HIST 102 Week 5 Notes – Thursday, September 28, 2017
The New Imperialism 1870-1900
∙ 80% of the world was controlled by 2-3 countries (Brits and French mainly) o “The sun never set on the British Empire”
∙ Before 1870 some empires had overseas empires
∙ All this was now referred to as the New Imperialism
∙ Indonesia was under Dutch control since the early 1600’s
o Power of Dutch had declined since then up until the 19th century
∙ Brits had Hong Kong until 25 years ago
o Also controlled Burma, Malaysia, Borneo, Singapore
o Parts of China were controlled particularly by Brits and French
▪ Spheres of Influence-
∙ Threatened China with military power to be able to send ships,
administer parts of China, and get resources
∙ French had French Indochina which was very important to them
o French Indochina consists of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Africa Don't forget about the age old question of What is intercultural communication?
∙ A number of European powers had control of almost the entire continent, mainly the North, East and West.
∙ This was a result of the Industrial Revolution because suddenly everything could now be conquered We also discuss several other topics like Why are cartograms useful?
∙ 1870- European contact with Africans was now normal
o Portuguese- Angola and Mozambique
o Brits- controlled mainly the South
o French- controlled mainly the North
o Center of Africa was free and “untouched”
∙ Germany (controlled Cameroon), Italy, Brits, French, and Belgian took chunks of the center within 25 years
∙ 2 areas of Africa remained independent: Ethiopia and Liberia We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of the jewish canon?
o Italians were determined to take it
o Battle of Adowa 1896:
▪ They lost against Ethiopian tribes because the Africans now had modern weapons given to them by other Euro forces and had been trained to use them.
▪ It is the only example of the European force losing in Africa
▪ Considered to be the biggest shame to the Italians
o Benito Mussolini wanted revenge so during 1930-1935 he finally took over Ethiopia because Italians had an air force.
▪ Adowa was revenged with the help of Italo Balbo, a leading fascist who bombed Ethiopia with planes to help get it.
▪ ???? He also flew a squadron of Italian planes to Chicago. There is now a monument (Roman Column) outside of Soldier field. The column is a gift from Benito Mussolini. There is also a street in Chicago named after him. ∙ Liberia
o U.S. helped in the creation of Liberia
▪ Created by freed slaves and input of colony was majorly aided by U.S. o Leading proponent of Liberia was Abe Lincoln for colonization originally but Battle of Antietam changed his mind.
o Did not believe in racial equality so allowed the freed slaves to return to Africa or to go to Haiti instead of staying in the U.S.
o Empires did not attack Liberia because U.S. was now recognized as a formidable military force and nobody wanted to mess with them basically. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of chaetognatha?
Nature of Imperialism
∙ Europeans interested in sources of raw materials
o Industrialization- going from agriculture to industrial Don't forget about the age old question of Is ethnicity a biological concept?
∙ Strategic element: feeling of needing overseas empire to be a major world power ∙ Classic example: the African Congo and its exploitation
o King Leopold (Belgium) wanted an empire so he exploited French and British differences to be able to move into the Congo without much opposition.
o Had begun to realize the importance of rubber
▪ Wanted Congolese rubber
o Indigenous Congolese were forced to work for the rubber (now slaves) ▪ Made King Leo and Belgium very wealthy
▪ Each individual slave had to meet a specific quota a day
∙ If not, beaten, if continued not to, hands were cut off
∙ Estimated: 10 million died because of Belgian control
∙ Main source: Industrial Revolution
∙ All countries transformed their economies
∙ Development of Quinine (medicine)
o Allowed Europeans to survive in the equatorial Congo and combat the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes
∙ Advances in transportation
o Developed cars to move into the Congo jungle
o Ships to move materials We also discuss several other topics like How do you prove a set of vectors is a basis?
