more eviaene to change our belet than to form them in the first place. over confidence over consident in the accuracy of our Knowledge į judgements. ex. Students overestimate # of questions right on test.

aer a la norance boosts confident Dunning the lack knowledge in an area į over estimate their knowledge while people who actually Do have knowledge under estimate their capabuty

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Beanie K functionally alat surance to understand

The tanquage anglages &

spolotna in childhood deveins


Language Sumbols:Sounds, Gestures, letters, words

Cudnmar-rues for combining symbols in meaningfu ways

Stacks Of Language Development The first year..... Babbing - HOW BABBLING CHANGES. sounds heard

Lone-word stad er meaning through

- meaning the world tant lupting productive language consthet

doni non stop

Start dropping faster


The second year... Telegraphic Speech - 2 word speech Overgeneralization Ofruces - typically consistent with

native language's Granmmer:

- Language Acquisition

• Biologically pre disposed to aquine language

• kids aguine anguage & an incredible pace

Ls 8 new words aday

•Babus aquine lessons without lessons/ necesarilly being ear reinforced carques against

Opera ut conditioning Not Enting ly observational If not exposed to language early in life evidence shows we won't be able to use it noimally later in life:

Ll.deat coulduen not exposed to sign language eany


2. Hral children - raised wl new little human contact - lx sean tea to a Potty Chall @ age 13. her dad would beat her ¿ not let her talk to anyone

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