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TULANE / Sociology / SOCI 1040 / What is Intersex?

What is Intersex?

What is Intersex?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Sociology
Course: Gender & Society
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: sociology and Gender
Cost: 50
Name: Test 1 Study Guide
Description: Gender and Society test 1 study guide. includes most readings, important terms and ideas
Uploaded: 10/16/2017
7 Pages 5 Views 6 Unlocks
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Test 1 Study guide


What is Intersex?



Week1 Nature vs Nurture  

∙ Sex is hierarchical it is always Male vs Female

∙ Pink and Blue syndrome is the belief that there is two and only  two gender/sexuality systems

Important terms

∙ Sex- is the biological difference between man and woman o Often use the terms ‘male’ and ‘female’

o It is the biological apparatus, our chromosomal, chemical,  anatomical organization

∙ Gender- is the social constructed meaning to distinguish  between men and women

o Measure of masculinity  

∙ Intersex- is when an individuals chromosomes do not fall into  the binary of male or female

∙ Sexual orientation- is who the individual is attracted to  (include sexually)

o No one fall distinctly one edge of the spectrum

∙ Interplanetary Theory of Gender Difference- is the  ASSUMPTION that is culture the difference between men and  women are greater than the differences among a group of  women vs the differences among a group of men


What is Hegemony?



∙ Hegemony- refers to domination of rule of one group to  subservient groups. We also discuss several other topics like stor 435 unc

∙ Hegemonic masculinity- idealized masculinity constructed in  direct opposition to women who is “he”?

∙ Emphasized femininity- idealized femininity organized around  the desires of men, who is “she”?

∙ Mean Differences- our assumptions and our methods shape  our findings, our interpretation and our conclusions OR when we  assume difference we are likely to find it.

∙ Privilege Invisibility- being dominant social status  (gender,race…) therefore invisible

Article Main Points

o Lorber’s Night to his Day

o Gender is a social construction that is enforced on people  from the moment of birth

o People are always ‘doing gender’ as a way to organize life  Ex. Gender roles and expectations Don't forget about the age old question of uma swamy fiu

o Gender creates a social process of what it mean to be a  man and a woman  


What is Hegemonic masculinity?



 Gender ranks men above women of the same race  and class

 In a gender-stratified society what men do is usually  valued more highly than what women do because  

men do it.

o Not biology but culture shapes destiny

 This is a paradox because culture is adaptable; we as a culture are choosing to use our culture to indicate  

what aspects of our biology is important.

o Hyde Gender Similarities Hypothesis Don't forget about the age old question of engl208 class notes

o Hypothesis: males and females are similar on most but not  all psychological variable.

 Men and women are more alike than they are  

different

o The Exceptions

 Domain in motor performance

 Differences in the measures of sexuality

o Conclusion: meta-analyses of research on gender  

difference supports the gender similarities hypothesis.  Overinflated claims of gender difference arguably  

cause harm in numerous realms including

∙ Women’s opportunities in the workplace

∙ Couple conflict and communication Don't forget about the age old question of principles of macroeconomics study guide

∙ Analyses of self-esteem problems among  

adolescents

o Berdache “Two Spirit”

o Native American societies do not operate like Abrahamic  religious societies.

 Gender is based on the role that is performed within  the society. (ex. If a female assumes the role of  

hunter then because it is a masculine role that  

person is considered man in society)

o Kimmel

o Nature vs nurture debates for gender difference assume  that men and women are fundamentally different

o Inequality is the exaggeration of differences

Week 2

o There are far more similarities between men and women than  there differences between the two.

o Pink and Blue syndrome is the idea there are two and only two  sex, gender and sexuality system

Important Terms

o Patriarchy- tracing family lineage through men’s bloodlines o Ism- the ideology of superiority

o Prejudice- the attitude of superiority

o Discrimination- the action of choosing superiority

o Evolutionary biology- behaviors are environmental, shaped by  outside forces, thus they adapt

o Evolutionary psych- behaviors are rooted in out genes  therefore they are inevitable. Prescriptive and based on gender,  predetermined sexual agendas and behaviors  

o Heteronormativity- deeply embedded cultural assumption that our sex/gender/ and sexuality systems are normal, natural,  dichotomous, binary, inevitable and non-overlapping (Male  Man  Masculine  Sex w/ Women Female  Woman  Feminine  Sex w/ men If you want to learn more check out an exchange surface is in direct contact with the external environment in the

o

Articles

∙ Margaret Mead

o Members in a society are diverse, however institutions  select the most desirable traits  

∙ Catherine Valentine

o Society cannot “give up gender” because people will  always continue to work to define gender. Don't forget about the age old question of glyde earl meek

o Both biology and behavior are inseparable and intertwined ∙ Sapolsky: Testosterone

o High levels of testosterone do not cause aggression but  testosterone exaggerates aggression that is already there.  Normal ranges of testosterone have a net zero effect  on aggressiveness