∙ Huge leap forward with weapons
∙ Began to develop riffle guns rather than muskets and such
o Improved barrel gave the bullet greater accuracy and distance
∙ Developments in artillery
∙ Maxim gun was created by the end of the 19th century
o Fired 100 rounds in one minute (machine gun)
∙ Result of that vs the indigenous- massacre of the indigenous
o Ex: Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman (Sudan) Sept. 1898
∙ Brits enforcing their force on Sudan
∙ Indigenous resisted
o 8,000 Brits vs 54,000 Sudanese
▪ Classic example of advanced weapons
▪ 47 Brits died in Battle, 382 were wounded
▪ 10,000 Sudanese died, 13,000 were wounded, 5,000 taken prisoners ∙ Brits had developed clip weapons (allowed for weapons to have more ammo at once) o For the indigenous it was like charging against a wall of lead
HIST 102 Week 6 Notes – Tuesday, October 3, 2017
Outbreak of WWI- Long-term Factors
∙ European nationalism was a major factor
Nationalism and Unification of Germany
∙ In Germany, Prussia was the main state in this movement
∙ 1870-1871, final steps of unification of Germany was the Franco-Prussian War against France
∙ Germany defeated France quickly and took over Paris
∙ After the French defeat a new German Empire arose
o Germans were now stronger and more united
∙ Germans chose the Hall of Mirrors to be their venue for the decision of the announcement of defeat
o Hall of Mirrors is in the Palace of Versailles
∙ France was also forced to give two regions on the border with Germany o Alsace and Lorraine (only until after WWI)
∙ Humiliation and loss created a development of fierce French nationalism and desire to revenge what happened in this war
∙ Tension over their imperial colonies
o Where the border lines were and who controlled what
∙ Fight over who controlled Morocco
∙ French had nominal control of it but Germans wanted control through military force ∙ In both 1905-1906 and 1911 both countries came close to war because of this
∙ Rival alliances were created (before WWI)
∙ Principal diplomatic leader of Germany (Otto Von Bismarck) saw the growing sense of French anger and desire for revenge
o Believed that future war was inevitable so it was for his countries benefit to get allies.
▪ 1870: Germany was the strongest military in the world
o Germany signed alliance with Austria-Hungary
▪ Originally called the Dual Alliance
∙ Mutual assistance pact
▪ Wanted political/diplomatic assistance
▪ Austria joined because they were worried about going to war with Russia ▪ Not intended to be aggressive originally, but seen as an aggressive move by everyone else.
∙ Alliance systems made the conflict impossible to maintain localized because everyone was dragged in.
Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
∙ Italy joined in with a weaker commitment
o During WWI they declare neutrality and eventually goes against Germany and Austria-Hungary
∙ Seen as an aggressive move mainly by the French
o They (French) ally with Russia because Russians also saw a future war with Austria
Triple Entente (France, Russia, Great Britain)
∙ Entente means agreement/understanding
∙ Britain joined with extremely ambivalent commitment
o Never said that in the event of future war, that they would guarantee a back-up for the French
∙ All military was stocked up and improved by all major European forces ∙ By that summer (in 1914) they were all extremely armed
German-British Naval Race
∙ 1870’s onwards Germany wanted to control more of the world, not just in Europe and Africa.
o They were the most powerful economy and military force but their influence was not as big as France or Great Britain’s.
▪ They also went into the imperial game late
∙ Germany began to develop a navy to expand its power.
∙ Admiral Von Tirpitz
o Interested in developing cutting-edge technology
▪ U-boats (submarines)
o Making submarine warfare the future of naval warfare
o This was a major threat for the British
∙ Britain always depended on the power of its navy so this was a direct threat to them o “Rule Britannia” song mentions “Britannia rules the waves”
o Navy was revamped too
▪ Not so focused on submarines
▪ Focused on battleships
∙ Massive ones called dreadnoughts
∙ Bottom-line: Naval race and the fear of Germany’s navy brought Britain into WWI (with self-interest)
HIST 102 Week 6 Notes – Thursday, October 5, 2017
Outbreak of WWI
∙ Triple Entente and Triple Alliance/ Colonization Pressure/ Germany vs France/ etc.… all these are previous long-term causes of the war… Now:
Crisis in the Balkans
Decline of Ottoman Empire
∙ During 19th century they lost power
∙ Nationalist movements began to arise within the Empire
o Greece had successfully become independent in 1821
∙ As the Ottomans lost power, other empires (Austro-Hungarian and Russian) wanted to expand into the Balkans
∙ Russians wanted Serbia to annex Bosnia which was an Austrian sphere of influence o This was recognized as a major step for Russia to become the dominant power in this region. (ambitious step)
Independent Serbia 1878
∙ Serbia had been part of the Ottoman empire for years
o There were always some that opposed
o One main resistant was the Serbian Orthodox Church
▪ Ottomans were Muslims
o Militant Serb movement arose in the 19th century
▪ The Chetniks were the main nationalistic militant group
∙ Had important role in the resistance
o 1878 Serbia achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire
∙ At the Conference of Berlin the major powers of Europe gathered to determine the fate of the Balkans. They came to the agreement that Serbia should be an independent country. o Serbia received strong diplomatic support from Russia because there was close connection (culturally) between the Russians and Serbians.
