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What does lre stand for?

What does lre stand for?


INST​ ​210​ ​STUDY​ ​GUIDE​ ​EXAM​ ​1

What does lre stand for?

Special Education

● Services designed for students to access general curriculum

● Not a place, no cost

Who is served under IDEA?

● 13 categories- autism, deaf-blind, emotional behavior disorder, hearing, etc. Prevalence- The total number of individuals with a disability currently existing in the population at time.

-13% receive special ed in public schools


● Covers birth-21

● FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education

● Non-disciplinary Assessment

● Parent Participation

● Procedural Safeguards

● LRE (least restrictive environment)

○ 1. General Education

○ 2. Special classes (resource rooms)

What purpose does section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973 serve?

We also discuss several other topics like How are breaking news, curated?

○ 3. Separate classrooms

○ 4. Separate school

○ 5. Residential program

-60% of people with disabilities are in gen ed classes 80% of the time


● Individualized Education Program

○ Every student receiving special ed had IEP

○ Plan ensures FAPE

○ Developed yearly

○ Every 3 years there is an evaluation

RTI: Response To Intervention

● Allows to identify early

○ Intense individual inst.

○ Targeted interventions

-Tier 2: core, universal- Deliver high quality instruction

-Tier 2: Small groups- supports offered to students in gen ed class

What is assistive technology?

-Tier 3: Those who don’t respond to tier 2, Goal: prevention and remiation Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

“No otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall, solely, by reason of his handicap, be excluded from participation in be denied benefits of, or be subject to discrimination in any program or activity receiving federal assistance.”

● Purpose: to empower individuals with disabilities to maximize employment, economic self-sufficiency, independence, and inclusion and integration into society ● To eliminate discrimination on the basis of a disability (for any inst. That receives federal financial assistance.If you want to learn more check out Which component of language acquisition refers to grammar?

Section 504

● Is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities ● Ensures that the child with a disability has equal access to an education ● Child may receive accommodations and modifications

504 Disability defined as

● Physical or mental impairment (anxiety, allergies, etc)

● Limits one or more life activity (caring for oneself, etc)

● Has a record of such impairment

● Or is regarded as having such impairment

Disability definition difference between IDEA and Section 504

● Impairment that limits one or more life activities

Age Section 504 cover?: All ages Especially k-12/college students

Section 504*

● Planning document

● 504 Plan that accommodates educational needs.

ADA Americans with Disabilities Act Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?

● Signed into law on 1990, by president George H.W. Bush.

● Modeled after the civil rights act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin

● Is an “equal opportunity” law for people with disabilities If you want to learn more check out Why was the 1970s considered the worst decade of inflation?

● Purpose: extends Section 504 by prohibiting discrimination for people with disabilities in the private sector

● Eliminates barriers that would prevent someone from full participation ADA (1990)

● Requires accessibility

● Employers (15+) must make reasonable accommodations

● Job restructuring

● Modification of work schedule

● Modified equipment

● Bralile

● Ramps

Who does the law affect?

● Americans with disabilities and their friends, families, and caregivers ● Private employers with 15 or more employees

● Businesses operating for the benefit of the public

● All state and local government agencies

“Education records”

● Records on a student receiving services under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are “education records” subject to FERPA

● Health records on students, including immunization records, who are not eligible students are “education records” subject to FERPA


● The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act is a federal law that affords parents the right to have access to their children’s education records If you want to learn more check out What services does mea serve?

● Ensures privacy of students is protected

● Confidential documents are available to interested parties only

● At 18 years old, rights transfer from parents to students

● Who can see student records?- Schools officials with legitimate interest ● Share info on an educational need-to-know basis only

● Refrain from sharing anecdotal info regarding individual students in public meetings Assistive Technology

● IDEA defines an assistive technology device as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.”

● AT is any device or service that helps a student with a disability to meet his or her individualized education program (IEP) goals and to participate in the general education setting to the greatest possible extent We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of interaction between living organisms and their environment?

● Also used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a person with a disability.

● Devices: items, equipment or product systems used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of an individual with a disability.