 Aggressive behaviors are mediated by the  

environment

∙ Berdache “Two-Spirit”

o There are many social roles for gender variant people to  occupy and these roles are highly valued

o In Abrahamic reglisious societies we view sex/gender  systerms as dichotomous

 Sexuality is defined by biological sex

 Native American societies do not operate in this way ∙ They do not see biological sex as having much  

to do with sexuality

∙ There are more gender. It is based on the role  

that is performed within that society. If a  

person assumes the role adoption of a man or  

a women then that person assumes that  

gender

∙ Hyde

o Uses meta-analysis to determine the effect size of gender  difference across a huge range of studies

 People are psychologically susceptible to social cues

Week 3

Gender as a Social Structure

∙ Emotions are social because society tells us what is ok to feel  and how we should express our feelings

Important terms

∙ Hegemonic masculinity- The dominant

∙ Subordinate masculinity- The feminine male

∙ Complicit masculinity- The ones who do not directly benefit  but do benefit and support the system

∙ Marginalized masculinity- men of color

Articles  

∙ Barba Risman looked at gender as a social structure.  Exaggeration of difference is the basis of inequality.  

o If people thought there should be equality people would  not view certain things as a dichotomy

o Power is unilateral it is relational and codetermined o Even in social settings that are ripe for social change,  social status hierarchies including gender and race tend to  continue to get reproduced

∙ Raewyn Connell

o if masculinity is not discussed in gender then pursuing goal of equality means that women are winning at men’s  

expense

 In order to achieve gender equality, hegemonic  

masculinities across cultures would have to weave it  

into understandings of ideal gender relations

∙ Maria Charles

o Gender stereotypes informing career and education  choices are most entrenched in the wealthiest countries Week 4

Doing Gender and Performativity

∙ There is no fixed of inherent “self” the self is malleable and  interactional, arising out of particular social interactions within  particular contexts

∙ We are constantly doing gender

∙ West and Zimmerman failed to account for performances of  race/class/sexualized persons

∙ Gender is something we live and although our experiences are  varied and diverse, women are almost unilaterally deemed  inferior to men

Articles

∙ Erving Goffman

o The self emerges through interactions with others within  particular contexts

 Other assess an individual’s performance of self  

around their expectations of what constitutes an  

acceptable and successful performance

o Biological sex leads to cultural norms and roles according  to gender leads to public displays and interactions of sex/  gender matrix

∙ West and Zimmerman

o Gender is “emergent” within social situations  

 We make social reality by doing it, naturalizing it  

through repetition  

∙ Pyke and Johnson

o We need to think of femininites as being hegemonic vs  subordinated  

 Active process of “othering”

Week 5  

Intersectionality

∙ Race, class and gender is structured within 3 main dimensions o Institutional dimension of oppression

o Symbolic dimension of oppression

o Individual dimension of oppression  

∙ Fag discourse in not about mocking homosexuality as an sexual  identity but a specific tactic that boys use to police other boys  behaviors  

Important Terms

∙ Intersectionality- the way of studying populations. It started in  academia to study how different categories simultaneously  interact with each other

Articles

∙ Thornton Dill and Kohlman  

o The major difference between “2nd wave” feminism and  modern, intersectional feminism is that the former sought  to overcome differences while the later has sought to  celebrate them

 This had led to modern identity projects where being  a woman or a man is a situated experience and  

social locations in relationship with other dimensions  

rather than a totalizing identity category

 .

∙ Patricia Hill Collins

o There are no pure victims or oppressor

o The only way to achieve social change is to see  

oppressions as interlocking

o Three ways we lobby for social change

 Recognize our privilege

 Build coalitions around common causes

 Build empathy

∙ Johnnie Tillman

o Was viewed as being too radical and too stigmatizing  Welfare and the stigmatation of women on welfare is  belittling

∙ Vast majority of people on welfare are women  

and kids

∙ The 5 jobs that expect the highest rate of  

growth are jobs dominated by women that are  

low-wage personal aides, home health aides,  

nurses, food prep, cashiers

∙ Synder

o 3rd wave feminism is predicated on points of perceived  diversion from the 2nd wave

 Personal narratives over theoretical abstractions

 Emphasis on difference rather than unity

 Rejection of grand definitions of what feminism is  

and what it looks like

Week 7

Gender and Politics

∙ Gender stereotypes continue to inform and prejudice people  against women in powerful positions

o When high level positions are gendered masculine, women  must employ strategies to minimize their femininity or to  use feminine stereotypes to their advantage

∙ Hard to prove a person was discriminated against based on  federally protected status

o Gender

o Age  

o Race

o Pregnancy

o LGBTQ+ DOES NOT COUNT

Important terms

∙ Ethic- grants people moral value so work is also imbued with  symbolic value Articles

∙ Job- describes the occupation

∙ Conroy says media uses gender language regardless of who is  running

o Regardless of gender it is possible to be a successful  candidate minus having any positive female traits

o Need masculine gender descriptions to launch a successful candidate

∙ Lee and Lim

o Clinton focuses on her masculine traits

 Focuses on feminine stances (education, healthcare,  student loan debt)

o Trump didn’t feel the need to describe his traits or  characteristics  

 Used a lot less formal channels

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