▪ Russian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Church had close ties and continue to have them to this day.
o Serbia was seen as a potential ally by Russia
???? One major problem of the independence of Serbia was that when the map was drawn, there was still a significant amount of Serbs outside of the new Serbian territory o Many were in Bosnia which was considered to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
∙ Those border lines were drawn with the intention of being temporary because eventually it was believed that there would be a Greater Serbia as a unified country where all the Serbs would live.
o That included the Bosnian Serbs
o A Greater Serbia meant that there would be an expansion of Serbian borders. ▪ This became a major objective of Serbian nationalists.
Austrian Annexation of Bosnia 1908
∙ After much opposition between Serbia and Austro-Hungarians, Austrians finally took their military into Bosnia to declare it an official part of the Empire.
o Bosnia was no longer just a sphere of influence, it was now Austrian territory o Those who opposed to the annexation were the Bosnian Serbs mainly
▪ Their ambition had been completely destroyed (With the annexation there could no longer be a Greater Serbia)
o Majority of Bosnians were Muslim and they did not mind the annexation o Immediately Bosnian Serbs created nationalistic movements
Black Hand and Violent Serb Nationalism
∙ Bosnian Serb groups were militant and killed Bosnian officials and people with power in order to achieve the Serbian nation dream
∙ It was supported by Serbia
o Deepened the hatred between Austrians and Serbians
∙ Climax happened in the Spring of 1914
Sarajevo 28 June 1914
∙ Archduke Franz Ferdinand would visit Sarajevo (Capital of Bosnia) to meet with political representatives at the city hall.
o Would do this to view the militant groups and conflicts going on
∙ His route and timing of visitation was made public so that people could go see him and cheer.
o People filled the streets
∙ The announcement was used by the Bosnian Serbs to plan the assassination o The Black Hand developed a strategy to kill him
o They made visits to Serbia before the Archduke would visit
▪ Some were given weapons, training, and money by senior figures in the Serbian military
▪ ???? Serbian government was never involved!!!
∙ Their plan was crude:
o Along the route to be taken by the archduke to city hall a number of assassins would be placed.
▪ If one missed, the next one would get him…ideally
o 1st attempt was a guy with a pistol and a hand grenade
▪ Threw the bomb to the car but he missed and the grenade exploded behind the car without injuring the royalty. Only civilians were injured.
o When the assassin realized he had failed he took a cyanide pill and jumped into a river to try to ensure death by drowning.
▪ Pill didn’t kill him and the river was very shallow so he was caught
o Other assassins left when they saw they 1st guy get captured
o One young assassin (18 year-old militant nationalist) went to a deli for a sandwich and drink while FF reached city hall since he had given up.
▪ Ferdinand insisted on visiting the injured from the failed attempt in the hospital after the city hall meeting was over
▪ His driver didn’t know where the hospital was, took a wrong turn by
accident into a dead-end alley
∙ Garrilo Prinkip was in the corner of that alley taking his drink and sandwich o When he saw who was in the car in the alley he decided to take his shot o First shots missed and hit Sophie (Ferdinand’s wife)
▪ Eventually both Sophie and Franz are murdered
o Prinkip was arrested and would have been charged with the death penalty if it weren’t because he was too young.
▪ Capital punishment was for 20 year-olds or older
o He was thrown in prison where he would eventually die from tuberculosis ∙ Assassination of Franz Ferdinand was the first domino to fall in the line of causes for the First World War.
HIST 102 Week 7 Notes – Thursday, October 12, 2017
Outbreak of WWI… Continued
Austrian Reaction to Assassination of FF
∙ Austrians immediately assumed Serbia was responsible; they were enraged o Even though the Serbian gov’t wasn’t
∙ Saw an opportunity to advance their units into the Balkans after the shock had passed o Use the assassination as an excuse to take control of Serbia
o Became main objective ???? take Russia’s closest ally (Serbia)
∙ Before doing anything, Austrians contacted Berlin and let Germany know of the situation and the intent.