● Services: Assist individuals in selecting, acquiring, or using an assistive technology device

History​ ​and​ ​Legislation​ ​of​ ​Assistive​ ​Technology


● 1990 reauthorization: was the first to include AT

● 1997 reauthorization: mandated consideration of AT for all students with disabilities ● AT was to be provided at no cost to the student

● 2004 reauthorization: excluded surgically implanted devices such as cochlear implants from the definition of assistive technology

Assistive Technology and the IEP**

● AT is included on the IEP

● If written in the IEP it is the school’s financial responsibility to cover the costs ○ Schools are not required to pay for all AT (e.g., surgically implanted AT)

Students can use AT to**

● Use to communicate, perform academic tasks, participate in social and extracurricular activities, move or travel around the school, use proper seating and positioning, access materials

Devices and Tools

● Multiple low-tech to high-tech AT exist to support students in:

○ Reading

○ Writing

○ Mathematics

○ Science and social studies

○ Life skills

○ Organization and management skills

Considering AT

● Myth: AT only for students with visual or physical disabilities

● Fact: AT should be considered for all students with disabilities

● Without AT, many students will struggle academically

● AT may be needed to ensure that all students have access to FAPE. In the Workplace

● AT typically helps to increase:

○ Access to physical environment

○ Access to information and tools, including computers

○ Independence

○ Productivity

Low: low cost, less training- pencil grip, raised line paper, highlighter strip, braille playing cards Mid to high: higher cost, more training- switches, audio recorders, speech-to-text, ipad Reading: text-to-speech, audiobooks, highlighters

Writing: laptops, pencil grips, keyboards, touchscreens, text-to-speech, graphic organizers

Leisure and Daily living

● Switch toy

● Switch communication

● Utensils

● Suction-cupped plates

Matching individual needs

● Individual-tasks-context-technology

PATHS program?

● Training for things like daycare, taking care of elderly, working in school setting ● More independence and career based than high school

The​ ​Role​ ​of​ ​Teachers​ ​&​ ​Transition

Kindergarten-8th grade Teachers:

● Career Development

● Provide experiences in the community

● High Expectations of Students

● Buildings responsibilities that encourage students to reach their full capabilities 8th-12th grade

-IDEA requires transition to be documented in the Individualized education plan at the age of 16 (Texas= age of 14)

● Support specific goal setting for life after graduation

● Help to align courses and activities to support these goals

● Have a vision

● Understand strengths and weaknesses

● Know interests and preferences

● Have a course of meaningful course of

Lab​ ​9/27

Research shows that students with high levels of self-determination:

● Are employed or attending college

● Make higher wages and work more hours

● Live independently

● Have friendships and support systems

● Feel a purpose to their life

Types of cultural diversity (10/2)

● Racial and ethnic

● Socioeconomic

● Language

● Culture Diverse Students: Students who may be distinguished from the mainstream culture

The individual- gender, religion, social class, region, disability, ethnic group race Cultural Diversity

● Describing diversity- The federal government only recognizes seven distinct racial groups:

○ American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, White, and Two or More races

Language Diversity

Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

● The number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds is increasing.

● Students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and low SES households experience poorer educational outcomes than their mainstream peers.

CLD student characteristics

● Lower graduation rates

● Lower achievement test scores

● Lower grades on average

Factors that relate to lower achievement for CLD students

● Lower teacher expectations

● Teacher Biases

● Testing Biases

● Lower Teacher Quality

Who teaches CLD students?

● Despite the increasing numbers of CLD students over 80% of educators are white and female.

● Students from CLD populations are more likely to be referred for special education services

● Students from are more likely to be found eligible for special education services

● More likely to be served in more restrictive settings once they are receiving special education services

Bilingual Special Education

● Embrace the use of the student’s primary language along with English coupled with an individualized program of special education

● Very difficult

● Shortage of Bilingual special educators

IDEA Side Note:

● Can not place a child in special education if students difficulties are result of limited proficiency in English or poor instruction


● Greater number of students from a given group are placed in special education compared to the total percentage of that group represented in school.

● Ex: 8% of students at clearwater elementary are African American. However, 26% of African Americans are in special education.

● Usually happens in gifted

● Low-income and minority students are underrepresented


● Fewer students in a particular category than one might expect


● Failure of general education to educate children from diverse backgrounds ● Misidentification, misuse of tests

● Lack of access to effective instruction

● Insufficient resources

● Teachers who are less well prepared

● Poverty

Factors that contribute to over and underrepresentation

● Poverty​: Relationship between family socioeconomic status (poverty) and disability ● Overrepresentation of minority groups living in poverty

Factors that contribute to over and underrepresentation

● Faulty identification procedures, test bias, and inappropriate assessment techniques Disability and the Family

● Every family reacts and adjusts differently to finding out their child has a disability. ● Depends on marital status, religious beliefs, values, financial resources, cultural heritage and external support system.