German “Blank Check”
∙ German respond to Austrians on the 5th of July 1914
∙ Response: 100% guarantee of full support from them to the Austrians
o Refers to a blank check where Austrians fill out amount necessary & Germans will pay it regardless of the amount.
o Encouraged Austrians to attack Serbia
▪ This meant Germany was mainly responsible for the war
Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia
∙ List of demands was created
o Demanded apology and free access to Serbia by Austrian officials to fully investigate the assassination
▪ Austrians knew that the Serbs would have to decline the access to their country so the demand was put in anyway to have a cover for their
imminent invasion and lack of interest in diplomacy.
▪ This was basically a declaration of war
∙ Austrians send the list and Serbians said yes to every demand except access to the country
∙ Knowing that this was a declaration of war, Serbs contacted Russia (Moscow) to see what Russia could do for them in the case that a war did break out.
∙ Russia responded with a “we will help with whatever we can”
o Wasn’t as strong of a response as Germany’s to Austria but Serbia was not alone in the war.
∙ Serbs did not accept the investigation to happen but accepted everything else. o Everyone was aware that this meant war
28 July German Encouragement to Austria
∙ Austrians contacted Germany again
o They were worried about Russian involvement
o Response from Germans about the Russian involvement was “go for it” and attack as soon as you can.
▪ Another reason why Germany is considered responsible
∙ Austria did so on the 28th of July and war broke out on the border with Serbia o Austria put military units along their border with Russia
▪ Russia saw this as an aggressive move so they moved their own units on the border too
∙ Russia was an ally of France so Germany declared war on both countries with two days of difference (Russia on August 1st and France on August 3rd)
∙ Alfred Von Schlieffen had created the plan for this scenario (Germany vs. France and Russia)
o Plan consisted on 1st attacking France and defending the border with Russia with light infantry.
o This was because Germans believed (thanks to the Franco-Prussian war) that they could take out France and dominate Paris within 40 days
o Then, 2nd, move the bulk of the war to the border with Russia and take them out German Ultimatums to Russia and France
∙ After the Russians moved their troops to the border, Germans responded to them by giving them an ultimatum (1st of August)
o Russia had to take their units out of the border in 12 hours or else…
o Germans knew this was impossible for Russians to do so they basically declared war with that ultimatum
∙ 1st of August 1914 Germany and Austria declare war on Russia
∙ Germany declared war on France on the 3rd of August because they were an ally of Russia so they began to implement the Schlieffen Plan on the 4th of August. ∙ France had built the Maginot Line (named after the French Minister of War André Maginot) along their border with Germany.
o It was a strong concentration of French forces at the border and that went from the tip of the Belgian border with France down to the Swiss border with France.
German Invasion of Belgium
∙ Germany decided to enter France through Belgium to avoid the Maginot Line ∙ Belgium was a neutral country and their neutrality was violated by the Germans ∙ When Germany began to go through Belgium they encountered problems o They began the mobilization on August 4th
∙ The plan didn’t take into consideration how the violation of a neutrality would involve Britain on the war.
∙ Germans violated the neutrality of Belgium
Pact of Belgium 1839
∙ Pact between Belgium and Great Britain which stated that the Brits would always guarantee Belgian neutrality.
∙ This was one of the reasons why Britain entered the war
o The pact had stood for many years
∙ Germans took longer to go through Belgium than expected
∙ Belgians slowed them down by resisting
∙ Germans began a systematic campaign of atrocities to
increase the speed of passing
o 5,000 Belgian citizens were killed
o At University of Louvain, Germans set the Library on fire and murdered many civilians (including students) ∙ Anti-German propaganda was created by French and Brits o Most of it was fake news but it was meant to inspire others to join the war against Germany
These were all secondary reasons for the Brits to get
involved in the war.
German Threat to Royal Navy Main reason for …………………………………………………………………………………..entering the war!!!
∙ The deal breaker for the Brits was the calculation of a scenario in which Germany won the war and would emerge as the dominant power in Europe.
∙ Once that happened, what would stop Germany from going after Great Britain in the future??
o They also had the U-Boats which were the main threat for the British and their Royal Navy.
∙ Brits saw the war as a “better to act now” situation because they had allies rather than in a future in which they probably would have to fight alone.
Fear of German Domination of Europe
∙ Everyone assumed that the war would be over quickly and be a relatively short war o Assumed it would be over by Christmas (in 1914)
∙ The British military was small with only 85,000 men and now conscription began in all European countries
o All to support nationalism and the idea of wanting to be involved in the war before it was all over.
∙ BEF= British Expeditionary Force was sent to help France (The best units of the Brits) ∙ By the end of the war almost a complete generation would be wiped out ∙ European empires began to draw units from their colonies
o E.g. Brits from India