Family Stressors

● The birth or diagnosis of a child with special needs may cause a family crisis. ○ Family resources and responses will vary.

○ Children with disabilities live in families below the poverty line more frequently than typically developing children.

○ Families react and cope in a variety of ways and may change as the life cycle of the family changes.

● Emotional

○ Depression, guilt, anxiety, isolation are all response to a diagnosis of a disability ● Financial

○ Medical needs, intensive intervention programs, therapies, special schools, medication

Barriers to family participation

1. Logistics

a. Lack of transportation

b. Work-related issues

2. Communication

a. Professional language used by educators

b. Assertive language by advocates

3. School Knowledge

a. School procedures

b. IEP process

Benefits of Parent Involvement

● Student benefits: grades, test scores, attitudes toward schoolwork, behavior, academic perseverance, homework completion, attendance***

● Creating consistent messages about learning across home and school helps increase the probability students will perform their best.

● IDEA mandates family involvement**

● Parent involvement improves feelings of self-worth and self-satisfaction for parents ● Teachers benefit by having more information about their students.

Major Provisions of IDEA***

1. Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

2. Nondiscriminatory Assessment

3. Parent​ ​participation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​decision-making​ ​process

a. Parents MUST be notified and give CONSENT

i. For evaluation

ii. For placement

iii. For program change

b. Parents May

i. Refuse Services

ii. Request independent assessment

iii. View records at any time

c. All documents and meetings must be confidential

Demystifying the IEP process

● Before IEP meeting

1. Meet with parents beforehand to explain timeline, their rights, what is involved and how they can participate

2. Explain to parents how many people will be there and how long the meeting will last 3. Provide information in parents primary language (schedule interpreter if needed for ARD) ● During IEP meeting

1. Meet parent in the office and walk with them to meeting

2. Have everyone introduce themselves

3. Pay attention to parent’s nonverbal and verbal cues

4. Invite parents to ask questions and provide feedback


● After IEP meeting

1. Invite parents to call or email with questions

2. Make sure they have all the IEP paperwork

How can Teachers Help?

● Support parents’ hopes and dreams for their child

● Suspend judgment of families and their behavior

● Don’t send work home that requires teaching on the part of the parent. ● Respect and honor the cultural traditions of families

Fogarty Do’s and Don’t for ARD/504 meetings

● Do

○ Address parent

○ Say something positive about their child

○ Talk about progress made

○ Act engaged and pay attention

○ Pretend it is someone you love that everyone is discussing

● Don’t

○ Grade papers

○ Say you can’t stay long

○ Have body language that suggest you would rather be somewhere else ○ Talk with a lot of jargon

Assessment Terms


● Given the same to every student

● Scored same way for every student

● 2 types: Norm referenced and Criterion Reference


● Scores compared to “hypothetical” average student

● Sample tested and used to compare everyone

● Percentile Rankings 90th percentile, 50th, 25th

● EX: SAT, IQ tests


● Scores compared to predetermined mastery

● Students academic performance against a standard or “criteria”

● Benchmarks, test, etc…did you learn it

● “High-stakes” testing

STAAR test?

● A criterion-referenced test that measures a student’s performance in comparison to the curriculum standards,

Assessment challenges

● Many standardized tests not available in other languages/dialects ● Bias (the test items matter)

● Testing conditions (the assessor matters)

Assessment in the future

● Test revisions (resampling)

● Multiple intelligences instead of just IQ

● Movement toward more authentic, performance-based assessment strategies ● Portfolio assessment

Consequences of Disproportionate representation

● May result in an inferior and less effective educational experience ● Increases risk for underachievement and school dropout

● May create limited employment opportunities

Family Adjustment

● Families do not go through a set cycle such as: shock, denial, sadness, anger and resolution to adjustment.

● Some families are not adversely affected by having a child with special needs. Family Stressors

● The birth or diagnosis of a child with special needs may cause a family crisis. ● Family resources

Cultural diversity Lab 10/4

● Students enrolled in Texas schools speak more than 120 different languages. Factors that influence the success of culturally diverse students

● Socioeconomic status

● Low teacher expectations

● Test bias

● Teacher quality

● Home-school mismatch

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